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TOK: This is an example of a paradigm shift, where existing ideas about the tolerance of bacteria to stomach acid were incorrect but persisted for a time despite the evidence.
Aim 7: Data logging with pH sensors and lipase, and data logging with colorimeters and amylase can be used. We have said that animals obtain chemical energy from the food—carbohydrates, fats, and proteins—they eat through reactions defined collectively as catabolism. In stage II, these monomer units (or building blocks) are further broken down through different reaction pathways, one of which produces ATP, to form a common end product that can then be used in stage III to produce even more ATP. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth (Figure 20.5 "The Principal Events and Sites of Carbohydrate Digestion"), where salivary ?-amylase attacks the ?-glycosidic linkages in starch, the main carbohydrate ingested by humans.
Protein digestion begins in the stomach (Figure 20.6 "The Principal Events and Sites of Protein Digestion"), where the action of gastric juice hydrolyzes about 10% of the peptide bonds. The pain of a gastric ulcer is at least partially due to irritation of the ulcerated tissue by acidic gastric juice. Aminopeptidases in the intestinal juice remove amino acids from the N-terminal end of peptides and proteins possessing a free amino group.
This diagram illustrates where in a peptide the different peptidases we have discussed would catalyze hydrolysis the peptide bonds. Lipid digestion begins in the upper portion of the small intestine (Figure 20.9 "The Principal Events and Sites of Lipid (Primarily Triglyceride) Digestion").
The monoglycerides and fatty acids cross the intestinal lining into the bloodstream, where they are resynthesized into triglycerides and transported as lipoprotein complexes known as chylomicrons. The further metabolism of monosaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acids released in stage I of catabolism occurs in stages II and III of catabolism. In what section of the digestive tract does most of the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein digestion take place?
Aminopeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the N-terminal end of a protein, while carboxypeptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids from the C-terminal end of a protein. During digestion, carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, proteins are broken down into amino acids, and triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. Using chemical equations, describe the chemical changes that triglycerides undergo during digestion. What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of chymotrypsin on each amino acid segment? What are the expected products from the enzymatic action of trypsin on each amino acid segment? Chymotrypsin is found in the small intestine and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids. Pepsin is found in the stomach and catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, primarily those that occur after aromatic amino acids. Bile salts aid in digestion by dispersing lipids throughout the aqueous solution in the small intestine. Emulsification is important because lipids are not soluble in water; it breaks lipids up into smaller particles that can be more readily hydrolyzed by lipases.
The final step in digestion is the elimination of undigested food content and waste products. Diarrhea and constipation are some of the most common health concerns that affect digestion.
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In-vivo this bio-technology completes digestions processes and eliminates toxins and waste products providing a systemic benefit. The story of how the Australians Robin Warren and Barry Marshall made the discovery and struggled to convince the scientific and medical community is well worth telling. We can think of catabolism as occurring in three stages (Figure 20.4 "Energy Conversions").
The secretion of ?-amylase in the small intestine converts any remaining starch molecules, as well as the dextrins, to maltose. Gastric juiceA mixture of water, inorganic ions, hydrochloric acid, and various enzymes and proteins found in the stomach.
Pancreatic juice, carried from the pancreas via the pancreatic duct, contains inactive enzymes such as trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Figure 20.8 "Hydrolysis of a Peptide by Several Peptidases" illustrates the specificity of these protein-digesting enzymes.
A hormone secreted in this region stimulates the gallbladder to discharge bile into the duodenum.
Phospholipids and cholesteryl esters undergo similar hydrolysis in the small intestine, and their component molecules are also absorbed through the intestinal lining. Chymotrypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following aromatic amino acids, while trypsin catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds following lysine and arginine.


Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide. Recall that the chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretion from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids. However, the bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine due to pancreatic lipase. Constipation is a condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon. It is often in response to an irritant that affects the digestive tract, including but not limited to viruses, bacteria, emotions, sights, and food poisoning. Digestion and absorption take place in a series of steps with special enzymes playing important roles in digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Combined with 4 core capabilities this makes GoodBio™ powerful microbe a technological platform of immense value in environmental management and human and animal health.
It is a truly natural culture and replaces harsh chemicals in many of its applications GoodBio™ Powerful Microorganism rapidly digests waste products comprising fats, protein, carbohydrates and cellulose into their final end products of Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen gas, Oxygen, Water and heat energy.
In addition the ability to rapidly break down a wide range of waste products means that GoodBio™ Powerful Microorganism can assist with a wide range of clinical conditions.
Bio-chemically breaking organic matter into simple soluble components – rapidly accelerating the natural decomposition process of organic wastes. In stage I, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are broken down into their individual monomer units: carbohydrates into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and proteins into amino acids. HCl helps to denature food proteins; that is, it unfolds the protein molecules to expose their chains to more efficient enzyme action.
The amino acids that are released by protein digestion are absorbed across the intestinal wall into the circulatory system, where they can be used for protein synthesis. The principal constituents of bile are the bile salts, which emulsify large, water-insoluble lipid droplets, disrupting some of the hydrophobic interactions holding the lipid molecules together and suspending the resulting smaller globules (micelles) in the aqueous digestive medium. Large, complex molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids must be reduced to simpler particles such as simple sugar before they can be absorbed by the digestive epithelial cells. As the bolus of food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place. Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose, a disaccharide. In the duodenum, other enzymes—trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin—act on the peptides reducing them to smaller peptides. When chyme enters the duodenum, the hormonal responses trigger the release of bile, which is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very little surface area of the lipids is available for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete.
It is important to consume some amount of dietary lipid to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins. Recall that the colon is also home to the microflora called “intestinal flora” that aid in the digestion process. This forceful expulsion of the food is due to the strong contractions produced by the stomach muscles. Elimination describes removal of undigested food contents and waste products from the body. Lipids are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins and for the production of lipid-soluble hormones.
Bile molecules have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end, and thus prevent lipid droplets coalescing. One part of stage I of catabolism is the breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer units—which occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine—and is referred to as digestionThe breakdown of food molecules by hydrolysis reactions into the individual monomer units in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine.. Disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose are not digested until they reach the small intestine, where they are acted on by sucrase and lactase, respectively.
The principal digestive component of gastric juice is pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme produced in cells located in the stomach wall. The disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases, which are also present in the brush border of the small intestinal wall.
Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum where they act on the chyme. By forming an emulsion, bile salts increase the available surface area of the lipids many fold.
The semi-solid waste is moved through the colon by peristaltic movements of the muscle and is stored in the rectum.


Many bacteria, including the ones that cause cholera, affect the proteins involved in water reabsorption in the colon and result in excessive diarrhea.
While most absorption occurs in the small intestines, the large intestine is responsible for the final removal of water that remains after the absorptive process of the small intestines. The major products of the complete hydrolysis of disaccharides and polysaccharides are three monosaccharide units: glucose, fructose, and galactose.
When food enters the stomach after a period of fasting, pepsinogen is converted to its active form—pepsin—in a series of steps initiated by the drop in pH. Chymotrypsin preferentially attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine). In vertebrates, the teeth, saliva, and tongue play important roles in mastication (preparing the food into bolus). The animal diet needs carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins and inorganic components for nutritional balance. Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides). Emulsification is a process in which large lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules. The pancreatic lipases can then act on the lipids more efficiently and digest them, as detailed in [link]. As the rectum expands in response to storage of fecal matter, it triggers the neural signals required to set up the urge to eliminate.
The cells that line the large intestine absorb some vitamins as well as any leftover salts and water.
The need for lipase to be water-soluble and to have an active site to which a hydrophobic substrate binds should be mentioned. Trypsin attacks peptide bonds involving the carboxyl groups of the basic amino acids (lysine and arginine). While the food is being mechanically broken down, the enzymes in saliva begin to chemically process the food as well. Other disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids. These small globules are more widely distributed in the chyme rather than forming large aggregates.
It has a fairly broad specificity but acts preferentially on linkages involving the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, as well as methionine and leucine. Pancreatic juice also contains procarboxypeptidase, which is cleaved by trypsin to carboxypeptidase. The combined action of these processes modifies the food from large particles to a soft mass that can be swallowed and can travel the length of the esophagus. Sucrase breaks down sucrose (or “table sugar”) into glucose and fructose, and lactase breaks down lactose (or “milk sugar”) into glucose and galactose. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the presence of water, they will aggregate to form globules to minimize exposure to water. These molecules can pass through the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining. The latter is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide linkages at the free carboxyl end of the peptide chain, resulting in the stepwise liberation of free amino acids from the carboxyl end of the polypeptide.
The monosaccharides (glucose) thus produced are absorbed and then can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy. Bile contains bile salts, which are amphipathic, meaning they contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. The bile salts surround long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides forming tiny spheres called micelles. The monosaccharides are transported across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body. Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side can interface with water on one side and the hydrophobic side interfaces with lipids on the other.
The micelles move into the brush border of the small intestine absorptive cells where the long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse out of the micelles into the absorptive cells leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. The long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cells to form triglycerides, which aggregate into globules and become coated with proteins. Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids and have proteins on their surface. Together, they enable the chylomicron to move in an aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water.




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