Water-filtered, infrared A (wIRA) is full-spectrum light filtered by a hermetically sealed water filter which filters out all the harmful ultraviolet (UV) light waves. Only visible and the first band of infrared light, known as infrared A, is allowed to pass through the water filter. Graph above shows the light spectrum of the hydrosun 500 showing the light spectrum difference between water filtered only (blue line) and additional orange lens (orange line).
Graph above shows sunlight radiation levels during a European mid-summer sunny day (blue line).
The graph above is the extended view of the previous graph showing infrared C light sprectrum (far-infrared). Thermographical comparison of skin surface temperatures in the lumbar region 12 minutes after beginning of irradiation with water-filtered infrared-A (left) and conventional infrared (right) with the same irradiance: the skin surface temperature is higher in case of irradiation with conventional infrared (presented in the thermography), while temperature in 1 cm depth of tissue is higher when irradiating with water-filtered infrared-A.
Vegetation indices derived from Earth observation satellites are important for a wide range of applications such as vegetation monitoring, drought studies, agricultural activities, climate and hydrologic modeling.
Optical satellite sensors measure the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Depending on the intended applications, the design of multispectral sensors differs in number of bands, bandwidth, and wavelengths covered. Spectral indices make use of the characteristics in the spectrum of the respective material of interest. Vegetation indices are highly correlated with biophysical variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), Canopy Water, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR),.and vegetation cover fraction (fCover) the latter two being Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). Vegetation indices, especially the freely available time series of NDVI and EVI, are commonly used in drought monitoring. This past weekend we were invited to speak at the Annual Open house at Reef Systems Coral Farm just outside of Columbus, OH. The shop was packed throughout the day with many of the visitors stopping by to talk with Scott about lights and learn about spectrum and PAR. Nestled out in the countryside, this great store is operated by Todd and his wife Stephanie.

There is always something to see and be sure that you check out the 900 gallon system inside that’s lit by the Orphek DIF 100 Super Actinics.
It’s a sight to see with a clam that is bigger than the average NFL football players head and coral colonies that are so mature the only way you would normally see something that size is while snorkeling in the ocean. Todd and Stephanie recently participated in a National Science Foundation grant program that took over the back half of their shop for coral experiments conducted through Ohio State University. The experiments were conducted to observe the reaction of corals and calcification with increased CO2 levels which is something that is extremely important to our hobby. By launching groundbreaking technologies our company gained respect and recognition as a leader in Aquarium lighting technology and innovation for reef aquariums lights. So water-filtered infrared-A presents a high tissue penetration combined with a low thermal load to the skin surface.
Vegetation monitoring plays an important role in drought early warning systems, which help to anticipate the risk of food crises at local and global scale. The sensor RapidEye, for example, was designed for vegetation studies and agricultural applications, and has therefore been especially equipped with a separate red edge band, which is quite unique. For example, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) makes use of the red and near infrared bands since the energy reflected in these wavelengths is clearly related to the amount of vegetation cover on the ground surface.
In general terms, vegetation indices are dimensionless radiometric measures, which combine information from different channels of the electromagnetic spectrum to enhance the vegetation signal.
The performance of the various indices always is different, depending on the specific data sets used for the study, resulting each time in different indices as being the best one.
Radiative transfer models like the PROSAIL model are used to determine the biophysical variables based on reflectance or vegetation indices. The Iranian Space Agency, one of UN-SPIDER Regional Support Offices, has prepared a recommended practice on drought monitoring, which is used for monitoring the impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation, i.e. The greenhouse and frag vats are full to brimming with everything from SPS, clams, LPS and soft corals to Big tangs, clownfish and crabs. The red line is the spectrum of a 3000 K halogen lamp with an infrared lens but without a water filter from a typical LED infrared lamp.

Each channel is sensitive to radiation within a narrow wavelength band such as the blue, green, red, near infrared, or short wave infrared band. The MSi sensor onboard Sentinel-2 will also be equipped with a three new bands in the red-edge region.
The reflection of radiation by vegetation shows low values in the blue and red band, slightly higher values in the green band, very high values in the near infrared band, and low to high values in the shortwave infrared bands (depending on the wavelength). Commonly used sensors for vegetation studies include the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA and MetOp, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua, or the VEGETATION 1 and 2 sensors onboard SPOT 4 and SPOT 5.
When selecting data to calculate indices, the basic requirement is that the the sensor covers the bands used in the index.
In the upper image pair data of the wet season in July 2012 show that the NDVI saturates in high biomass areas. Based on maximum value composites of MODIS NDVI (250m spatial resolution), the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) is calculated to assess whether the state of the vegetation in a current month is better or worse compared to same month of the previous years.
Very characteristic for the vegetation spectrum is the steep increase of reflectance from red to near infrared, the so called “red edge”. The most commonly used vegetation indices include: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), and others. The lower image pair with data of the dry season in February 2001 shows that EVI shows lower values in the dry areas, which makes it more difficult to distinguish different biomass. Multispectral sensors do not “see” the whole electromagnetic spectrum but their bands cover parts of the spectrum that are characteristic for different land cover types.
One advantage of EVI is that it includes the blue band making the index less sensitive to atmospheric effects. Detailed step-by-step procedures how to prepare the MODIS data, how to calculate the VCI, and how to visualize the results are available here on the Knowledge Portal.

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