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UNITY OF LIFE A STUDY OF CELLS Despite vast differences in appearance and ways of life, all living things have a unity of life. Presentation on theme: "UNITY OF LIFE A STUDY OF CELLS Despite vast differences in appearance and ways of life, all living things have a unity of life. MICROSCOPES 1590- The first microscope is built by Zacharias Janssen 1670’s Anton von Leeuwenhoek built a simple microscope that could magnify objects 270X. Phase-contrast microscope Allows observer to distinguish different structures within a cell, without staining, using light waves. 1839- Theodor Schwann (German zoologist) said “All animals are composed of cells” 1839- Johannes Purkinje- (Czech physiologist) discovered cytoplasm. CELLS There are two basic types of cells Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells- (also called prokaryotes) belong to the kingdoms Eubacteria & Archaebacteria, are very small, 1-10 micrometers, have no nucleus and few organelles. Cell Organelles Tiny structures within a cell that perform various, specialized functions, such as transporting materials, building important biological substances, secreting products, releasing energy from food molecules, etc.
Ribosome Site of protein synthesis Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytosol Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus That looks familiar…what is a polypeptide? Lysosomes Garbage disposal of the cell Contain digestive enzymes that break down wastes Which organelles do lysosomes work with?
Vacuoles Large central vacuole usually in plant cells Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells Storage container for water, food, enzymes, wastes, pigments, etc. Centriole Aids in cell division Usually found only in animal cells Made of microtubules Where else have we talked about microtubules?
Discovery of the Cell Robert Hooke: 1665- 1stperson to see a cell Used a microscope to look at a piece of cork Saw small, empty “boxes”which reminded. Spontaneous Generation The cell theory (#3) also helps disprove the idea of Spontaneous Generation: living things (insects) can come from non-living things. Endoplasmic Reticulum AKA the E.R System of a series of membranes – an intracellular highway – molecules move from one part of cell to another.
Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton maintains shape of cell just like Network of long protein strands – helps cell move. What you should already know… A prokaryotic cell is a cell that does not have a nucleus, such as bacteria and archaea. What you should already know… A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a nucleus, such as plant and animal cells.
Eukaryotic Cells A eukaryotic cell has many parts that perform functions to help the cell stay alive. Nucleus A large organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell’s DNA, or genetic material. Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made. Chloroplasts Organelles in plant and algae cells in which photosynthesis takes place, the process by which plants and algae make their own food.
Cell Compartments - Vesicles Vesicles are small sacs that surround materials to be moved into, within, or out of the cell.
Cell Compartments - Lysosomes Lysosomes are vesicles that are responsible for digestion inside a cell. Organs A structure that is made of two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function. Eukaryotic Cells What You Will LearnIdentify the different parts of a eukaryotic cell.Explain the function of each part of a eukaryotic cell. Section 2 Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 4 Bellringer What are three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Always carry with 2 hands Only use lens paper for cleaning Do not force knobs Always store covered Keep objects clear of desk and cords. THE CELL THEORY (DEVELOPED AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF THE MICROSCOPE AND THE CELL) HAS THREE PARTS: 1.
GOLGI BODY OR APPARATUS STRUCTURE -A series of flattened, membranous sacs (looks like pita bread) -- Located near the ER FUNCTION -Packages and stores proteins -- Sends proteins to the cell membrane for EXPORT in small spherical structures called VESICLES.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS ? Include bacteria and some algae ? DO NOT contain all the structures found in eukaryotic cells. 1 Basic Structure of a Cell 2 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of. Cell Organelles Organelle= “little organ” Found only inside eukaryotic cells All the stuff in between the organelles. Cell Organelles Organelle= “little organ” Membrane-bound structures that carry out specific acivities in the cell All the stuff in between. C ELL O RGANELLES Organelle= “little organ” Found only inside eukaryotic cells All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosol Everything. Cells Prokaryotic (no nucleus) Only Organelles Are the Ribosomes Eukaryotic (has nucleus) All of the Organelles All are unicellular. An organelle is a membrane- bound structure that carries out specific activities for the cell. First to develop a modern day microscope: more of a hand lens and he even used water as a magnifier.
Scientists are convinced that chloroplasts, like mitochondria, were once free living organisms. The Discovery of the Cell Without a tool to make them visible cells were until the invention of the microscope 1665. The Cell Theory Famous Scientists Plasma Membrane Eukaryotic Cell Structure Structure of Plasma Membrane. Prokaryotes are single- celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
DNA contains the information on how to make proteins, which control the chemical reactions and provide structural support for cells and tissues. The ER is part of the internal delivery system of the cell where substances move through the ER to different places in the cell. Energy released by mitochondria is stored in a substance called ATP, which the cell then uses to do work. They contain digestive enzymes that destroy worn- out or damaged organelles, get rid of waste materials, and protect the cell from foreign invaders. Write the objectives in you notebook for today, Leave two lines so you can answer these questions at the end of the day. Robert Hooke was the first person to describe cells Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to make a microscope. Cell – The smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm. All living things are made up of cells Cells are the building blocks of life Organization Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells Tissues are made of.
MOVEMENT – Must be able to move food into its body, distribute it to all parts of the body, and eject wastes.
ALL CELLS INCLUDE – DNA - Since they must reproduce and make proteins for their functioning. All cells contain – CYTOPLASM Cytoplasm is a “jello” (jelly) like substance It contains: Water, salts and organic compounds It is located inside the CELL MEMBRANE and between the cell membrane and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. The outer membrane is smooth, while the inner membrane is folded, these folds are called CRISTAE.

Organelles Tiny structures inside cell Tiny structures inside cell Have specific functions Have specific functions.
Enter the Cell In our journey through the cell we will see tiny cell structures, called organelles, which carry out.
Vocabulary Words Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus Nucleolus Mitochondria Mitochondria Golgi Complex Golgi Complex. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm.
Any organism composed of one or more cells, each of which contains a clearly defined nucleus enclosed by a membrane, along with.
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Cell Parts and Functions Cell Membrane Protects the cell Lets things in and out of the cell Location: around the cell Nucleus Control center. The cell membrane is said to be selectively permeable - which means that some substances can cross easily, while others cannot cross the membrane at all.
Evidence has led scientists to believe that a cell engulfed a mitochondria, didnt digest it, and kept it inside of it.
Life is Cellular A-The Discovery of the Cell It was not until the _________ that scientists began to use. Cell History Hooke - is the scientist who 1st coined the term “cell” – in the 1660’s he observed cork from a tree stem (they reminded. Lipids and proteins from the ER are delivered to the Golgi complex, where they may be modified to do different jobs. Example – digestive system Plants also have organ systems – leaf systems, root systems, and stem systems.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does structure relate to function in living systems from the organismic to the cellular level? Cell Cell membrane Organelles Cell wall Structure Organ Prokaryote Eukaryote Tissue Function.
In more complex, multicellular organisms, the cells may perform more specialized functions, but all have certain features in common.
Microscope is the combination of two words; "micro" meaning small and "scope" meaning view.
The final products are enclosed in a piece of the Golgi complex’s membrane, that pinches off and then transports to other parts of the cell or out of the cell.
CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE – they are the smallest structures that show all the characteristics of life.
FUNCTION: -Cellular Respiration Glucose is changed to water, carbon dioxide and energy (known as ATP) which the cell can use for its many functions.
FUNCTION: PHOTOSYNTHESIS – converting carbon dioxide and water with the help of sunlight into SUGAR and OXYGEN. It is necessary to discuss the instrument that allowed people to see cells in the first place!
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT – Grow by taking in raw materials and using them to synthesize new cells.

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