What is the structure and function of enzymes in the digestive system,will probiotics cause diarrhea in cats,vitamins for protein digestion rate - Reviews

Angiotensin receptor activating autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) may underlie many features of preeclampsia. With so many different ways that cells communicate it is not surprising that vesicles are the transporters of critical information. Ocean phytoplankton is 1% of the world’s photosynthesis biomass, but produces 50% of the worldwide photosynthesis products.  Prochlorococcus is the most prominent and the smallest photosynthesis cell.
Prochlorococcus, also, produces a large amount of vesicles that are used for many important functions: defense against viruses, transferring genetic information, and sending nutrients. Several other marine microbes, also, produce these vesicles, making it likely that it occurs throughout the entire ocean.
Also, Prochlorococcus vesicles transfer DNA between different organisms for horizontal gene transfer. The large amount of vesicles floating near Prochlorococcus act as a decoy for the phage viruses.
Most molecules, such as DNA and proteins, are too large to pass through the pores of membranes. To make a vesicle, specialized scaffolding proteins begin to assemble at the membrane lipid layer. Vacuole Vesicles: Vacuoles are large vesicles that contain mostly water are used by plant cells for storage of food and osmotic control.
Secretion Vesicles: There are a large number of different types of vessels that secrete signal molecules from the cell to the extra cellular region. Another type of secretion involves hormones from endocrine cells, such as insulin, which are stored in vesicles inside the cell.
Gas Vesicles: There are vesicles that control the gas content of a microbe in order to better position the cell for light or for movement. Extra cellular matrix vesicles: These vesicles can contain calcium, phosphate, lipids and necessary proteins to build bone matrix.
The vesicle has markings on the surface called SNARE, which both recognize the cargo, and also help fuse the vesicle membrane to the cell’s membrane. In order for the vesicle to fuse with or bud from the cell membrane they are brought extremely close together, which involves getting rid of water molecules between them. Much of the life and death battle of microbes with other microbes, viruses and human cells plays out through vesicles. The viruses’ envelope is essentially a vesicle, which merges with the membrane and releases the virus into the cell.
A battle ensues when microbes attempt to block the engulfing mechanisms using special proteins to trick the cells recognition mechanisms. Most remarkable are microbes that block the molecules that will attach the vesicle to the lysosome and then live in the vesicle.
As well as the well-known vesicle transport of the neurotransmitter, recently, totally new forms of neuronal communication have been discovered.
Recently, it was found that neurons communicate genetic information between brain cells using vesicles, called exosomes. The neurotransmitter vesicle transport system is extremely complex involving rapid recycling of vesicles in milliseconds, using hundreds of complex interlocking motors and scaffolding molecules. Some of the vesicles are attached to a large complex called the active zone that provide docking, activating and priming. As well as the language of the shape of proteins in neurons, the language of microtubule scaffolding in neuroplasticity, the language of the genetic code, the language of epigenetic markings, the language of RNA and protein signaling, the language of cytokine communication among immune and brain cells, and the language of neurotransmitters, we now have to add the critical language of information transport by vesicles.
The vesicle process is extremely complex involving machinery with hundreds of interlocking complex molecules and motors. With modern advanced techniques, totally new types of intelligent cellular communication are being found.
This entry was posted in Blog, Human Brain, Microbes, Neuronal Plasticity and tagged cytonemes tubes from animal cells like axons, Many kinds of vesicle function, Marine microbes make large number of vesicles, Three types of neurotransmitter vesicles recycling, Ultrafast neurotransmitter vesicle recycling, Vesicles carry nutrients, Vesicles carry RNA and DNA, vesicles for horizontal gene transfer, vesicles protect microbes. It?s just amazing the incredible progress that has been made in this field in the last few years! The seeding of the oceans with food packages for other microbes shows that a whole range of services are in action to keep critical ecosystems operating. If everything is relative, then the relative complexity of what is being seen would imply a level of intelligence acting that is beyond our imagination, but that does not mean that this intelligence can?t create highly advanced but imperfect systems with all kinds of end-objective that we haven?t begun to imagine.


AT1-AAs from preeclamptic patients activate angiotensin receptors (AT1R) on the surface of many cell types and may be responsible for many features of this serious pregnancy disorder.
Microbes use a language of chemical signals; human cells use a language of cytokines and neurotransmitters. Neurons communicate with electrical brain waves, electrical wired signals, and neurotransmitters in vesicles. Ordinary human cells have been found to send long nanotubes, like axons, to distant cells to send nutrients, information and special molecules.
Bacteria produce them with the outer membrane budding out and then pinching off the vesicle.
It appears that Prochlorococcus needs other microbes for certain enzymes, catalase and catalase peroxidase, that are necessary to protect against damage from the very reactive oxygen produced in the photosynthesis process.
A previous post discussed the constant battle in the ocean between bacteria and the ten times greater number of phage viruses. The vesicles are quite complex with their outer membrane having many receptors for phage virus. These large molecules are packaged in vesicles that can merge with membranes through very complex mechanisms using scaffolding molecules. They then pinch the membrane lipid bilayer, which bends.  As the membrane bulges out more and more and bends more and more, the protein structure grows into a complex matrix in the shape of a circle. One example of this is the lysosome that has powerful enzymes to eat defective proteins and microbes that are in the cell. One of the main ways that products are taken into the blood is through an active process where cells’ membranes merge with a vesicle transporting it through the cell and secreting it on the other side into the blood stream.
Vesicles can take in water from the cell and secrete it outside to avoid too much water and bursting. The most well known are neurotransmitters that are secreted into the synaptic region triggered by an electric signal from the axon and calcium signaling. Vesicles also secrete enzymes that are essential for construction and maintenance of the extra cellular matrix and in plants the cell walls.
Enveloped viruses such as, rabies, HIV, Rous sarcoma virus and herpes simplex all enter the cell by fusing with the outer membrane. Rabies is carried by a vesicle retrograde from the tip of the axon all the way back to the nucleus.
They have, also, been observed making their own viruses and injection mechanisms like phage viruses. By these processes, the vesicle, or vacuole, becomes a home for the microbe, called a niche. After mild stimulation, the slow method takes 10 seconds and occurs with complete collapse of the vesicle needing rebuilding of the entire vesicle by clathrin and dynamin. What is most remarkable is that vesicles utilizing this elaborate machinery can recycle in milliseconds. Cells are hungry for information and communication and appear to utilize many different methods at once.
Layer upon layer of complexity almost without end, and if quantum processing is occurring, such as mentioned within MTs or elsewhere, then the scale of it all is just mind blowing! We have shown that antibody-induced receptor activation results in the mobilization of intracellular calcium and the activation of many genes. There is increasing evidence for many other mechanisms of cellular communication including electrical signals and recently discovered nanotubes between animal cells. Recently, neurons have been shown to send vesicles with proteins and DNA between each other and glia cells outside of the synapse.
The Prochlorococcus vesicles are elaborate with peri-plasmic and outer membrane proteins, as well as inner membrane and membranes from organelles inside the cytoplasm of the cell. There are possibly ten times as many vesicles as microbes and they remain stable over time. About half of the bacteria are killed each day and the debris is a tremendous source of biomaterial for other creatures. In the human cells vesicles are produced at the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum and perform many different functions.


When the vesicle is completely formed, at some point, the scaffolding structure breaks apart and the vesicle travels on to the delivery point.
There are also multiple different proteins and motors that are necessary for this process to operate.
Other viruses try to create vesicle buds at the membrane and the membrane has factors to defend against this.
These vesicles are kept at specific pH to stop the release of the virus until it has travelled all the way to the nucleus.
A recent study showed that viruses might have evolved from small genetic elements that occur in all bacteria and are transferred between microbes often in vesicles. Remarkably, some microbes are able to hijack the machinery of the vesicle and stop it from merging with the lysosome. Living in this vesicle niche, the microbe is able to secrete a variety of proteins that attract necessary materials from the endoplasmic reticulum to manufacture factors and cellular parts. Neurons and glia transfer protein and genetic information in these sacs that are critical for neuronal function.
With weak stimulation it takes a third of a second and involves the vesicle only partially fusing with the membrane, opening a pore, then reforming inside the cell – called kiss and run.
One of the major communication and transport devices used inside cells and between cells is a vesicle. Previous posts have shown the varied ways that microbes communicate and fight by sending signals, making new proteins and sending small RNAs. While common, these have not been noticed until now because of their extremely small size and fragility. Most microbes rid themselves of excess baggage by carrying the least amount of necessary DNA. These sacs are routed to other larger vesicles with powerful enzymes to destroy them, called lysosomes and phagosomes. Proteins and genetic information are secreted  in vesicles  from oligodendrocytes to be used by neurons for metabolism. When the action potential arrives calcium channels open triggering the vesicles to fuse with the membrane. Almost every cell uses vesicles in many different ways—for neurotransmitters, lysosomes cleaning debris, and for transfer of genetic material. Cellular communication with molecules exists in all cells, not just microbes, including cytokines from immune cells and neurotransmitters from brain and immune cells. Scaffolding molecules build a structure between the vesicle and the membrane as it merges into the membrane, releasing the molecules to the other side. Clathrin is used for most transport out of the cell and from the Golgi to the outer membrane. Now, a new very widespread and important use of vesicles in ocean microbes has been discovered.
This tendency to shed excess baggage occurs in our eukaryote cells as well, where the energy producing mitochondria gave up much of its functional DNA while living within the safety of the larger eukaryote cell.
This extremely complex process involves hundreds of different docking molecules and motors. Those neurons that receive it are able to better protect themselves with heat shock proteins, glycolytic enzymes and protection from oxidative stress. Upon reentering the cell, this process forms very large vesicles outside of the active zone.
This new process is critical to the earth’s production of carbon nutrients and oxygen and demonstrates many new ways that vesicles transport information.
The bargain between energy producing mitochondria and protective larger eukaryote cells has worked very well.



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