I’m really interested in upgrading my two sided exposure box to this kind of solution, but i have a doubt. Has anyone figured out where the Electrolitic capacitor (2200uF and 30v recover) is fitted?
Looks like that is the working voltage of the capacitor, of course higher is fine (just not lower).
Foreword: This is the second in a series of four articles designed to offer tips for best care of your koi throughout the year based on seasonal needs. Advice on the best individual care of your koi depends on many factors including your local climate, source water perimeters, pond and filter system dynamics, stocking rate, and your personal goals as a koi hobbyist.
WARMER CLIMATES: South Texas summers can be brutal with peak daily high air temperatures well above 95F and up to low triple digits and morning lows in the lower 80’s. Your individual pond situation, this summer, will depend on several factors including the success of previous seasons.
Transition from winter without experiencing episodes of poor water quality or koi health problems. Take advantage of early summer growth period and minimize mid to late summer heat and sunlight stress while maintaining water quality. Transition from fall growth to winter fasting and rest plus resetting their biological clock for next year’s cycle of growth and development. Following are suggestions that will hopefully help you manage your pond and koi through a trouble free summer which will help prepare your koi for a healthier fall and winter.
OXYGEN: The biggest hazard and challenge to your koi in warmer climates is lower oxygen levels in the summer. Remember that the beneficial bacteria that live in your filter are also dependent on the amount of oxygen in the water to thrive and do their job of converting ammonia to nitrites and nitrates. The aquatic submerged plants like algae in your pond are both beneficial and detrimental to oxygen levels. Sadly, I have had too many calls from pond owners that experienced the majority of their fish dying over night during the hottest summer months. Some types of koi pond filters such as those with moving bed filters require aeration to tumble the media and this counts towards your total aeration needs. In general, the deeper your pond and the less relative surface area to total pond volume the more supplemental aeration you are likely to need.
Another method to cool the area around your pond is to use one of the water “mist” products you might have noticed at some restaurants and amusement parks. This mist-er could be placed on a timer to come on for an hour or so every afternoon in the hottest part of the day. SHADE:  Koi can get sunburned and develop skin problems and even eye cataracts in shallow ponds.
If you want a quick temporary treatment for green water install a properly sized UV unit with the correct flow rate for your pond’s total water volume. A sign of a healthy koi pond is a thriving growth of short filamentous algae on pond surfaces. Join your local Koi club and subscribe to a koi magazine: Joining your local koi club is the very best way to get the latest hands on non-commercial advice about your koi, pond, and filtration. American Koi Keeper is the official magazine of the Koi Society which is a  national organization of koi clubs.
In the next part of this article I will offer some tips for making the most of our milder fall seasons when adult koi can accomplish most of their annual growth and start preparing for winter. I think though that you can get one where you have to dig down for a slightly deeper area to help the fish though winter. Specifically, I keep a really nice, really expensive German-manufactured filter in my bag — along with a really cheap, really lightweight polarizing filter that I bought second-hand for about five dollars. On an individual basis, I think that polarizing filters are probably the most overused (and most inappropriately) used pieces of camera gear imaginable. Now, just spin that top filter around until the image in your viewfinder is as dim as possible. 5) If you really want to capture motion blur, then you’ll want to set your ASA as low as it will go.
With regard colour shifts folks, you camera comes with the abilty to set a custom white balance. Not just the colour shift to green, the 2nd photo is either out of focus or the vegetation is moving, both undesirable effects. Auto exposure is useful for exactly the same reasons – I know I want to capture that hummingbird as close as possible to freeze-motion, but I only have 5 seconds where it is in a good composition. I had this same idea … but instead of a circular and linear polarizing filter I was planning to use 2 linear filters. And I LOL when you mentioned High School Physics Class… Yes, I do remember that, and very clearly.
Once you got it, disassemble filter rings with a scissor and place glasses in the right position in place again and re-assemble rings, finally stack them together. It's funny, I've passed though almost the same about double CPL used as variable ND filter. But I have just discovered that CPL filters work only in one direction: if the light comes from opposite face from what they are designed for, they just don't work, and to combine CPLs they have to be stacked in a specific way. To make it short, what I finally did was: disassembled "el cheapo", flipped the polarized glass 180 degrees (inner face out) and reassembled again.
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This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within 1 business day of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. These LEDs have narrow ray (+-10 degrees), it helps to get sharp shadow on photoresist even if photomask is not cling to the PCB very tight. That transparent box, although cool looking, makes me think you are asking for eye cataract. Normal glass usually absorbs too much of UV radiation, although I’m not sure if this is a problem around 400nm, or only for shorter wave lengths. The focus of this information is for warmer climates but it will benefit a broader audience as well.
All of these factors are interconnected and making small but consistent improvement in multiple perimeters can have a significant impact on your ponds water quality and koi development.
Yes, it is possible (with a lot of daily effort) to remove debris and sludge the old fashioned way. There is a fair amount of information on how to care for koi in conventional cooler climates, however, there is not as much written about techniques for koi care in warmer climates. Air breathing creatures like us live in a relative oxygen rich environment that is ~ 21% oxygen. First, temperature affects the ability of water to hold dissolved oxygen as seen in the chart below.

Lower oxygen levels can suppress the population of “good” bacteria and let ammonia and nitrite levels increase to stressful or even potentially lethal levels. Shower filters or trickle towers also increase aeration based on their above water media designs. Trickle towers and shower filter actually increase the surface area of your pond which not only improves the oxygen absorption but also helps with degassing carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases in the pond. Plant a tall hedge on the west side of your pond or locate some tall pot plants or patio umbrellas to help provide some shade.
A side benefit to this is you can be more comfortable and able to enjoy your pond on even the hottest afternoons. To compensate you will need to increase the amount and frequency of water changes and filter cleaning. This beneficial type of algae helps balance the pond by utilizing pond nutrients and removing them before platonic algae starts to increase in population and create green water. DOCS are the result of too much pollution in your pond from over stocking, over feeding, under filtering, and under maintaining the filters and water changes. I hope that this article has given you a few ideas to help your koi have a healthier and less stressful summer. You’ve just created a nuetral density filter which can vary the amount of light that it lets through, and you can vary that amount of light by spinning one polarizing filter on top of another.
On most digital cameras, this is a setting of 100, though on some of the DSLRs that are out there you can only drop down to an ASA of 200. An interesting phenomena that took place while I was shooting the 30 second exposure is that all of the fog and mist surrounding the falls picked up a noticeable greenish tone — a tint that was created by daylight being filtered through nearby leaves and vegetation.
I believe he ugly color cast is hardly related to the exposure time and more likely a result of the filters, showing you that your cheap ND is actually not neutral. Good variable polarizers are so expensive, because it is so hard to retain colors and sharpness.
There is a reason autofocus and other automatic features like image stabilization and quieter AF motors are not only included on professional lenses, but included in more impressive (and expensive) combinations. Especially for fast paced scenes (certain wildlife, sports, journalism in crazy locations), or things like fisheye lenses which can be extraordinarily difficult to focus well through the viewfinder if you have a camera without a split image screen. Even if I know exactly what I’m doing, physically fiddling with the dials means I will almost definitely miss the shot in manual mode. If yes, the range of motion of the outer filter (LPL) will not be much right (limited by the threads)? I have been toying with using ND filters but felt I couldn’t afford the variable density filters because they were so expensive.
Also check out following article that has suggested use of two CPL instead of one LPL in front of a CPL.
Stacking them in the wrong way, they will filter the light in a weird way changing the color from some yellow tint to greenish (as your previous example images) not as Neutral Density Filter. Now, I can stack my two CPLs filters and it does work as expected: Now I have a variable ND filter also.
I looked at your comment about this regarding the fact that either one of the filters might not be good, however the circular filter is an expensive Hoya HD polarizer and the linear is made by Vivitar.
It works so good that there’s no need to buy a variable ND, they works just the same. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. After some tests, it worked awsome with Positiv20 as with pre-sensitized PCB boards that i had at home.
Because the current on which these leds( uv ultrbright 7000mcd – 400nm) operate is 20mA at 12V.
Koi are best raised as a four season animal which is how their common carp ancestors evolved.
Koi keepers need to think about how to minimize the stress of rapid daily temperature changes and also how to care for your koi according to the local climate conditions. However the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water is so tiny it is measured in parts per million (ppm). Second, the rate of metabolism doubles for every 10 degree centigrade temperature change (18 degrees F) in cold blooded animals. However, at night, they consume oxygen and compete with your fish and filter bacteria for the limited supply of oxygen in the water.
A combination of warmer water, increased plant growth, accumulation and decay of organic matter, and a ever growing biomass of fish causes increased oxygen consumption at night to the point where the drop is significant and lasts long enough to cause the death of most if not all your koi.
The cheapest method to measure dissolved oxygen commonly just called DO is to buy an oxygen test kit.
I suggest that all koi ponds use air pumps rated at 80+ liters per minute per 3,000 gallons of water.
It is almost impossible to supply too much aeration to a koi pond as long as the aeration occurs in less than 8-10 feet of depth. You connect the mist-er to a garden hose and several tiny nozzles create a fog like mist that can cool the air temperature in immediate area by up to twenty degrees. No water testing needed here as DOCS are easily detected when a foamy scum is observed on your pond’s surface or in the skimmer. If your koi are shaped more like footballs than spindles you need to reduce the amount of food you feed.
Making several small improvements in your pond dynamics this summer can add up to healthier less stressed koi. Find  mentor to help you with any issues with your pond and koi until you learn how to take care of them yourself.
Another great koi organization is Zen Nippon Arinkai (ZNA) which is a international koi organization. Though it will be a bit darker than what you’re typically used to, you should still be able to see well enough to grab focus. If the image on the back of your screen is overexposed, then just reduce your exposure time or tighten down the f-stops.
The low resolution image doesn’t allow the decision if this self made polarizer is any good. YOU, the photographer, should choose the ambience of the picture, be it a certain depth of field or a certain timeframe.
Exposure-locked auto mode is a better choice (possibly with compensation set ahead of time).
To those people who learn something here and still want to attack Matt for the style he writes, go somewhere else.
Depending on the combination you get a different effect: one of them is a blue coloration, other is yellow. They can buy a CPL and LP to 'fake it', or buy a CPL and VND which will do exactly what they need properly.
If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
LEDs mounted close to each other, so it provide well distributed light even with small deepness of box.
As seasons progress important hormonal and environmental signals prepare koi to develop to their genetic potential.

Koi keepers need to understand that koi stressed by summer heat will have their health and overall development adversely affected.
Here is a description of key seasonal goals for keeping koi successfully in warmer climates. One of the most important concepts in maintaining healthy koi requires understanding the effects that temperature has on oxygen content of water. This means the metabolism decreases by 50% for each drop in temperature of 18F and conversely doubles for every increase of 18F. When koi are stressed by chronic low oxygen problems they will be much more likely to succumb to  diseases and lose their pretty colors.
Injecting air at deeper depths can potentially cause problems with air bubble disease in your fish in certain situations. Shade will also help keep your ponds water temperature cooler and help control excessive algae growth. It is only when things get out of balance and algae increases to the level it starts clogging our filters, or prevents us from seeing our koi, or negatively affects our pond water quality that algae is a problem. In the summer it is better to feed early in the morning when the water temperature is lower. Well, perhaps you want to shoot a landscape image during daylight hours, and for aestetic reasons you feel that a shallow depth of field is important — something that an aperture of f4 or so would provide. By the same token, an underexposed image needs more light (duh), so just open up the aperture or increase the exposure time. Though at first this might seem to be a bit of an annoyance, it can actually work in one’s favor when photographing a foggy scene at-or-before sunrise. People have tried to get around it by using a second linear polarizer in opposite orientation.
In auto your camera software selects the ambience of the final picture, main focus reducing motion blur (high speed, wide open,..
Just test all combinations, rotate them 90 degrees and one of them will work: when rotating they will go from light grey to totally black. Perpetual summer or eternal winter temperatures have their own individual unique disadvantages on the growth and health of our koi. At 85F only about a maximum of 6.1 ppm of dissolved oxygen can be maintained in fresh water. For example, increasing water temperature from 70F to 88F means that the requirements of fish, bio-filtration bacteria, algae, in fact all living things are increased by 100% for nutrients, oxygen, and everything else.
This is why oxygen testing should been done in the early morning to determine lowest levels. You fill a test tube with pond water to a predetermined level and then add a reagent and match the color to a chart. Spray bars are pipes with small holes drilled along the bottom that create a curtain of water as it is returned to the pond. Using a UV unit or using salt are just temporary band-aids and the only true remedy is to have a properly stocked, fed, shaded, and maintained pond. High levels of DOCS create an hostile environment for beneficial bacteria and algae species by consuming significant amounts of dissolved oxygen which creates additional stress on your koi. With experience, you should be able to go from that initial test shot to an actual usable image within three or four clicks of the shutter. Understanding seasonal variations in terms of temperature, light, and feeding techniques and working to moderate the inherent stressors can be an effective method to improve the health and beauty of your koi. Realize it will take a lot of aeration to get your ponds oxygen level to near saturation and the goal is to be at least 80% saturated at all times. At the same time the oxygen content of the system would decrease not only because of warmer water’s reduced ability to dissolve oxygen but also because of the increase in the oxygen demand. You also, need to know your pond’s water temperature to determine how “saturated” your pond is with oxygen.
Spray bars can drop water temperatures by 5-8 F degrees when they are built large enough and enough water is pumped through them.
Since we cannot eliminate water we need to control the nutrient levels and sunlight intensity. When your water temperature rises above 80F over feeding causes additional problems including increased water pollution, oxygen depletion, and algae growth.
A very dark neutral density filter cutting down on the amount of light going into your camera.
I shot thru a custom ND filter made of welders glass… bad green shift is removed using this method.
The brands want to make their customers happy so that you come back to buy your next from them too, and there is nothing bad about it, just not your decision.
In warmer climates with intense summers efforts to moderate the effects of intense sunlight and provide milder seasonal temperatures can be beneficial. Precise measurement with a drop test kit is not possible but will give you a good idea of how much DO is in your pond.
Be sure to clean this filter twice a year as a clogged filter makes the pump run even hotter.
Increased circulation will encourage evaporation which will have an additional cooling effect. The solution to high DOCS is a combination of increasing aeration, increasing filtration, increasing water changes, reducing fish load, and reducing feeding. At water temperatures approaching 90F I would stop feeding or feed very lightly only once a week. If you have hard water it can clog the pores in air stones and cause your air pumps to work even harder and hotter.
At these high temperatures very little nutrition can be obtained by your koi from the food passing through their systems anyway. Is it any wonder that a pond’s water quality and koi can suffer during the relatively hot summers in warmer climates? Clean air stones used in harder water at least twice per year with muriatic acid diluted with three parts water. Over stocked and under filtered ponds have increased dissolved organics which will encourage algae to proliferate especially with warmer water and increased sunlight. As the water starts to cool down healthy koi will make up for any growth they might have missed during the hottest part of the summer.
Here is a chart that shows the amount of oxygen (at 80% saturation levels) at different temperatures at sea level. Air stones can improve pond water circulation by moving water from the bottom to the surface and also eliminating dead zones of stagnant or slow moving water in your system.
Best methods of control involved rebalancing pond with less fish load, less feeding, and more frequent water changes and filter cleaning. Venturi’s save the cost of additional air pumps and electricity but they also reduce the return flow rate somewhat. I do not recommend using bottled algaecides as they are only temporary treatments that kill algae but the dead decaying algae serves as a stimulus to another algae bloom and creates a dangerous rollercoaster cycle of algae booms and busts. There are lots of sad reports of sick and dying koi after algaecide treatments so please do not become one of these stories.

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