05.12.2015
Repair work today begun on Rio de Janeiro's famed Christ statue after two fingers and its head were chipped during recent lightning storms. But the 100-ft tall statue, which is perched atop a mountain and offering spectacular views of Rio, will remain open to tourists. Officials say they'll place more lightning rods on the statue to try to prevent future damage.
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In this post I want to use the sandwich panel as an example to explain some basic concepts about bending of structures. However this linear variation of stress is not very efficient since the cross-section of the beam is not uniformly stressed i.e. A major advantage of the sandwich construction compared to the flared hole design is that the core separates the stiff outer skins, placing them as far as possible from the neutral axis. Apart from increasing the bending rigidity another advantage of using sandwich panels is that it actually concentrates the direct bending stresses (axial  and shear ) in the face sheets.
In metal construction the analogy to the sandwich beam is the I-beam seen in many civil constructions.
It was also hit by lightning in February 2008 and had to undergo a serious restoration because the bolt damaged its head and chipped the right thumb. The explanations in this post are kept very basic and are similar to a first semester course in structural mechanics. Sandwich panels are an important composite structure in aerospace applications as well as in high performance automobiles, boats and wind turbines.
Nomex is an aramid polymer similar to Nylon that is flame-resistant and can be manufactured in paper sheet form. Essentially the bending of a beam or a plate, by say some sort of pressure loading over its surface, is equivalent to grabbing the edges and applying a moment or rotation. The degree in which a structure prevents deflection in bending is known as the bending rigidity EI, where E is the Young’s modulus or stiffness of the material used and I is the second moment of area.
This is because when a structure deforms the load always distributes relative to the stiffness of the different parts. Since the face sheets have much higher Young’s modulii than the low-density core, in bending the large majority of the direct bending loads is actually taken by the face sheets. For example when using honeycomb cores it is very hard to form complex curved shapes using the standard hexagonal matrix shape. Feel free to join the discussion by leaving comments, and stay updated by subscribing to the mailing list at the top of the page.
Ability: Electric SurgeTapu Koko is a special Pokemon that protects the area where it lives. Typically a sandwich panel is comprised of a low stiffness, low density inner core enclosed by two stiff outer skins, as shown in Figure 1, where the whole assembly is held together by some sort of structural adhesive (Figure 2). Nomex is a great choice for the interior of aircraft cabins such as the floor panels due to its high safety in the event of fire. Under pure bending Engineer’s bending theory assumes that the structure resists this moment by a linear variation of stress through its thickness. One method to improve the design is to cut-out the material close to the neutral axis in order to reduce structural mass as shown in Figure 5. The second moment of area I, which is the bending resistance of the cross-section, increases the more mass is located away from the neutral axis. For example, when two springs are aligned in parallel and fixed on one end by a support and are displaced by the same extension x on the other end the load taken by spring 1 will be twice as high as that by spring 2 if . This means that the stress distribution is no longer continuously linear through the entire cross-section as for an isotropic material in Figure 4, but actually piecewise linear and discontinuous at the interfaces. This is because honeycomb has very high values of Poisson’s ratio such that the anti-clastic curvature effects in bending are quite pronounced.


The difference in this design is that the vertical web section does also take considerable direct in-plane loads since it is of the same material and therefore stiffness as the two flanges. That’s just part of the story, though, as the real action begins once the bolt hits the ground. Multiple sheets of Nomex paper can be placed on top of each other and glued together at the node locations by lines of adhesive, which are offset spatially between different layers.
Thus, the maximum stresses occur at the top and bottom surfaces, one being compressive and the other tensile, while the stress at the middle of the beam thickness is zero. This is analogous to rotational motion where the inertia of rotation increases the further away the rotating mass is located from the centre of rotation.
For example Figure 8 below clearly indicates how the variation of stress through the thickness of the sandwich panel changes as the stiffness mismatch between the core and face sheets is increased.
This means that when the honeycomb is bent to adhere to a certain shape it will form opposite curvature in the perpendicular direction to form a saddle shape. However, I-beams are much more cost-effective than sandwich beams since they can be easily mass-produced and do not suffer difficulties such as debonding between the face sheets and the core. Although it’s known as a guardian deity, it’s a surprisingly fickle Pokemon, and will not necessarily come to your aid if you need help.Despite that, this Pokemon has a strong sense of curiosity. The average lightning bolt packs up to a gigajoule of energy – enough to power an all-electric home for about a week, or around 300 kilowatt-hours.
This large stack of Nomex can then be cut into smaller strips and expanded to form a sheet of Nomex honeycomb. As the modulus of the skins reaches 50 times that of the core there is a large jump in bending stress from just over zero to about 2 MPa.
During in service bending deformation this will also cause the centre of the core to want to pull away from the face sheets again leading to excessive transverse shear and normal stresses at the interface and possible de-bonding of the core and face sheets.
This free Lightning McQueen printable is in PDF format and prints on 8.5 x 11, letter sized paper.
If it becomes interested in a person or in other Pokemon, it may come to play or battle with them.Tapu Koko’s Ability is Electric Surge, an Ability never before seen in a Pokemon.
When a strike enters the ground it makes its presence known by vaporizing soil & sand along a downward, branching path that may be up to 20 feet long. Alternatively closed cell foams such as Rohacell® are commonly used for the core, which are denser then there open cell counterparts but prevent moisture ingress in service and have better mechanical properties.
Thus a sandwich panel moves two stiff skins (high values of E such as Carbon fibre laminates) far away from the central neutral axis in order to maximise the product EI and therefore create a structure of incredibly high specific flexural stiffness i.e. Compared to the case of equal Young’s modulus this solution is much more efficient since both the skins and the core are more uniformly stressed.
In fact de-bonding may also occur due to impact events or slow moisture ingress into the open cell honeycomb structure during service.
Electric Surge fills the field around the Pokemon’s feet with electricity when it appears, raising the power of any Electric-type moves for Pokemon on the ground and preventing any Pokemon from falling asleep. The limitation of this design is that the large discontinuity of bending stress at the interface may cause excessive transverse shear stresses at the interface that can literally pull the face skins away from the core and cause de-bonding of the two parts. The improvements of stiffness versus weight of a sandwich panel by increasing the separation of the two face sheets is clearly illustrated in Figure 6.
This is why it is important to use a core with high transverse shear modulus and strength such as honeycomb to absorb these transverse shear loads. The drawback of these foams is that there intrinsic higher density makes them heavier than the equivalent honeycomb solution.
Required fields are marked *Name * Email * Website Comment Sign me up for the newsletter! Ability: BatteryCharjabug stays perfectly still in preparation for Evolution, and often spends time with its body half-buried in the earth.


Judging from the age and nature of the surrounding sandstone, the lightning strike which created the fossil fulgurite occurred some 250 million years ago at the end of the Permian Period. Here the density of the face sheets is assumed to be 15 times higher than that of the core. Furthermore, the core transverse shear strength is important for resisting point or distributed pressure loadings over the surface of the face sheets and give local support for fasteners. Alternatively, different cellular core configurations other than honeycomb such as Flex-core, rectangular and square may be used to reduce the anti-clastic curvature problem. The power it stores can be provided to other Pokemon, so it can also serve as a battery!Charjabug has the Battery Ability, an Ability not seen before in any other Pokemon.
The shifting sand makes the fulgurites both easy to see and relatively uncomplicated to remove. Ability: LevitateVikavolt is like a fortress that zooms through the forest, firing a beam of electricity from its mouth. Its huge jaws control the electricity it blasts out.Vikavolt is adept at acrobatic flight maneuvers like tailspins and sharp turns. It can fly at high speeds even as it weaves its way through the complicated tangle of branches in the forest.Vikavolt clasps Charjabug with its legs and uses it as an extra battery.
Even if a battle drags on, it can use the electric power from Charjabug to continue firing off powerful moves. That’s exactly what artist Allan McCollum has done, however, not one but some hundreds of times in the summer of 1997. Since they can’t obtain the Berries they feed on at that range, they descend to the base of the mountains at dawn every day. During what was referred to as The Event, lightning was attracted by way of small rockets launched two to three thousand feet into overhead storm clouds – with each rocket spooling out an ultra-thin copper wire that kept it grounded and directed any provoked lightning. Ben Franklin would be proud!Other Glass Acts(images via: Paleoastronautica and Tektite Source)Besides lightning strikes, there are a couple of other ways to create glass from sand. The Dragon Breath move that it fires off at such times is powerful enough to blow down buildings!Drampa can have the Berserk Ability, an Ability that no other Pokemon has ever had. Both methods involved the application of extreme force resulting in exceptionally high temperatures. The first is a meteorite impact, such as the one that created the Kebira Crater on the Libya-Egypt border nearly 30 million years ago. A huge area was showered with melted sand, which when cooled took on an ethereal yellow-green hue. When its opponents are bathed in this power, they’re stricken with terrible headaches and fall unconscious. The first such atomic bomb explosion took place on July 16, 1945 at the White Sands Proving Ground near Alamogordo, New Mexico. This serves as radar, so when it detects prey, it can leap to the attack!Bruxish can have the new Ability Dazzling, which no other Pokemon has ever had. The long needle that grows from the back of its head works as a lightning rod to attract electricity. With this reservoir of electrical energy, Togedemaru is able to release powerful Electric-type attacks!Covering its body is a pattern of fur with strands like needles.



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