10.12.2014
Background: Restoration of carious primary molars is still a major concern while treating the young children that too in deep carious lesion which extends below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) where pulp protection and achieving adequate marginal seal are very important to prevent secondary caries. How to cite this article:Raju VG, Venumbaka NR, Mungara J, Vijayakumar P, Rajendran S, Elangovan A. How to cite this URL:Raju VG, Venumbaka NR, Mungara J, Vijayakumar P, Rajendran S, Elangovan A. 16.Goldberg M, Pradell-Plasse N, Tran XV, Colon P, Emerging trends in (bio) material researches. This innovative paste-liquid formula comes in our award-winning Clicker™ Dispensing System.
Microleakage between the restoration and the tooth can contribute to postoperative sensitivity.
Cures in 20 seconds – faster than powder-liquid formulas, including GC Fuji Lining LC. BISCOs Z-PRIME Plus is a single-component priming agent used to create adhesion between indirect restorative materials and all resin containing cements. Using the new primer had a significant effect on increasing the bond strength to zirconia of the tested cements between 86% and 160% increase. Biscos new DuoLink SE Kit including Z-PRIME Plus and Bis-Silane offers a system that provides Confidence in Indirect Adhesion.
Improved marginal adaptation, prevention of microleakage, increased fracture strength, and increased retention in situations where mechanical retention does not exist constitute the benefits of a stable and durable resin bond to zirconia. The groups where the experimental zirconia primer (ZrP-groups) was used presented the highest mean bond strength values. Daranee Versluis-Tantbirojn Division of Operative Dentistry Department of Restorative Sciences Dent 5801 Operative Dentistry I Oct 9 th, 2007. RESULTS Mean Shear Bond Strength, MPa (sd) Means with the same letter are not statistically different at p > 0.05 INTRODUCTION Self-adhesive resin cements. Tooth decay (also called dental caries) is a softening and breakdown of the hard tooth tissues. Some risk factors for the development of tooth decay include poor oral hygiene, diet high in refined sugar, quality and amount of saliva, and developmental problems affecting hard tissues of the teeth. Most common professional methods of diagnosing tooth decay include visual and tactile inspection of the teeth and evaluation of the dental x-rays. Small and superficial tooth decay can be treated with conservative regimen which  includes cleaning and fluoride application to the surface of the decay, and sealing of the decay with special adhesives. More advanced tooth decay is treated with restorative procedures such as dental fillings and dental crowns.
In addition to the replacement of missing tooth structure the area of the tooth in close proximity to the dental pulp (dental pulp is a neurovacular tissue inside the root canal of the tooth) is often treated with special biologic preparations. Dental fillings can be made from several dental materials such as dental composites, glass-ionomers, ceramics and metals. The disadvantages of the dental composites include their low antibacterial property, and increased degradation under high chewing, chemical, thermal stresses of the oral cavity.
During the first step the tooth was anesthetized and dental dam was placed over the teeth to isolate the working field. All infected tooth tissues were removed and tooth cavity was prepared with a smooth outline. A special metal band was secured around the side of the cavity in order to contain the filling material. After washing of the acid, specially formulated liquid dental adhesive was applied to the cavity with a brush. As you can see composite dental filling is an advanced  restorative procedure and this type of treatment plays an essential role in the management of dental caries.
AbstractThis paper describes the use of adhesive techniques to restore teeth previously affected by tooth surface loss so avoiding the need to remove sound tooth tissue.IntroductionA number of the previous articles have described the importance of early diagnosis of tooth surface loss and not allowing wear to become too advanced before some form of restoration is provided.
Restorative management of tooth surface lossCervical tooth wearThese lesions present in a variety of forms depending on the type and severity of the causative factors. If only the palatal surfaces need restoring, the use of adhesive metal veneers is an acceptable method.3, 4 Nickel-chromium alloys (fig. Tooth preparation is minimal, usually restricted to smoothing the incisal and palatal peripheral enamel margins. Although the use of metal palatal veneers is an excellent conservative method of managing localised anterior tooth wear, it is not possible to improve the appearance of lost incisal and labial tooth tissue.
In situations where the anterior tooth wear is mainly because of attrition, and the palatal surface is relatively unaffected, it may be possible to restore the incisal and labial surfaces with a partial porcelain laminate veneer. Posterior tooth wearTooth wear affecting only posterior teeth is usually part of a generalised condition affecting the whole dentition.
In selected cases it is possible to consider a full mouth reconstruction of the worn dentition using resin-bonded ceramic restorations (fig. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Based on the possibilities of adherence of material to tooth structure a new cavity preparation philosophy emerged. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength and microleakage of conventional glass ionomer cement, resin modified glass ionomer cement and compomer: An in vitro study.
Evaluation of shear bond strengths of fuji ii and fuji ix with and without salivary contamination on deciduous molars-an invitro study.
An evaluation of microleakage of various glass ionomer based restorative materials in deciduous and permanent teeth: An in vitro study.
Comparative evaluation of the microleakage of two modified glass ionomer cements on primary molars. Long-term evaluation of direct pulp capping-treatment outcomes over an average period of 6.1 years. Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer to dentin: The effect of dentin surface treatment.
Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of various esthetic restorative materials to dentin - An invitro study. Quantitative evaluation by glucose diffusion of microleakage in aged calcium silicate-based open-sandwich restorations. Effect of four different placement techniques on marginal microleakage in class II composite restorations an in vitro study. In vitro shear bond strength of adhesive to normal and fluoridated enamel under various contaminated conditions. Evaluation of adhesion between composite resins and an experimental mineral restorative material.
Clinical evaluation of the performance and safety of a new dentine substitute, Biodentine, in the restoration of posterior teeth - a prospective study.
Uptake of calcium and silicon released from calcium silicate-based endodontic materials into root canal dentine. It offers the convenience you want with less mess – PLUS the performance you can trust in a liner. In an in vitro test, results show that using Vitrebond Plus liner with a restorative can reduce an effect of polymerization shrinkage by more than 50 percent* – measurably greater than the effect of GC Fuji Lining LC and flowable liners.
BISCOs Z-PRIME Plus is a single-component priming agent used to create adhesion between indirect restorative materials.
The groups that did not receive the experimental primer (NP groups) and the group treated with the MDP-containing primer (CCP-group) presented the lowest mean bond strength values Magne P, et al. Amalgam, resin composite, and glass ionomer in combination with a prefabricated post Amalgam had the lowest.
Topic General requirements for dental cements Classification of dental cements Component and properties Setting reaction Mixing process. Comparison of color of resin composites of white and translucent shades with two shade guides. Color characteristics of low-chroma and high translucency dental resin composites by different measuring modes. Color and optical properties of resin-based composites for bleached teeth after polymerization and accelerated aging. Percutaneous injuries and needlestick prevention strategies for health care workers: A review of the literature. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate based dental filling and regeneration materials. Difference in polymerization color changes of dental resin composites by the measuring aperture size. Influence of illuminating and viewing aperture size on the color of dental resin composites.
Changes of optical properties of dental nano-filled resin composites after curing and thermocycling.
Effect of tooth-whitening strips and films on the changes of color and surface roughness of resin composites. Influence of thermocycling on the optical properties of laboratory resin composites and all ceramic material.
Influence of porcine liver esterase on the change of color and color coordinates of resin composites by CIEDE2000 system. Comparison of CIELAB E* and CIEDE2000 color-differences after polymerization and thermocycling of resin composites. Discoloration of dental resin composites after immersion in a series of organic and chemical solutions. Comparison of CIELAB, CIEDE2000 and DIN99 color differences between various shades of resin composites.
Influence of color coordinates on the color changes after polymerization and thermocycling of dental resin composites. Color and translucency of A2 shade resin composites after curing, polishing and thermocycling. Influence of fluorescent and opalescent properties of resin composites on the masking effect.
Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite. Influence of organic and chemical substances on the discoloration of esthetic dental restorative materials ?


Effect of filler addition on the bonding parameters of dentin bonding adhesives bonded to human dentin. Influence of a series of organic and chemical substances on the translucency of resin composites.
Comparison of the metrics between the CIELAB and the DIN99 uniform color spaces using dental resin composite material values.
Changes in color and translucency of porcelain repairing resin composites after thermocycling. Changes in opalescence and fluorescence properties of resin composites after accelerated aging. Influence of opalescence and fluorescence properties on the light transmittance of resin composites as a function of wavelength. Influence of the amount of UV component in daylight simulator on the color of dental composite resins. Influence of illuminants on the color distribution of shade guides in value, chroma and hue scale.
Combined effect of staining substances on the discoloration of esthetic Class V dental restorative materials. Changes in the translucency of porcelain and repairing resin composite by the illumination.
Influence of background color on the color changes of resin composites after accelerated aging.
Combined Effects of Staining Substances on Resin Composites before and after Surface Sealant Application. Influence of the changes in the UV component of illumination on the color of composite resins.
Influence of light transmittance and background reflectance on the light curing of adhesives used to bond esthetic brackets. Comparison of the color of natural teeth measured by a colorimeter and Shade Vision System.
Influence of filler distribution on the difference between transmitted and reflected colors of experimental resin composites. Influence of surface layer removal of shade guide tabs on the measured color by spectrophotometer and spectroradiometer. Correlations between Color-differences based on Three Color-difference Formulas using Dental Shade Guide Tabs.
Influence of HEMA content on the optical properties of experimental HEMA-added glass ionomer cement.
Influence of shade designation on the difference in color among the same designated shades by the brand. Influence of HEMA content on the mechanical and bonding properties of experimental resin-modified glass ionomer cements. Comparative evaluation of different crystal-structured calcium sulfates as bone-filling materials.
Difference in illuminant-dependent color changes of shade guide tabs by the shade designation relative to three illuminants.
Changes in translucency, fluorescence and opalescence of experimental HEMA-added glass ionomer after aging. Influence of aging and 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate content on the color stability of experimental 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-added dental glass ionomers. Influence of nano- and micro-sized filler distribution on the optical stability of experiment resin composites. A simple polyacrylamide affinity gel electrophoresis using unsaturated fatty acid for the isolation of chymotrypsin inhibitor. Lightness, chroma, and hue distributions of a shade guide as measured by a spectroradiometer. Correlations between spectroradiometric and spectrophotometric colors of all-ceramic materials. Variation in the instrument-based color coordinates of esthetic restorative materials by measurement method ? Changes in stress relaxation property and softness of soft denture lining materials after cyclic loading. Difference in the color stability of direct and indirect resin composites after thermocycling. Preparation of interconnected porous chitosan scaffolds by sodium acetate particulate leaching. Alexander Shor Dental Filling Procedure – Treatment of Tooth Decay with Dental Composite Restoration. Common measures include regular brushing with fluoride tooth paste, flossing, oral rinses and professional cleaning appointments. It includes removal of the infected portion of the tooth, disinfection of the tooth cavity, and replacement of the missing portion of the tooth with an artificial biomaterial. This is done in order to enhance healing of the dental pulp and prevent root canal infection.
In some situations two different materials such as dental composites and glass-ionomers, or metals and glass-ionomers are combined in a single cavity in order to achieve desirable performance of the restoration.
The advantages of dental composite fillings include their tooth like appearance, ability to be bonded to the tooth, relatively low cost,  and reasonable longevity (typically 5-10 years).
What it means that for some patients longevity of the composite filling may be shorter than average. Also special spring like device was placed between the teeth to slightly separate the them. This adhesive was than set with the help of special blue spectrum LED (light emitting diode) light.
The early use of traditional restorations (such as crowns) is very correctly frowned upon if the cause of the wear is either not known or reasonably well-controlled as their prognosis in the presence of continuing wear is poor. Not all lesions require restoration, but if aesthetics, sensitivity, or structural considerations dictate then some form of adhesive restoration will usually be most suitable.There is a plethora of tooth-coloured restorative materials now available. This is often seen in younger age groups where it is primarily caused by acid erosion, characteristically affecting the palatal aspects of the upper anterior teeth (fig.
Where there has been relatively deep erosion of the palatal surface it is often advisable to block out the deeper aspects of the cavity with either a glass ionomer cement alone or with a calcium hydroxide liner beneath it. In these circumstances the initial build-up of the incisal portion with a composite resin, followed by the metal veneer to cover both tooth tissue and composite resin is a relatively straightforward variation on the technique.7, 8 One of the major disadvantages is that the composite resin will deteriorate and eventually require repair or replacement. Occasionally the pattern of this tooth wear is such that individual posterior teeth may require restoration. Many of these have used composite resin or other tooth-coloured filling materials which are likely to have a shorter life-span than those made of cast metal or metal-ceramic.
One such of new bioactive material is tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine), recommended for restoring deep lesions. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine. Although very rare, another disadvantage of the dental composite include possibility of an allergic reaction. The photo below and to the right shows tooth decay which is a discolored area at the bottom of the cavity. A small glass-ionomer base was placed at the bottom of the cavity onto the root surface (as shown in the photo below and to the right). This is done so the teeth would have a tight contact after removing of the band. In the next step the surface of the cavity was etched with phosphoric acid in order to crete a rough surface and achieve the highest possible bond between the filling and the tooth (photo below to the right). The development of adhesive dentistry has simplified much of the restorative care of people with worn teeth. Materials can either be composite resin or glass-ionomer based, or a combination of both; either in a layered technique with the individual materials or as a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. This may offer some protection to the pulpal tissues and helps the laboratory and cementation procedures. This could be achieved locally using a Dahl appliance or if the posterior occlusion requires restoration by increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion. The longer term durability, particularly of the posterior onlay restorations remains unpredictable and characteristically small fracture lines can appear in time which may eventually result in catastrophic failure.
However, the virtual absence of tooth preparation can make such restorations a very attractive option. Aim: To evaluate and compare shear bond strength and microleakage of tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) in primary and permanent teeth. This has been made possible with the advancements in material science and availability of newer materials along with modifications of the previously existing ones. This type of tooth decay is called interproximal caries and in majority situations can only be detected on a dental  x-ray unless it becomes very large in size. In the final steps the surface of the filling was adjusted to the patient’s bite and polish with special abrasives. To help with the location of the onlay restoration there is some value in preparing an indentation on the occlusal surface of the tooth prior to the working impression. Procedures involving complete resin bonding of the temporary restoration to the underlying tooth tissue may compromise the subsequent adhesive bond for the final restoration.
Unfortunately, such a conservative approach is not always possible and there remain frequent indications for using conventional crowns to restore worn teeth. Unfortunately, most cervical lesion margins are not confined to enamel and usually involve root cementum and dentine. As the tooth structure is already compromised avoiding further tooth reduction to create space is highly desirable. There are however difficulties with this technique in that greater inter-occlusal space is required to accommodate the porcelain material, and it is often very difficult to disguise the junction between the incisal porcelain and remaining tooth structure on the labial aspect of the tooth. Ideally existing amalgam restorations should be replaced with either composite resin or glass ionomer cement to enhance the overall bond strength. There is also a risk of damage to the tooth preparation during the removal of the interim restoration. These traditional and sometimes more complex procedures will be described toward the end of the series. NATHANSON, Primer Effect on Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Zirconia, J Dent Res 89(Spec Issue A): Abstr.


This article outlines the broad range of dental materials and adhesive techniques currently available for restoring worn teeth. In this situation dentine bonding is required, usually in the form of a bonding agent in combination with a composite resin or a glass ionomer cement.In situations where aesthetics are paramount then a polishable composite resin remains the material of choice.
A similar, and very conservative alternative is to restore the incisal and palatal surfaces with direct acid-etch retained composite resin.
Difficulties arise however with large proximal cavities which finish cervically on the root cementum.
Conversely using a less adhesive material or technique may result in the early loss of any temporary restorations with the possible consequences of unplanned tooth movement.
Where such treatment is contemplated, reasonable outcomes must be based on sound prevention and maintenance. The emphasis is placed on the application of techniques rather than any specific restorative material as the latter change constantly as new developments are made.The introduction to the dental profession of the acid-etch technique using phosphoric acid in the early 1960s, began the modern development of adhesive materials and techniques.
However, despite ongoing improvements there is still a question over the longer term durability of the resin-dentine bond.Where lesions are not highly visible (perhaps involving root surface), a glass ionomer material may prove to be more appropriate. Predictable tooth movement is enhanced if a positive cingulum contact can be achieved with the occluding lower incisor teeth in an attempt to direct forces along the long axes of the contacting teeth.Luting agents can either be resin-based or a glass ionomer cement. This technique can be very useful as an interim measure and allows for the possibility of more involved and complex procedures in the form of conventional crowns to be considered at a later date (fig. Laboratory manufactured acrylic or composite resin quadrant splinted temporary restorations cemented with a composite resin lute to spot etched enamel have proved to be a reasonably reliable but expensive technique.Checking the occlusal relationship at the try-in stage can also be difficult because of the relative lack of retention of the restorations before cementation. These include improper restorative technique by the clinician, plaque accumulation due to patient difficulty in cleaning and lack of patient compliance with proper oral hygiene.
The later introduction of dentine bonding agents, silane primers, and composite resin luting cements has made possible predictable adhesion between dental and tissues and a variety of materials such as composite resins, ceramics and metal alloys.Worn teeth are not particularly difficult to restore when the materials are used in non-occluding areas.
The dynamic bond of glass ionomer cements to both dentine and enamel through an ionic exchange provides the opportunity for continual repair of the adhesive bond at the tooth and cement interface. The author's preference in most circumstances is for resin capable of adhesion to both tooth structure and metal oxide. This allows the opportunity to restore the posterior teeth to re-establish occlusal stability.
It is therefore critical that accurate jaw records are secured to allow precise mounting of the casts in an articulator.
Where a functional surface has become worn and requires restoration, the main problem is one of a lack of space for the restorative material without preparing an already worn tooth. There is also the additional benefit of fluoride ion release from the glass ionomer cement reducing the possibility of marginal caries in susceptible individuals.Although much improved in recent years, the colour properties of conventional glass ionomer cements are not ideal. By using opaque variants, greying of the incisal third caused by the underlying palatal metal veneer may be avoided.
Restoring posterior quadrants with adhesive onlays is a conservative method, although it is not always possible to create sufficient inter-occlusal space by increasing the vertical dimension alone, particularly if opposing occluding surfaces in the molar regions need to be restored. Attention to detail at this stage will usually reduce the need for any major adjustment to the restorations following cementation.As ceramic technology improves and stronger, less abrasive, castable materials become available it may be more realistic to consider resin-bonded ceramic restorations when managing patients with generalised tooth wear.
In addition, it is claimed to be less technique sensitive to saliva and highly durable with improved physical properties. The traditional prosthodontic approach has often been to restore all the teeth in one or both arches to increase the occlusal vertical dimension.
In deeper cervical lesions however it is possible to consider a layered technique combining the adhesive properties of the glass ionomer cement with the superior colour properties of a polishable composite resin. Results: Results showed that glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) exhibited better shear bond strength than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine). This can require the unnecessary treatment of teeth which have not been greatly affected by wear but require restoration to bring them into contact with antagonists at the new vertical dimension of occlusion.One of the most significant advances in treatment has been the ability to re-create the space lost by the teeth as they wear. The new generation of light-activated resin-modified glass ionomer materials combine some of the better properties of composite resin and conventional glass ionomer cements.
Prior to cementation the fitting surface of the metal alloy is prepared using 50 micrometre aluminium oxide air abrasion. Where space is at a premium the selection of a gold alloy as opposed to porcelain will be advantageous. The powder part includes tricalcium silicate (80%), zirconium oxide, calcium carbonate and oxide. The command set, improved colour and easier finishing of some of these newer materials allow the opportunity to provide very acceptable conservative restorations for cervical tooth wear lesions (fig.
An acceptable adhesive bond using gold alloy veneers is achieved if the surface is additionally heat treated.6Location of the veneers during cementation can be made easier by extending the metal coverage onto the incisal edges.
Because of the normal arc of mandibular closure there will often be more space available in the premolar regions allowing the opportunity to use more aesthetic restorations (fig. Liquid part is an aqueous solution containing calcium chloride which accelerates the system and partially modified polycarboxylate as a super plasticizing agent to reduce the water content, which decreases the setting time to harden within 9 to 12 minutes.
This intrudes them and their antagonists while encouraging the eruption of those taken out of contact by the appliance.
This design is also likely to reduce the opportunity of debonding during function by offering some increased resistance to shearing loads and by covering a greater surface area of available tooth structure.
Mechanical properties and setting time of MTA (2.75 hours) is not compatible with clinical use as a restorative material, whereas biodentine which is claimed to possess mechanical properties sufficient to withstand occlusal load when protected with composite resin material. Only longer term observation and assessment will determine how durable these newer materials will prove. Any potentially unaesthetic display of incisal metal can often be disguised by dulling the polished metal using an intra-oral air abrasive.A step-by-step description of this particular clinical technique is shown in Table 1.
Conclusion: Shear bond strength of glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) is greater than tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) in both primary and permanent teeth. It is suggested as a good option as a dentin substitute in sandwich restoration, where the quality of interface with dentin is a contributing factor for microleakage. Tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) exhibited less microleakage compared to glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP) in both primary and permanent molars.
This material does not require photo activation and can be placed in bulk in the cavity directly without requiring any specific conditioning of the dentin surface. This material exhibits the same excellent biological properties as that of MTA and can be placed in direct contact with dental pulp. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the microleakage and shear bond strength of recently available tricalcium silicate-based restorative material (Biodentine) and to compare it with the previously existing glass ionomer-based restorative material (Fuji IX GP) on primary and permanent teeth.
The root portion of each tooth was embedded into an acrylic mold with the occlusal surface of tooth parallel to the base. Subsequently, 400 grit aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) abrasive paper was used to obtain a flat dentin surface.
After setting of cement, the mold was removed after 10 minutes and Vaseline applied.For the Biodentine group teeth prepared for testing shear bond strength were taken out from distilled water, and dried.
The polyvinyl mold (3.5 mm diameter and 3 mm height) was placed over flattened dentinal surface. Biodentine capsule was manipulated with the help of amalgamator and the mix was condensed into the mold with the help of amalgam carrier and plastic filling instrument.
Each sample was mounted in universal testing machine with the dentin surface parallel to the machine›s trajectory.
A compressive load was applied, using a steel knife-edge placed over the sample's tooth-restoration interface so that the force of the shear was applied directly to the bond interface [Figure 4]. The cavity was totally etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds and thoroughly rinsed.
The dentin was rinsed with water for 10 seconds and air dried by blowing with a three way syringe. Fuji IX GP was manipulated according to manufacturer's instruction and placed in cervical wall to the thickness of 3mm using plastic filling instrument and condensed, cervical matrix was placed and finger pressure was applied, which was removed once Fuji IX GP cement sets.
The cavity walls were etched for 15 seconds using 37% phosphoric acid gel, then water was sprayed and air dried. Bonding agent Adper single bond plus (3M ESPE) was applied using applicator tip and air blown gently, and cured for 20 seconds. One coat of nail varnish was applied on the entire tooth except 1 mm from the restoration margin. Teeth were then placed in 5 % methylene blue dye for 12 hours at room temperature [Figure 8].
Mean shear bond strength was calculated from the recorded values and statistical analysis was done with the "t" test.
On comparison, Biodentine showed better shear bond strength to permanent dentin than primary dentin which was not statistically significant (P = 0.199). Fuji IX GP showed better shear bond strength to permanent dentin compared to primary dentin which was not statistically significant (P = 0.503).
Group II shows no dye penetration in maximum number of samples (15), whereas Groups III and IV show dye penetration to and along the axial wall in six samples. This is of particular clinical significance in pediatric practice as excessive salivation is observed in children and often due to un-cooperativeness of the patient, it might be difficult to use rubber dam routinely in clinical practice. None of the presently available restorative materials provides a perfect seal with cavity walls and there is always a microspace at the interface between the two along which fluids and microorganism can penetrate. Hence, experiments are needed to determine microleakage and bond strength and to compare them using the same materials. Increased shear bond strength value in Fuji IX GP may be due to the fact that in addition to a chemical interaction between the cement and dentin surface, Fuji IX GP may provide micromechanical interlocking via the formation of hybrid layers and resin tags between highly viscous glass ionomer cement and conditioned dentin surface. The good marginal integrity of open-sandwich restoration filled with Biodentine is likely due to the outstanding ability of the calcium silicate materials to form hydroxyapatite crystals at the surface. When formed at the interface between the restorative material and the dentin walls, these crystals may contribute to the sealing efficiency of the material.
In addition to the formation of apatite crystals the nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate may also explain the good sealing qualities of the calcium silicate cement. The comparison of interfaces showed a dentin-mineral infiltration with the Biodentine, whereas polyacrylic and tartaric acids and their salts characterize GIC penetration. Future studies should aim at mimicking the oral environment with increased sample size to recommend Biodentine as a dentin substitute under a composite restoration for posterior teeth restoration.



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