If water is badly polluted-- like raw sewage--- it might be obvious from its appearance or odor. Since even raw sewage is generally more than 99.9% water, most environmental analyses are measuring very low concentrations of materials. Some measurements require separating the analyte from other substances in the water which may interfere with the measurement. Filtration: The water is passed through a fine-pore filter which can be made of paper, glass fibers, a cellulose acetate membrane, etc. Distillation: If the analyte can be boiled out of the water, or along with the water, then the vapors can be cooled and re-condensed or trapped in a liquid form in a different container.
Gravimetric analysis or, simply, weighing: Analytical balances routinely used for gravimetric analysis are sensitive to one tenth of a milligram, or one ten-thousandth of a gram. Colorimetry or spectrophotometry: This method involves measuring the intensity of a color in a solution and relating it to the concentration of the analyte. Titration: Titration depends on using a well-defined chemical reaction to measure the amount of a standard solution needed to react with certain amount of the sample.

Mass Spectrometry: In a mass spectrometer, an ionized vapor is passed between magnets or radio frequency coils which separate the ions by mass (actually by charge to mass ratio). UNDERWATER LIGHTS: The green glow of ultraviolet lights illuminates water on its way through the Madison sewage treatment plant.
Peggy Vlerebome, Madison Courier Staff WriterA non-chemical method of sanitizing treated wastewater before it is put into the Ohio River is being installed at the Madison sewage treatment plant.
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That's why there's crossbones and a skull" on the containers.Ultraviolet wastewater treatment technology is new for Madison, but not for the industry. Until all the testing is done, the liquid will be both exposed to ultraviolet radiation and treated with chlorine, said Randy Bos of Piedmont. In the narrower capillary columns, the stationary phase is bonded directly to the wall of the tubing.
The UV system can treat 9 million gallons a day of treated wastewater, he said.The lights are in two banks, and whether one bank or two is turned on depends on the flow through the plant, he said. So ironically, UV rays from the sun will be blocked by the pole barn so the amount of UV light the treated wastewater is exposed to can be controlled.
Needless to say, spectrophotometers cost more than colorimeters, and are likely to be more delicate and less portable, as well.

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