19.01.2014
Food safety seems to be in the headlines every day, and consumers are increasingly concerned.
Ashland’s line of adhesives includes water-based, solvent-based and solventless products. As the market for digitally printed, narrow-web labels increases at an impressive rate, digitally printed flexible packaging exhibits significant growth potential. Selecting the proper laminating adhesive is imperative to the integrity of the flexible packaging structure.
Digital printing is an emerging print technology for flexible food packaging that’s enabling brand owners and converters to effectively deliver shorter run lengths, improve shelf appeal, and meet speed-to-market demands.
Helping converters and brand owners produce safe, cost-effective packaging is Ashland's mission.
Are you sure that your flexible packaging is not inadvertently adulterating the food products inside?
Get the benefits of aliphatic solvent-free laminating adhesive technology for about the cost of an aromatic polyurethane adhesive. Arotran™ UV resin systems can be used in SMC formulations where UV stability and good shrink control are required.
Arotran 805 resin system can be used in SMC formulations where UV stability and good shrink control are required. Derakane 788 resin system is a blend of thickenable bis-A epoxy vinyl ester resin and a low profile additive. Derakane 780 resin system is a thickenable novolac based epoxy vinyl ester resin for use in SMC and BMC applications. Derakane 782 resin system is a high-strength, thickenable, bis-A based epoxy vinyl ester resin for use in SMC and BMC. The global coatings industry is constantly evolving to keep pace with emerging technology and consumer trends. The objective of this article is to describe novel techniques that were developed to augment traditional measurement methods.
The ingredients and amounts of raw materials used to prepare the coating are shown in Table 1. A Nanovea® 3D surface profilometer (Figure 1) with an automated XY-stage and optical pen was used for surface characterization of roller-applied paint films on Leneta CU-1M gray scale charts. All rheology data was gathered using a DHR3 rheometer from TA Instruments and a 40 mm parallel plate at a gap of 1 mm. Further insight can be extracted from the profilometry by different analyses of the raw data.
The peak height distribution per unit area of the four different surfaces is illustrated in Figure 5.
Extensional rheology of paint, shown in Figure 7 as the time for a paint filament to break, is also a good measure of roller appearance.
Traditional measurements of measuring leveling of paints are static and provide information only of dry paint films. As described earlier, the raw data from each line profile was exported to a spreadsheet and fit to a sine wave model to obtain the peak height and the average film thickness. In the present study, novel enabling technologies that were developed to quantify both wet and dry coating properties and augment traditional measurement methods are discussed. Our September issue focuses on sustainable solutions, specialty chemicals, architectural coatings and the latest pigment technology.
Packaging technology keeps changing, and with every advancement seems to come a dozen more challenges.
Raising the bar by shaping new industry guidelines and creating products that outdistance current standards. Download this article now to learn more about Ashland's new laminating adhesives for digitally printed flexible packaging.
Download this white paper now to learn how Ashland's water-based and solvent-free adhesives can help you minimize migration and produce safe, cost-effective packaging. There are several digital technologies in the market, but presses that require attention to detail regarding the packaging design, especially the adhesives, are emerging as the dominant technology. Through the combination of cutting-edge analytical resources and by listening to the needs of consumers, customers and industry groups, Ashland is able to collaborate and develop the perfect adhesive solution for every packaging challenge.


Derakane 780 resin system features include excellent physical properties, high heat and corrosion resistance, and good retention of physical properties up to 150 °C. Features include excellent physical properties, good heat resistance, high tensile elongation, and good dimensional tolerance. The goal is to provide improved insight and facilitate the development and selection of rheological additives for improved final coating properties such as hide and finish. For this study, an all-acrylic semigloss, 24% pigment volume concentration (PVC) unthickened base paint was made and post-thickened using a single high-shear rheology modifier and one of four different low-shear rheology modifiers to equivalent Krebs units (KU) and ICI viscosity.
This is a non-contact method based on axial chromatism principle where incident light from the optical element passes through a lens of high-degree chromatic aberration and each wavelength of the light reflecting off various surface features will pass through a focal plane. Briefly, paint drawdown was applied on a glass plate using a standard Leneta leveling bar and was immediately transferred onto the profilometer stage. Briefly, a small amount of paint was placed between two parallel plates at a fixed gap that moved apart at a user-defined speed. Table 5 shows the average % contrast ratio of the applied films at respective spread rates. This analysis provides further validation to the symmetry of roller nap pattern and uniformity for sample B due to a more Gaussian distribution of the curve versus other samples. In general, longer times to break correlate with higher elasticity in a paint and will give poorer appearance in a rollout.
As described earlier, a novel quantitative technique has been developed to provide insight into the time evolution of drying and leveling of wet films. The data is normalized to an average film thickness of 200 µm, the theoretical value based on the geometry of the leveling bar.
These techniques include: a) profilometry of dry coating films to quantify surface roughness and classify different roller patterns, and b) dynamic assessment of leveling of wet coating films using profilometry.
In today’s consumer marketplace, the majority of buying decisions are being made at time of purchase, influenced more by how the product speaks to the customer and draws them in than anything else.
Ashland is raising the bar by shaping new industry guidelines and creating products that outdistance current standards. Derakane™ resins and resin systems feature excellent physical properties, high tensile elongation, and good dimensional tolerance.
This SMC is formulated using UV-stable technology which provides excellent color stability and gloss retention after weathering.
Features include good heat resistance, excellent shrink control, high tensile elongation, and good dimensional tolerance. These trends pose challenges to formulators as well as specialty chemical companies to design products with improved performance while allowing them to remain compliant with regulations, address public environmental concerns, and still meet consumer quality and performance expectations.
Specifically, surface profilometry techniques to quantify surface roughness, roller nap patterns and time evolution of leveling of wet films will be discussed and correlated with rheological data and application properties. A scan along a single line was obtained continuously for approximately 25 min to obtain the evolution of the leveling with time. The high-shear viscosity (or ICI viscosity) is usually associated with the coating application process, such as brushing, rolling and spraying. Figure 4 illustrates both the surface roughness and the roller nap patterns, which are manifestations of the rheology of the respective paints. Figure 8 shows the 2D leveling profiles of the four paint samples where the height is represented by the color scale, x-axis are about three peaks in the leveling drawdown spanning 7.5 mm and the y-axis is the time in minutes. Model fit data could not be obtained for Paint A, as it leveled rapidly and the line profile data was unusable. The curves indicate that the rate of drying of all three paints is identical as carried out under ambient temperature (22 °C) and relative humidity of 20%.
Data generated using the new techniques provided additional insight was correlated to rheology of paints and traditional attributes such as sag, leveling and applied hide (contrast ratio). The industry pays plenty of attention to the natural contaminants in coffee and tea that may affect quality. A key aspect in the development and selection of new additives to achieve improved performance is a robust measurement and analytical framework that helps establish structure-property relationships.
This is a non-contact technique useful for surface characterization with a great degree of detail.
The data shows different sag and leveling characteristics of paints formulated to similar KU and ICI values.


The color scale indicates the heights of the surface features and provides a clear distinction of the peaks and valleys. The second illustration shows the root mean square (RMS) height (Sq) in µm, which is the standard deviation of height distribution, or the surface roughness. Samples with a tanlvalue closest to 1 will have a balance between both leveling and sag characteristics, will hide the best and will have the more desirable roller pattern appearance, as corroborated by data for Paint B. The time to break of these samples again correlates with the profilometry data for surface roughness and nap patterns. It is important to note that for Paint A, the y-axis corresponds to 5 min, whereas for Paints B, C and D, the data corresponds to ~ 26 min. The data shows that it is possible to distinguish phases of leveling and drying of paint film. The goal is to reduce subjectivity and provide better differentiation that would facilitate the development and selection of rheological additives for improved final coating properties such as hide and finish.
However, not everyone in the industry is paying attention to potential man-made contaminants that could migrate from food packaging materials and affect the taste and odorcalled organoleptic properties-of products. Paint A has excellent leveling but poor sag with drips, whereas Paints C and D have superior sag resistance but poor leveling. The lower value of Sq for Paint B means a less rough surface, which correlates with the nap pattern and improved hide. In summary, a lower extensional viscosity along with a good balance of sag and leveling are critical to get a uniform roller appearance.
Paint A levels rapidly and is validated by standard leveling measurement in Table 4 and the rheology curves in Figure 6. It is possible to further distinguish and quantify the rate of leveling of paints by isolating the initial part of the curve (~ 4 min) and fit the data to a power law. These are examples of non-traditional techniques that complement traditional techniques and provide a new framework to gain improved insight to link the paint characteristics to application properties. But companies should be, because regulators are, and because a product problem could lead to a recall that will hurt the bottom line and the brand. It is evident that both the average film thickness and peak height diminish due to leveling and drying. The data indicates that the rate of leveling of Paints C and D are similar with the latter leveling marginally faster, whereas Paint B has a superior leveling and good sag resistance (as shown earlier).
The advantages of a quantitative framework are reduced subjectivity and better differentiation of samples to augment data from traditional methods. In other words, the leveling and subsequent hiding of the paint are a function of the average film thickness and peak height. Paints C and D have slightly similar nap patterns, but the latter had a greater film build, as indicated by the predominance of peaks that are 40-55 µm in range. Traditional leveling measurement cannot distinguish between Paints C and D, whereas this technique can provide additional differentiation. The rate of leveling can also be correlated back to rheology data, with the lowest tanlvalues leveling slowest. The ultimate goal is to facilitate the development and intelligent selection of rheological additives for desired final coating properties with vastly improved hide and uniform appearance. This information can be obtained by fitting a sine wave model to the raw data of each line profile, which provides insight into the kinetics of leveling and drying. The data indicates that Paints B and D have a more symmetrical nap pattern but with more valleys in Paint B and more peaks in Paint D. It is unsurprising to note that a more uniform surface with symmetrical nap pattern would offer better application hide due to even distribution of paint film, thereby improving the hiding perception.
This allows the coating formulator to assess without subjectivity if the different strategies to impact application hide are effective while monitoring the surface roughness, skewness and contrast ratio values.




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