A composite is made by physically combining two or more materials (components) to produce a combination (blend) of structural properties not present in any individual component. Fibre and particle reinforced composites usually consist of a phase which is more or less continuous. The dispersed phase is sometimes called reinforcement if it is a phase added to increase strength. The proportion of matrix and dispersed phase can vary depending on the intended use of the composite. The size and shape of the particles and fibres of the dispersed phase govern how closely they can be packed.
The interface between matrix and dispersed phase also controls the overall performance of the composite.
Manufacturing a fibre-reinforced composite involves several steps in which the filler (fibre) is produced and then, if required, aligned prior to the introduction of the matrix. Fibres produced from polymers (for example, the aramids, see below), glass and metals can be produced from the molten state by drawing them. The mats, tapes and fabrics may be impregnated with matrix material (or materials from which the matrix is made) before final assembly and processing, and are then referred to as a prepreg (pre-impregnated). The fabrics and mats are placed in moulds, sometimes by hand, and impregnated with matrix material and processed.
Carbon fibres are generally made by heating filaments of poly(propenonitrile) (polyacrylonitrile, PAN) at ca 500 K, under an atmosphere of air to form oxidized PAN.
Carbon fibre composites are relatively expensive construction materials and therefore used when their properties of lightness and strength are of paramount importance. CFRPs have also been used for many years to construct the body of F1 racing cars, giving drivers greater protection even in crashes at over 300 km h-1.
CFRPs are increasingly used to 'retrofit' existing large structures such as bridges made of reinforced concrete. Glass fibre is made from silica (sand), sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate together with other compounds to give the specific properties required. The filaments are coated with a lubricant to protect them and bundled together on a drum, looking like a spool of a thread.
In fibreglass, in which glass fibres are the filler (dispersed phase), the matrix is usually a polyester resin although epoxy and acrylic polymers are also used. It is very difficult to handle as the only effective solvent is concentrated sulfuric acid.

These fibres, already strong, are used as the filler in ARPCs with a phenolic resin or epoxy resin as a matrix. These composites have been used widely in aviation, for helicopter rotor blades, in sport, to make tennis, badminton and squash racquets, and in boats such as kayaks and dinghies.
Figure 3  Kevlar® and other polyaromatic amides are also used as fibres in fabrics for protective clothing.
There are essentially two types of particle reinforced composites, large particle reinforced and small particle reinforced composites.
Large particle reinforcement, as the name suggests, involves larger particles and a distribution of the load between phases. The particles may improve the fracture strength of the composite over that of the matrix by preventing or impeding crack propagation through the matrix, either physically blocking and stopping cracks or diverting and splitting them so as to hamper their progression across the piece.
Concrete is a simple, everyday example of a PRC, the composition varying according to its intended use. Concrete often contains an additional phase in the form of steel wire, rods or cable to give even greater strength. Refractory carbides are hard, wear-resistant ceramic materials such as titanium and tungsten carbides (TiC and WC). Carbon black essentially consists of spherical particles of carbon produced by combustion of oil or gas with a limited supply of oxygen, and is often known as furnace black.
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By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Deborah Ann Harry conocida con Debbie Harry es una cantante estadounidense conocida por ser la vocalista de la banda Blondie. While large ships are usually constructed in steel, over 80% of marine hulls, less than about 40 m in length, are made of glass fibre reinforced polymer. Kevlar® is made from lightweight atoms but is very strong and flexible, weight for weight five times as strong as steel. Whatever their geometry the particles are small relative to the size of the structure and evenly distributed through it.
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Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. It can also be the minor phase, more like glue cementing the particles or fibres together, providing stiffness to otherwise very flexible fibre arrays and giving a structure to what would otherwise be loose particles. A high speed winder revolving faster than the exiting molten glass draws them under tension into very fine filaments.
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