You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Guest blogger and former Demco employee John Ison gives you lessons from the stacks on how to give books the tender loving care they deserve. In the 25 plus years I was with Demco, I presented something like 300 book repair workshops. Back in October Demco ran a blog post entitled Book Repair: The Stuff They Don’t Teach You in Library School.
But one word of caution: Everything we deal with is applicable to a circulating collection or a reference collection open to the public. While some of the techniques I present you with are similar to the techniques used on rare or valuable books, none of the book repair supplies that I will cover will be suitable for archival preservation. Before you reach for the tape or glue ask yourself if a damaged book belongs in your collection. On the other hand, if you decide that the book adds to the strength of your collection but it is damaged beyond your capability to repair it in-house, send it to a commercial bindery for treatment.
Beyond the books that you decide to discard and those that warrant the expense of professional repair, you will find those books that can be returned to service quickly and easily using the in-house repair techniques we’ll cover in future columns. John IsonJohn Ison retired in 2011 after working with Demco for more than 25 years, most recently as the Director of Library Relations. Your products are wonderful – this is starting my 20th year in the library and we have used your products ever since I started work here. Our blog post that will be released soon titled Rebuilding Broken Books-Part 2 should help. Head Office: Suite 27, 28 & 29, Prime Shopping Mall, Muri Okunola Street, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria.
Branch Office: Road 4, Shop I, 124, 125, & 126, Ikota Shopping Complex, Victoria Garden City (VGC), Lekki Expressway, Lagos, Nigeria. POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about PEX polyethylene plastic supply and drain piping, gas piping, etc.
This article describes the properties of Pex Tubing or Piping, Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX).
We describe the several differnt types of PEX tubing connector systems used including PEX crimp fittings, PEX compression fittings, PEX expander fittings, PEX Press-Fit connectors, and PEX Shark-Bite fittings and connectors. We also discuss the ongoing debate of Pex versus Copper or other piping choices, with the pros and cons of each, and we include a literature review of and comment on the question is PEX tubing or piping safe to use or does it leach contaminants into our water supply. PEX and PB plastic pipe are used for water supply in buildings use mechanical fittings (crimp and compression type) and we have found some installers using PEX tubing in low temperature heating applications (see below). Installing both building water supply piping and heating supply piping (and radiant heating) can be significantly faster using PEX tubing because of its ability to bend around turns, avoiding some elbows, 45's and other fittings. PEX piping is used in both hot and cold water applications (see the blue and red colors below).
Generally you will find PEX piping or tubing marked with the nominal pipe size, wall thickness, and pressure rating and other information (see the illustration just below). When installing PEX piping, care must be taken that the pipe does not contact heating ducts.
Watch out: PEX plastic water piping should not be installed outdoors or exposed to sunlight for long periods.
Watch out: do not use plastic piping nor any other type of piping in applications for which it was not intended, or the result could be dangerous. Watch out: a variety of patented PEX tubing push-fit and clamp connecting fittings (at least six types) and connector crimping tools are on the market. Clamp type PEX fittings (photo at left) using a brass connector and stainless steel clamp-rings (e.g. Note in our PEX photo at left that on the cold water (blue) Tee fitting one of the clamp fittings remains to be completed. Crimp type PEX fittings (photo at left - Crimp type PEX fittings in a Haddonfield New Jersey home) (e.g. Compression type PEX fittings (photo at left) (radiant heating and other applications) uses three parts (connector, compression ring or ferrule, threaded nut) to connect PEX tubing to a radiant heating manifold.
Threaded nut and ferrule are used with an insert to prepare the tubing for connection to the manifold. No special tools are needed and compression type PEX fittings work with standard and Pex tubing.
Expander type PEX fittings (photo at left, Expander type PEX fittings in a Tivoli NY home), e.g. Our PEX tubing photo (left) illustrates three PEX installation details: use of expander-type PEX fittings, and at the photo bottom (blue cold water piping) a protective sleeve or bushing at the floor joist penetration, and a steel nail plate to protect the tubing from puncture by ceiling drywall (to be installed). Note: in best construction practices all holes drilled through structural floor joists (shown at left) would be made in the center of the joist, not near the bottom as in our photo. The Viega press PEX fittings are sold separately from the required stainless steel press PEX rings OR you can buy Viega pex press fittings that include the crimp ring already combined with the fitting. When using the Viega method with the integrated fitting and crimp ring you'll need to look closely to assure that you have inserted the fitting fully into the tubing before crimping the sleeve using the Viega tool.
SharkBite PEX push-fit fittings (photo at left) - push-in fittings (also work with copper and CPVC).
The following standards and building codes list at least some elements of PEX plumbing systems. In the United States the use of PEX tubing in residential buildings for water supply & heating piping has been approved for use in all fifty states and in Canada in all of the provinces.
1990-2007: production of PEX a,b,c (various methods of producing cross-linked polyethylene tubing), PEX-AI-PEX, and PE-RT tubing. Question: my daughter is doing extensive renovations on her house and the question has come up whether to use PEX or copper in the plumbing. We will continue to monitor the PEX health and contamination question and will update here.

A bottom line opinion is that each plumbing material has its own vulnerabilities as well as advantages & disadvantages. We discuss types of copper piping and their intended uses and copper fittings beginning at COPPER PIPING in buildings. In March 2012 people who own or previously owned a building where Plumb-PEX plumbing components were installed are notified of a proposed class action settlement involving Radiant Technology, Inc. The Kitec system was a collection of brass plumbing connectors intended for use with PEX type plastic piping. Kitec plastic pipe and fittings has agreed to settle class-action suits in the United States and Canada for $125 million.
PEX (cross-linked polyethylene piping) is a general term for a type of plastic piping used in water supply, heating, and other applications. Kitec® is a specific brand of PEX tubing that was subject of a class action settlement with an end-date for filing claims of 31 March 2012. Kitek® PLASTIC PIPE LEAKS, CLASS ACTION SETTLEMENT discussion is found within that article. Above left: brass tee corrosion appearing both on the Tee-fitting body (red arrow) and around the end of the PEX tubing (green arrow) on water piping in a 2009 home. Continue reading at PEX BRASS CONNECTOR LEAKS (discussing de-zincification and leaks at PEX connectors) or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia. When putting pex in concrete do you need to pressurize the system before you pour the concrete? While I can't cite an authoritative reference, certainly I've never seen a system pressureized before installation. John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. The Motion for Preliminary Approval of Class Action Settlement was heard on January 12, 2012. Plastic pipes used to convey hot and cold drinking water are synthetic polymers containing numerous additives that enhance durability, impact strength, and toughness, and resist material degradation. High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. Abstract: the objectives of this work were to identify differences between the composition, bulk properties, contaminant diffusivity and solubility for new high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, as well as determine which contaminant and polymer properties are useful for predicting contaminant fate in water pipe. A model was developed and validated for predicting solubility and diffusion coefficients for contaminants permeating polyethylene (PE) materials used for water pipes and geomembranes. The aim of this work was to determine if the aging of polyethylene (HDPE, PEX-A and PEX-B) water pipes by exposure to chlorinated water altered polar and nonpolar contaminant diffusivity and solubility by analyzing new, laboratory-aged, and exhumed water-distribution system polyethylene (PE) pipes. Abstract: Polymeric pipes are increasingly being installed in water distribution systems because of their many advantages. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. It was the easiest part of my job because my 300th presentation was just like my first presentation — except I didn’t sweat as much.
Many experts and even archivists insist that archival repairs should be reversible and your goal is to make permanent repairs. If it’s out of date, badly soiled or one of several duplicate copies, it is a candidate for the discard pile. During that time he conducted over 300 book repair workshops, wrote the Demco Collection Care Guide, and wrote and produced the Demco Collection Care DVD. This article also includes the history of the development, use, & standards for PEX piping.
The red and blue PEX piping shown below (right) were delivering hot and cold water in a newly-constructed home.
You may not obtain a proper and secure PEX connection if you mix tubing connector fittings and crimping tools improperly. ProPEX brass connecting fittings and the ProPEX expander tool from Uponor (formerly Wirsbo PEX fittings). The fittings avoided having to drain piping and solder end caps onto pipes that were later to be further cut back, excavated, and permanently capped below the slab. COPPER article above lists propertie of copper water supply pipes when used in buildings and compares copper pipe performance with that of plastic. Kitec, also in some sources spelled Kyetec is a brand of brass plumbing fitting that was recalled in 2005 by its manufacturer, IPEX, due to its tendency to quickly corrode.
I do see that the pex tubing is capped and supported above the slab to keep it acessible and clean at its connection points. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones. South, for example trailers and double-wides throughout Florida that were piped with this material - per M Cramer.
It originally manufactured a patented backwater valve, and it now manufactures and distributes one of the largest plumbing products packages in the world!
Although some research studies have been conducted to evaluate the type and levels of chemical substances migrating from polymeric materials into drinking water, the potential adverse health effects associated with these compounds in potable water have not been described.
The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept.

Contaminant migration from polymer pipes into drinking water is a growing concern in the United States and environmental engineers are evaluating the role of these materials on water quality, system operation, and regulatory compliance. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. And your best judgment of what to repair, what to ignore, and what to get rid of is still just that — a judgment call. If you’re paying big bucks to earn an advanced degree, you don’t want to spend your time learning about adhesive tapes. PEX properties, PEX history & key dates, PEX failure class action information, PEX compared with copper piping, PlumbPex class action settlement, Kitec class action settlement. We recommend choosing a specific connector type and crimping tool and using it consistently at a given plumbing installation.
This review evaluates the literature on the occurrence of regulated and unregulated substances in drinking water related to the use of plastic pipes, characterizes potential health hazards, and describes uncertainties associated with human health and exposure in need of further research. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168A®.
While numerically these differences seem minor, results show that slight material differences have a notable effect on contaminant diffusivity and solubility.
Physical and chemical properties of the contaminants and PEs were included as variables in the model. Carbonyl bonds (I?=1,713a€‰a€‰cma?’1) were detected on the surfaces of HDPE and PEX-B pipe, and these oxygenated surfaces became more hydrophilic, resulting in statistically significant increases in diffusion rates.
To aid these efforts and serve as a source of background information, this paper critically reviews available literature on polymeric potable water pipes in use, known contaminants released from ina€“service and new piping, their perceived sources, and outlines future challenges in the U.S. Also, if you send your questions or concerns through the Leave a Reply link below, I’ll be happy to respond. In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes.
Tree regression was used to select variables, and multiple linear regression was used to develop predictive equations for contaminant diffusivity and solubility in PE. All 10 contaminant and four pipe material combinations had diffusivity increases on average of 50% for polar contaminants and 5% for nonpolar contaminants. Never mind that if you’re lucky, you’ll be overseeing people who need to know how to repair books.
However if you are lacking a significant portion of the bark, the tree may not be able to survive much longer.Keys to Repairing a Broken Tree BranchProviding support is essential to establishing a smooth healing process for your broken tree. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home.
Contaminants are measured in the distribution system, not at the tap where human exposure actually occurs.
Polar contaminants were more soluble and diffused faster through PEX than HDPE pipes because PEX pipes contained a greater amount of oxygen.
Organic contaminant properties, especially dipole moment and octanol-water partition coefficient, had greater predictive capability than PE properties.
Contaminant solubility was slightly increased for aged PEX-A and slightly decreased for PEX-B pipes. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. In a lot of cases though, you’ll be the only staff person in the library when the dog starts eating your collection. For increased health protection, it is important to identify compounds that migrate from plastic pipes into drinking water and to better quantify human exposures and health hazards to these substances and their degradates.
The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. For all materials, dipole moment and Log Kow were good predictors of contaminant fate and molecular volume was only useful for predicting diffusivity and solubility values for haloalkane and nonpolar aromatic contaminants. Toluene and trichloromethane diffusivity and solubility values for 7- to 25-year-old buried water utility pipes were similar to values for new and laboratory-aged HDPE-based materials. The key is to bring the split portion back together with its other half to connect them and allow for true healing and growth. Model coefficients changed slightly between new PE materials and chlorine-aged PE, but these changes were not statistically significant. Because chlorinated water exposure alters how polar contaminants interact with aged PE pipes, results of this work should be considered in future health risk assessments, water quality modeling, pipe performance, and service-life considerations. There are a few options to bring the pieces back together.First, try the twine method and glue method. Good agreement was demonstrated between model predictions and measured data from an independent data set. These results provide guidance for material selection for both water pipes and geomembranes and assessing contamination potential. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.
This will provide support for the tree to reestablish its healthy growing patterns.These methods should place the tree branches or trunks in a position to heal and grow.
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