05.04.2016
Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. Short wave infrared heating elements, or infrared emitters comprise a linear coiled metal filament surrounded by a clear quartz envelope (tube).
The power savings of a short wave heating system can be substantial compared to convection heating.
The construction of a short wave infrared heating lamp means that large amounts of heat are delivered quickly, but also with extreme efficiency.
One of the main advantages of short wave infrared heating is the small size of the installation. Called The Gate Residence, the project was designed by architect, Vincent Callebaut and will feature geothermal cooling, solar panels, heater tubes and wind turbines.
In The Gate Project (pictured) Mr Callebaut plans to build air shafts in the cores to naturally cool each apartment. The primary cause of heat build-up in cities is the absorption of solar radiation by roads and buildings, explained the architect. Vertical-axis wind turbines (illustrated) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically, and the main components are located at the base of the turbine. In the project, the solar roof (illustrated) will be covered by walkable panels creating shadows above the patios and the promenade. Low-emissive (Low-E) glass is window glass that has been treated with an invisible metal or metallic oxide coating, creating a surface that reflects heat, while allowing light to pass through.
The heat that passes through your window glass is measured by the U-factor or ultraviolet light. In warmer climates, Low-E coating should be applied to the outside of window panes to keep the sun’s heat out.
Efforts to identify the molecular basis for the novel fluorescence in jellyfish began with Osamu Shimomura’s studies of the Aequorea jellyfish in the early 1960’s. Aequorin is a luciferase that catalyzes the oxidization of the substrate coelenterazine in a calcium-dependent reaction that leads to the emission of blue light.
The identification of GFP from Aequorea was the first step in what has often been described by many as a “revolution” in cell biology, although it would be some years before the true significance of this observation became apparent. Fortunately, Douglas Prasher’s concerns regarding the difficulties of expressing Aequorea GFP in other biological systems ultimately proved to be unwarranted. As it turns out, the GFP chromophore is encoded by the primary amino acid sequence, and forms spontaneously without the requirement for cofactors or external enzyme components (other than molecular oxygen), through a self-catalyzed protein folding mechanism and intramolecular rearrangement. In one of the first investigations of jellyfish bioluminescence by Shimomura using the purified Aequorea victoria GFP, it was demonstrated that the entire protein sequence was necessary for its characteristic fluorescence (see Figure 1). The most popular model describing the formation of the chromophore during the maturation of GFP has a series of torsional peptide and side-chain bond adjustments that position the carboxyl carbon of Ser65 close to the amino nitrogen atom of Gly67 (Figure 2).
In 1996, the crystal structure for GFP was solved, revealing that the cyclic tripeptide chromophore is buried in the center of a nearly perfect cylinder formed by a tightly interwoven eleven-stranded “beta-barrel” structure (see Figure 1). The beta-barrel structure has dimensions of approximately 30 by 40 Angstroms, and the tight packing of amino acid residues imparts a high level of stability to the protein. Over the last decade, the application of both site-directed and random mutagenesis approaches to the cDNA encoding the Aequorea-GFP demonstrated that its fluorescence properties are very dependent on the arrangement and three-dimensional structure of amino acid residues surrounding the chromophore. Presented in Figure 3 are representatives of the four major color classes of Aequorea-GFP derivatives. The wild type (wt) Aequorea GFP displays a complex absorption spectrum, with maximal excitation occurring at 397 nanometers, and a minor secondary peak of residing at 476 nanometers.


Mutagenesis strategies were initially applied to the sequence encoding the wtGFP in order to determine whether different amino acid substitutions might be used to fine-tune its spectral characteristics. Early studies of the structure-function relationships in the GFP chromophore region by Roger Tsien’s laboratory showed that mutations altering the first amino acid in the chromophore, Ser65, to cysteine, leucine, alanine, or threonine simplified the excitation spectrum to a single peak ranging from 471 to 489 nanometers. Continued engineering of EGFP has yielded several additional green variants with improved characteristics.
Among the most interesting new developments in the Aequorea GFP palette over the past several years is superfolder GFP (Table 1), which was designed to be capable of folding even when fused to insoluble proteins, as well as being slightly brighter and more acid resistant than either EGFP or Emerald. One of the earliest color variants derived from the wtGFP was a blue fluorescent protein (BFP), which contains the substitution of Tyr66 with histidine (Y66H). In the mid-to-late 1990’s, there was a keen interest in creating matched pairs of fluorescent proteins for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments, as well as investigations requiring multicolor labeling.
A compilation of properties of the most useful Aequorea-based fluorescent protein variants is presented in Table 1. Aside from its low intrinsic brightness and sensitivity to photobleaching, the utility of BFP for cellular imaging is also limited by its requirement for excitation with near-ultraviolet light, which is phototoxic to mammalian cells, even under limited illumination. Substitution of Tyr66 with phenylalanine in wtGFP also produces a blue fluorescent protein, but in this case the spectral profiles are shifted to even shorter wavelengths than are observed with histidine at the same position (excitation at 360 nanometers and emission at 442 nanometers), and the resulting variant is extremely dim.
The development of cyan (CFP) color variants from the Aequorea GFP provided an early alternative to the BFPs.
Illustrated in Figure 5 is an Aequorea victoria GFP mutation map showing many of the common mutations superimposed on a topological layout of the peptide structure. Efforts to address the complex excited state characteristics of ECFP have yielded a high performance variant, termed Cerulean (after the sky-blue color), which resulted from targeted substitutions on the solvent-exposed surface of ECFP (Tyr145 and HIs148).
The introduction of beneficial folding mutations into ECFP resulted in new monomeric variants featuring enhanced brightness, solubility, and improved performance for FRET-based imaging approaches. The longest-wavelength emitting variants of Aequorea GFP were generated after careful inspection of the native GFP crystal structure.
Presented in Figure 6 are fluorescence images captured in laser scanning confocal and spinning disk microscopy of Aequorea-GFP derivatives fused to subcellular localization targets.
Continued efforts to improve the YFP family led to the discovery that substitution of the glutamine at position 69 for methionine (Q69M) dramatically increases the acid stability of the protein, while simultaneously reducing its chloride sensitivity. Several other EYFP variants have been introduced and may be useful for specialized applications.
A total of seven mutations were accumulated in CFP during the directed evolution to yield CyPet, which features absorption and emission maxima positioned at 435 nanometers and 477 nanometers, respectively. It took over thirty years, and the advent of recombinant DNA as well as vastly improved molecular biological approaches to see the pioneering work of Osamu Shimomura developed into a useful tool for live-cell imaging by Doug Prasher and Martin Chalfie. Infrared heat is actually light, whereby heat is the result of the product absorbing the infrared light. Then, using ground loops, the geothermal heat pumps will move heat energy back and forth between the building, and the earth, to provide an efficient and environmentally-friendly way of heating and cooling apartments and commercial spaces. The Gate Resident will feature green walls that reduce overall temperatures, and by covering the surface with plants, they will also be a way of recycling water. The objective is to create a sustainable landmark in Cairo by transforming this efficient building mass, multiplying the perspective views towards the streets, into a huge urban oasis.'A Mr Callebaut said work will start on the new building in March next year.
This energy-saving technology first became available in 1979 and continues to grow in popularity. While in colder climates, Low-E coating should be applied to the inside of a pane of glass to keep heat trapped in.


Soft Low-E coatings are known to have a limited shelf life and need to be carefully applied to insulated multipane windows to keep them from being damaged by air and moisture. Day - Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Dr., Indianapolis, Indiana, 46202. Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.
A short wave infrared heating is one of themost efficient form of heating, delivering large amounts of energy instantly to where it matters most : onto the product, and no unnecessary heating of  the surrounding infrastructure. When we designan infrared heatingsystem the properties of light must be considered: absorption, transmission and reflection.
For example , consider a standard  powder coating application: a typical convection oven will be atleast 10-20 meters in length. Windows treated with Low-E coatings are proven to reduce energy consumption, decrease fading of fabrics, such as window treatments, and increase overall comfort in your home.
Hard Low-E coatings are more durable and are a better choice for individuals who wish to apply a Low-E coating to their windows after they’ve been manufactured.
Because the system has a zero warm up time, it can be switched off during times when there is no product on the line, when there is a breakdown or even when operators go to lunch. Quartz is translucent to IR radiation, which means the quartz envelope of the infrared lamp does not absorb the infrared radiation. Too much of this heat, especially during summer, can cause your air conditioning bill to go up in an effort to keep your house cool. Low-E films are also available, and easy to apply, for those who wish to enhance their windows on their own. Convection systems need hours to reach operating temperature and cannot be switchedoff without compromising production time. Low-E glass reduces the amount of ultraviolet light that enters your home, without blocking visible light. Typical heating elements like stainless steel, silicide, ceramic tiles, 50% of the energy is wasted just heating up the element itself.
Infrared heating systems are small, compact and easily retrofitted into existing processes. Conversely, in winter, Low-E glass reduces the amount of heat lost through your windows from the inside of your home, keeping heating costs down.
Depending on your home’s heating and cooling needs, various types of Low-E glass have been developed to allow for high, medium or low solar gain. Unlike gas convection systems, electric infrared heating requires no maintenance and ongoing compliance is not required. In actual fluorescence microscopy investigations, the experimental brightness of a particular fluorescent protein may differ (in relative terms) from the brightness provided in this table. The lifetime of the quartz infraredtwin tube, when installed correctly will be in excess of 100000 hours.



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Comments Energy in ultraviolet light

  1. AiRo123
    Going to 600F failed and transforms.
  2. gizli_baxislar
    Visible light (µW/l) windows (or sometimes in place.