08.06.2014
Spectral output is defined as intensity of light at each wavelength over the range of wavelengths emitted by the lamp.
Since there are certain absorption maxima common to many systems, there is often a choice of lamps for a given product.
Creating a brighter world with smart glass engineering and innovative light-based technologies. The promise of greater efficiency and reliability over a long lifetime has enabled LEDs to penetrate almost all lighting markets.
Several challenges impede mass adoption of UV LEDs, specifically for those in the UVB (280nm – 315nm) and UVC (100nm-280nm) spectral regions. In this article, I’ll review recent research that aims to improve near UV LED (NUV-LED), and deep UV LED (DUV-LED) technology.
NUV-LEDs encompass the UVA spectral range (315nm – 400nm) and parts of the UVB spectral range. UV LEDs on the tail end of the blue spectrum, specifically those at 365nm and 385nm, are easier to manufacture and are currently the most efficient of the UV LEDs. Applications that use NUV-LEDs currently represent the largest segment of the UV LED market, with UV curing driving the bulk of that growth. While NUV-LEDs are currently more efficient and affordable than deep UV LEDs (DUV LEDS), researchers still seek to improve performance and reduce manufacturing costs. At the deep end of the UV spectrum, applications include germicidal sterilization equipment, rapid surface curing systems for inks and lacquers, and spectroscopy and fluorescence instrumentation. The potential applications and market size are spurring researchers to overcome these challenges by exploring different semiconductor and substrate materials and refining the manufacturing process.
Crystal IS first pioneered native bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates, with them they were able to achieve higher light outputs and extend the projected lifetime of the LED. While native AlN substrates promise better performance, they are estimated to be between 2.5x to 4x more expensive than sapphire substrates. Also at Photonics West 2015, research from the Ferdinand-Braun Institute and Technische University explored advances in the development of AlGaN-based LEDs that emit in the UVC spectral region. Earlier this week, the European Union’s Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive that permitted the use of mercury in high-pressure mercury vapor lamps expired.
UV LEDs comply with the US Energy Policy Act and European Union’s RoHS directive and do not contain mercury, which is often found in CFL light sources.
This is a great article from UV+EB Technology on the technological advances that have accelerated UV LED adoption for ink curing. The compact size and efficiency of LEDs make them perfect candidates for spectroscopic instruments. Adam Willsey Adam joined Kopp Glass in 2009 after graduating from the NYS College of Ceramics at Alfred University with a BS in Biomedical Materials Engineering.
Subscribe to Receive UpdatesGet the latest news on innovative lighting technologies and smart glass engineering. About Kopp GlassThe last century has experienced remarkable advances in light-based technologies, from incandescent bulbs to energy efficient sources like LEDs, plasma, and laser diodes. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. I’ve been looking to buy a crimson gel nail polish ever since fall fashion has been showcased in magazines. These two swatches show the difference between one coat of the shellac on the left swatch, and two coats on the right swatch.
The swatches are flipped in this picture, the left one here is two coats, and the right one is one coat.
Keep in mind that this product is unique to CND, it’s not exactly gel polish, and not exactly regular polish.
I’m SUPER excited to finally share my own swatches and thoughts on the Revlon Colorburst lip butters with everyone!


Rapid prototyping may soon get a whole lot more rapid, thanks to an entirely new method of 3D printing. Existing 3D-printing methods that use liquid resin build objects layer-by-layer in a slow process: print a layer, cure it, replenish the resin supply, repeat.
The killer feature of a CLIP printer is the bottom of the pool: a window that lets oxygen as well as ultraviolet light pass through. The researchers are leveraging the patent-pending process into a startup called Carbon3D, Inc., which plans to produce a commercial version of a CLIP printer by the end of the year.
For the most effective cure, this pattern of output must be matched to the pattern of absorption of the photoinitiator in the product.
LED manufacturers are struggling to improve light output and efficiency while at the same time increase the reliability and useable life of the LED. Closest to the visible spectrum, their long wavelengths are often used in applications that require fluorescing, like counterfeit currency detection and nondestructive testing.
Research and technology developed for visible LEDs provided an existing infrastructure that NUV-LEDs manufacturers could work from.
I recently attended Photonics West 2015; during the presentation “Improved UV LED Performance Using Transparent Conductive Films Embedded Plasmonic Structures” researchers shared a novel fabrication process that improved the light extraction efficiency of the LED. DUV-LEDs in the 250 nm to 280 nm spectral range are used for water purification, food, and medical sterilization, and for air purification within HVAC systems. Researchers continue to explore other substrates and improve manufacturing processes to reduce costs. They identified success in reducing defects in the semiconductor layers by applying the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique on micro-structured AlN layers. Mercury is no longer allowed to be used for “general purpose” lighting as of April 13, 2015.
Their adoption will accelerate as manufacturers improve efficiency and can offer them at a more affordable price. Lower costs, better thermal management, and secondary optics that improve irradiance make UV LED systems a viable option for UV curing. It can be difficult to understand the differences between models and how they work in real operating conditions.
In this Laser Focus World article, they review several applications and the benefits LEDs provide, which in some cases can reduce instrument costs by 40% to 80%. In this article, the authors compare UV LEDs to xenon flash lamps for DNA purity and concentration measurements. The introduction of new technologies brings both exciting opportunities and complex challenges. I still used my Sephora LED light to cure the polish, but it took more time for each layer to harden. It takes twice as long for the shellac to harden under an LED light than my other gel polishes.
CLIP, they claim, can print smooth, complex objects in a fraction of the time as existing systems, and using a wider variety of materials. In the CLIP system, a projector displays successive, imperceptibly thin cross-sections of the object from below in ultraviolet light.
Because oxygen blocks the curing process, the membrane effectively--and continuously--forms a "dead zone" of non-curable resin on the bottom. Instead of waiting around for a single slice of a 3D object to cure, CLIP prints continuously, creating objects that rival injection-molded parts. CLIP's creators say objects can be produced 25 to 100 times faster than old-school methods. No word yet on its cost or specifications, but we expect the first batch of Carbon 3D devices will go to startups and research institutions that have a great need for high-quality rapid prototyping--and a lot of cash sitting around. They’re also used for lithography and for curing industrial coatings, adhesives, inks, and paints.


NUV-LEDs based on a GaN substrate have demonstrated external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of ~40% at 645nm and EQE of ~60% at 400nm. System miniaturization and faster line speeds have improved productivity, and LED efficiency has lowered energy costs.
Researchers spin-coated silver nanoparticles onto the LED substrate before depositing the indium tin oxide layer. Most performance issues stem from minor impurities and crystalline structure defects in the substrate. While this doesn’t impact “special purpose” lamps that are used for industrial applications, it is a reminder that organizations worldwide want to shift to more environmentally friendly solutions. In this white paper, Lumileds explains how to make an accurate performance assessment from an LED datasheet.
As the Manager of Research and Engineering, Adam works closely with our engineers and production team to develop new glass compositions that meet our customer's color and transmittance requirements, while ensuring efficiency.
For over 85 years we have helped lighting engineers develop technical and industrial glass solutions that direct light, focus it, color it, or protect its source.
Wildfire is a warm toned red, which is my preference because my skin has a yellow undertone to it.
In the end, I think the result is really nice, and it has gotten even shinier in the last week. CLIP's makers also claim they can produce much finer parts--with features smaller than 20 microns (as thick as an acrylic fiber)--and potentially use elastomers as well as tissue-compatible biological materials, which most 3D printers can't use. Spectral output determines whether a lamp is suitable for a particular application and how effectively the lamp will cure the product. While visible LEDs are rapidly being adopted, manufacturers have been slow to embrace LEDs that operate outside of the visible spectrum such as UV LEDs. Lighting manufacturers cite the initial and total cost of ownership as one of the primary obstacles preventing them from making the switch. This created a suspended nanoparticle layer that increased light output by 1.4 times the magnitude of conventional NUV-LEDs.
Other challenges include reducing resistance in the current spreading layer and enhancing light extraction from the chip.
During their presentation “High-efficiency UV LEDs on sapphire,” they explained how they were able to reduce defects and improve performance by controlling the interface between the LED and the substrate crystalline structures. Together, we harness these technologies to create truly innovative products that create a better and brighter world.
I saw that you also live in CA, I moved here 2.5 years ago and I love it here Have a wonderful week! This lets ultraviolet light pass through and cure any low-oxygen resin sitting right above the dead zone.
It also doesn't hurt that the CLIP process looks really cool--the creators even say they were inspired by Terminator 2's iconic liquid metal T-1000. Basic lamp engineering and modification of the material inside the lamp (called doping) enable shifting of emission maxima to other wavelengths to create different spectral output patterns. Presto: No resin sticks to the bottom, and printing goes faster because it's not happening at the surface, where oxygen is present and slows things down.
As the printer pulls up the forming object, suction feeds more low-oxygen resin toward the bottom.



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Comments Light curing techniques 8th

  1. SEVIREM_SENI
    Lacquer, photos and graphics some varieties.
  2. Lifeless
    395 nanometer ultraviolet LED, and take a picture, we can armor Etch, a glass etching better.
  3. ell2ell
    Coat nail knots and loops on fly.