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At some point in our lives, we have all experienced the surprising relationship between our brain and our digestive system: the so-called brain–gut axis. Alternatively, changes in the microbiota, induced by infection or antibiotics for example, or other events such as stress, perturb physiologic inflammation and GI physiology.
In this context, it appears that the use of exogenous microflora, or probiotics, defined as 'live micro-organisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host', could help to stabilise or normalise the bacterial composition of the GI tract and restore a healthy brain-gut dialogue, with potential psychological and physiological benefits. Clinical research on probiotics has significantly accelerated during the course of the past 15 years and their modes of action have been more precisely elucidated.
A double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised study was conducted during a 3-week period with 75 healthy volunteers with symptoms of stress, using a probiotic preparation combining Lactobacillus helveticus Rosell-52 and Bifidobacterium longum Rosell-175 in a stick format (Probio’Stick, Lallemand Health Solutions, Montreal, Canada).4 All the volunteers completed a self-evaluation questionnaire on stress-induced symptoms at the beginning and the end of the 3-week period.
Another clinical study was done by Drs Messaoudi and Bisson in Nancy (France) using the same probiotic preparation.5 It assessed the effect of a 1-month administration of the probiotic on anxiety, depression, stress and coping strategies in healthy human volunteers. The randomised study showed that a one-month daily administration of the probiotic had a beneficial effect on general signs of anxiety and depression (in particular the somatisation, depression and anger-hostility components, as shown by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90, an instrument used to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology) (Figure 3).
A preclinical study, based on a rat model of anxiety, which is commonly used to screen anxiolytic agents, was done with 36 male Wistar rats. Subsequently, to understand the effects and mechanisms of action of the probiotic, researchers chose to evaluate its effects using the myocardial infarction (MI) model in rat (to evaluate inflammation, depression and intestinal permeability). Three preclinical studies were conducted with this model.6–8 Altogether, these studies showed that the probiotic both acts on the gut microbiota by decreasing intestinal permeability and on the brain by decreasing apoptosis in the limbic system and depression. In conclusion, the studies presented confirm that specific probiotics are able to modulate various aspects of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Help Support this Site – Donate Now!If you have found my site especially educational, entertaining, or inspirational, you can make a contribution of any amount using a credit card, debit card, or Paypal.
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In addition to taking a probiotic supplements, you can also eat probiotic foods that are a host to these live bacterium. During the past few years, a third party has appeared in the axis of communication: the gut microbiota. The relationship between the brain and the gut has long been recognized and defined as the brain–gut axis: a bidirectional dialogue that co-ordinates brain and gut functions. This can be explained by the fact that a change in GI physiology provides an altered habitat that, in turn, supports a different microbiota. Gareau, Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease, Springer, 2014).
This, combined with the in-depth characterisation of these two particular strains, has prompted scientists to evaluate the benefits of a combination of these two strains on stress and anxiety in volunteers to test this hypothesis. After three weeks of daily administration of the probiotic, it appeared that stress-induced gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea and abdominal pain were significantly reduced by 49%, compared with the placebo group (Figure 2). This study utilised a range of psychological self-assessment tests, commonly used to evaluate anxiolytic drugs, and a biomarker for stress and anxiety (24-hour urinary free cortisol monitoring).
In addition, these positive results were verified by a decrease of the urinary free cortisol results, showing a reduction of biological stress symptoms.
Receiving 14 days of treatment (Probio’Stick, diazepam or vehicle), the objective was to compare a probiotic with an anxiolytic commonly used to treat anxiety, insomnia, seizures (including status epilepticus) and muscle spasms as a positive control.
Myocardial infarction, generally known as a heart attack, is an ischaemic necrosis of the heart. The systemic concentration of proinflammatory cytokines was also significantly reduced with the probiotic. Even if the mechanisms of action still remain uncertain, probiotics clearly play a key role in the recovery of gut-microbiota disorders, as well as brain and mood disturbances.
I have 1 15 year old and a 10 year old and it has definitely improved my 15 year olds appetite.
It has now been shown that by positively influencing the microbiota, certain probiotics can help to modulate gut–brain communication, with positive effects on stress or anxiety.
Based on the fact that the gut harbours around 10 times more bacteria than the number of cells in the body, and 100 times more genes than our own genome, it is not surprising that the microbiota has been found to play a role in gut–brain dialogue.
Scientists propose that this cycle could be a basis for maintaining a state of GI dysfunction following microbiotic perturbation; it could also explain the development and persistence of dysbiosis in conditions in which there is a primary disturbance of GI physiology (Figure 1). Moreover, the probiotic treatment tended to reduce cardiovascular symptoms such as palpitations.


These results show that the probiotic has a beneficial effect on general signs of anxiety and depression, which were supported by the decrease of the 'cortisol' biomarker in the urine.
The study showed a significant difference between the placebo and the anxiolytic, and between the placebo and the probiotic, but not between the probiotic and the anxiolytic (Figure 4).
Clinical and preclinical studies have revealed benefits related to the reduction of stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression.
Wine, et al., “Strain-Specific Probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni Invasion of Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells,” FEMS Microbiol.
Messaoudi, et al., “Assessment of Psychotropic-Like Properties of a Probiotic Formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in Rats and Human Subjects,” British Journal of Nutrition 105(5), 755–764 (2010). Girard, et al., “Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum Taken in Combination Reduce Apoptosis Propensity in the Limbic System After Myocardial Infarction in a Rat Model,” British Journal of Nutrition 102(10), 1420–1425 (2009).
Arsenaul–Breard, et al., “Combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 Reduces Post-Myocardial Infarction Depression Symptoms and Restores Intestinal Permeability in a Rat Model,” British Journal of Nutrition 107(12), 1793–1799 (2011). Gilbert, et al., “Attenuation of Post-Myocardial Infarction Depression in Rats by n-3 Fatty Acids or Probiotic Starting After the Onset of Reperfusion,” British Journal of Nutrition 109(1), 50–56 (2012).
Ait-Belgnaoui, et al., “Probiotic Gut Effect Prevents the Chronic Psychological Stress-Induced Brain Activity Abnormality in Mice,” Neurogastroenterol.
Thus, after two weeks of treatment, the probiotic showed a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this animal model. First, it promotes the release of circulating proinflammatory cytokines, increases intestinal permeability and the propensity for apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the limbic system (the emotional centre of the brain).
It suggests that probiotics may act on a part of the brain associated with emotions, anxiety and stress, which prevents the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in host physiology, initiated within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or by the central nervous system, produce changes in the bacterial composition of the GI tract. Finally, it encourages depression — with 65% of patients presenting depressive symptoms after MI and 20% incurring major depression. The latest studies further indicate some effects at brain level and anti-inflammatory activity.



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Comments to “Will probiotics help diarrhea dogs”

  1. lya:
    But it contains a lot of probiotic substances.
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    From the many your dog's diet.
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    Bacteria strains that can help balance good faith effort to resolve any consumer.
  4. apocalypse:
    But population counts of bacteria living in our gut may supplement probiotics.