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Thousands of bacterial species live in the human body, and many provide health benefits to humans.
Probiotics are bacteria that play an important role in controlling the activities of organisms in the intestines. Although it is well known that including probiotics in your daily diet either through foods or supplements helps in improving digestive functions, it also has several other health benefits that we hardly know about.
It has been proven that the brain sends signals to the gut; which is why different types of emotions and stress can contribute to gastrointestinal symptoms. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known as bad cholesterol because they can transport their content of fat molecules into artery walls resulting in clogged arteries and can increase the chance of cardiovascular disease and stroke. It has been proven that Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 helps lower the level of low-density lipoproteins (LDL).
Infection is caused by the invasion of host organism’s body tissue by disease causing microorganisms that lead clinically to evident illness. There is a wide range of probiotic supplements that help in increasing the number of healthy micro-organisms in the gut, but it is always better to consume natural probiotics rich foods such as yogurt and kefir for better results. It is a great source of protein, calcium, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12, potassium and magnesium.
It stimulates the secretion of digestive fluids in the stomach, restores beneficial probiotics to the intestines, helps in the assimilation and digestion of other foods in the intestine, strengthens the quality of blood and lymph fluid and lowers risk of cancer – namely breast, prostrate, lung and colon cancers. Vitamin C reduces skin wrinkling and protects our body from cancer, stroke and the common cold.
Kombucha tea is a fermented drink made by tea, sugar, bacteria and yeast, and contains a high amount of healthy gut bacteria.
Each B vitamin has specific functions, but they all work together as well to maintain a healthy life. Antioxidants protect the body by controlling the production of free radicals that can be the main reason of damage or death to the cell. Pickles improve intestinal tract health, boost our immune system, improve availability of nutrients, decrease allergies and help immensely to protect our healthus from microbial infections. Now that you know the natural food sources of probiotics and their incredible health benefits include them in your daily diet and don’t forget to share your health tips with us. This a fantastic intro on how the gut works and excellent synopsis of nutritious fermented food options. Before going further I would like to emphasize on the fact that I think there is not one single enzyme or hormone that should be considered decisive by itself, but that things should always be put into perspective so that the bigger picture is visible. We would want to have, as Peter Attia says, more LPL activated on muscle tissue so that fat oxidation is enhanced and less LPL activated on adipose tissue so that fat storage is minimized. A very recent study that came out a few days ago gives in-depth insight into the physiological regulation of LPL [5]. An older and quite interesting study conducted on 28 elder males provides insight about LPL activity in the muscle and how it is related to insulin sensitivity [6].
Another source of thorough information with regards to insulin and the lipogenic process is here [8]. In this study [9] researchers wanted to determine how different dietary macronutrients impact LPL activity (both in the fat tissue and in the muscle tissue) as well as insulin sensitivity. 25 normal weight subjects were assigned into either a high-fat diet group or a high-carb diet group.
I’d be interested in seeing how LPL is activated in both muscle and adipose tissue when subjects follow a high-fat-very-low-carb diet. The closest that I could get to was a study showing how fasting activates LPL in muscle and down-regulates LPL in adipose tissue.
However, I’d also be interested in seeing how different meals (in terms of macronutrients) have an impact on LPL activity.
This is a validation for what we know about fasting and how LPL is down-regulated in adipose tissue and up-regulated in muscle tissue. It seems that the muscle prefers using fat and not breakdown protein from the muscles for gluconeogenesis. When reading about the circadian cycle the first thing that comes to my mind is Jack Kruse.
It seems that LPL gene [13], the gene that provides the instructions to make the enzyme LPL, is triggered in liver at night. A good point of the study is that circadian disruption (messed-up sleep-awake cycle) can lead to imbalance in LPL gene expression which can be a potential cause of the metabolic syndrome. Changes caused by mutations in the LPL gene [13] usually lead to familial LPL deficiency where fatty acids cannot be removed from Chylomicrons and VLDL. Other changes in the LPL gene expression may have an important role in understanding atherosclerosis because excess fatty acids in the blood (that cannot be removed from their carrier proteins) may accumulate in the arterial wall as a result of inflammation [13].
It’s amazing how this small enzyme can play such an important role in the bigger metabolic equation. The effects of a competitive inhibitor can be reduced by increasing the substrate concentration. These are not similar to the substrate and they do not bind to the active site of the enzyme.
In the presence of a non-competitive inhibitor, increasing the substrate concentration cannot prevent the inhibitor from binding to the enzyme as the two bind to different sites. The product of the last reaction of the metabolic pathway will bind to a site other than the active site of the enzyme that catalyses the first reaction.
There is a clear advantage in using end-product inhibition for controlling metabolic pathways.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Chemistry of Natural Antioxidants and Studies Performed with Different Plants Collected in MexicoJorge Alberto Mendoza Perez1 and Tomas Alejandro Fregoso Aguilar2[1] Department of Environmental Systems Engineering at National School of Biological Sciences-National Polytechnic Institute. The helpful bacteria present in the digestive tract not only improve the digestive system but are really beneficial for improving overall health. Various factors like stress, medications, environmental toxins and a diet filled with preservatives can deplete the number of these beneficial bacteria. The normal human digestive tract contains over 400 types of probiotics that initiate a healthy digestive system and also help lower the growth of harmful bacteria.
The processing primarily occurs in the primary somatosensory area in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex and information is sent via sensory nerves to the brain. Cardiovascular disease refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to chest pain, heart attacks and strokes.
Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 aids immensely to maintain healthy cholesterol metabolism, and promotes healthy lipid metabolism too. The symptoms of infection include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, aches and pains. It prevents osteoporosis, colon cancer, reduces blood pressure, prevents vaginal infection, and reduces the problems of constipation and diarrhea.
Miso soup is a Japanese soup containing a stock called “dashi” into which miso paste is mixed. It boosts the immune system, prevents cancer and helps improve liver and digestive functions. Free radicals are atoms or group of atoms with an odd number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with a certain molecule. Various types of infections caused by microbes include common cold, flu, pneumonia, tuberculosis and vaginal infections.
It produces a natural antibiotic which helps us immensely to fight against various kinds of diseases. She has done her masters in English and has done her graduation from Banaras Hindu University.
In reserach it is very clear that these probiotic foodies helps also in slimming & weight loss. As for Indian foods, fermented foods like curd, butter milk, idli and dosa batter, pickles provide probiotics. Its purpose is to facilitate the transport of fatty acids inside the cells throughout your body, such as muscle, adipose, and heart tissue to name a few. Once the fatty acids get into your intestines, they are packaged into chylomicrons (a lipoprotein) as triglycerides and they are transported to different parts of the body, such as: to the liver, to the cardiac tissue, to muscle tissue, to adipocytes, etc. I discuss about LPL, leptin, grehlin, insulin and other factors of this equation in the upcoming book (see the end of the article).
Its role is to unload (remove) the fat from these chylomicrons and from VLDL (very low density lipoprotein which carries cholesterol and fat from the liver to tissues) and use the fat for energy usage such as oxidation by the muscles or for storage into the adipose tissues. It has been shown that insulin activates LPL in adipocytes and this promotes the uptake of fatty acids in the adipose tissue and it decreases LPL expression on muscle cells, which means less oxidation of fat by muscle. It refers to the regulation of LPL in adipocytes, in the muscles, in the heart, and in other tissues and it also discusses about the proteins that play an important role in its modulation. The article describes how insulin exerts its on LPL effects by stimulating its formation with the end goal of having TAG hydrolyzed so that FFA (free fatty acids) would enter the adipocytes. Immediately after eating, the opposite occurs as LPL is down-regulated on muscle tissue and up-regulated on adipose tissue. These studies also talk about cold thermogenesis and LPL activity that is stimulated in brown adipose tissue. The up-regulation of LPL on muscle tissue during fasting for the purpose of fat oxidation makes me think of the sparring effect on protein breakdown during fasting.
A mice study [12] ( I hate mice studies) shows how two-fold up-regulation of LPL at night leads to higher fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and can contribute to fat overload (I believe they refer to over-eating fat). This means that more TAGs circulate through the blood, stomach pain is present and subjects often develop pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) and enlargement of the spleen and the liver [14]. When the substrate binds to the active site, this changes the shape of the active site and only then does it perfectly fit the substrate.
This required energy is called the activation energy of the reaction and it is needed to break bonds within the reactants. This means that when a competitive inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme, it prevents the substrate from binding to the active site. More substrate would successfully bind to the active site than inhibitor and therefore reducing the effect of the inhibition. Instead they bind to a different site on the enzyme and change the conformation of the active site.
Therefore, no matter how high the concentration of substrate is, some of the enzymes will still be inhibited.
When ATP accumulates it binds to a site other than the active site on the enzyme phosphofructokinase. When there is an excess of end-product, the whole metabolic pathway is shut down as the end product inhibits the first enzyme of the pathway.
Assessment of% inhibition of DPPH radical of Neem (Azadirachta indica) with respect to a commercial preparation and different organs of Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis). Results from DPPH method for testing the free-radical inhibition effect of different concentrations of methanolic extracts of Noni leaves. Description of those plants collected in Mexico and presenting high content of antioxidant compounds6.1. They help reduce gas problems, maintain good cholesterol levels, aid the regulation of hormone levels, help in the formation of vitamins, aid in the production of the enzyme lactase and also boost the immune system.
This depletion in beneficial bacteria can cause gut dysbiosis by upsetting delicate balance in the guts. Women consuming probiotics present better connectivity between significant brainstem regions called the periaqueductal grey and areas of the prefrontal cortex and they experience less activity in both the insula and the somatosensory cortex. It causes fever, irritation, loss of skin elasticity, absence of saliva, sunken abdomen and eyes. It originates from the Caucaus mountains in Eastern Europe, and the name comes from the Turkish word “keif” which means good feeling.
After formation, these free reactive radicals start a chain reaction which can cause damage or death to the cell.
It reduces the risk of colon cancer and symptoms of flu and cold, as well as reduces the level of high blood pressure and prevents stroke and heart attack. It is important to say that LPL works aside with the Apolipoproteins from the chylomicrons in their job to hydrolyze and remove fats from TAG [3].
I find the study non-conclusive on the high-fat diet part because these subjects were fed: 30% carbohydrate from the total caloric intake, 50% fat, and 20% protein. As the substrate binds it changes the shape of the active site and this weakens the bonds in the substrate and therefore reduces the activation energy.
The maximum rate of reaction or a level very close to the maximum rate of reaction can be reached.


Succinate is found in the Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration and binds to the active site of the dehydrogenase enzyme. The substrate may still be able to bind to the active site however the enzyme is not able to catalyse the reaction or can only do so at a slower rate. The maximum rate of reaction will always be lower in the presence of a non-competitive inhibitor. When it binds to the allosteric site it acts as non-competitive inhibitor and changes the conformation of the active site. Therefore less of the end product gets produced and by inhibiting the first enzyme it also prevents the formation of intermediates. Enzyme systemsAs with chemical antioxidants, cells are protected against oxidative stress by a network of antioxidant enzymes. Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most significant probiotic bacteria that can be found in the mouth, intestine and vagina. Diarrhea, which is one of the common side effects of antibiotics, can be reduced through consumption of natural yogurt, the best probiotics supplement. The B Vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins, also known collectively as B complex Vitamins that play major roles in improving immune system and nervous system function. Antioxidants can interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged as well as inhibit other oxidation reactions. We know that according to Phinney and Volek high fat diets should be higher in fat (at least 60%) and very low in carbohydrates (<10%). The nuclear receptor REV-ERB? is required for the daily balance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
The inhibitor is called a competitive inhibitor as it competes with the substrate for the active site.
Often, the product of the last reaction in the pathway inhibits the enzyme that catalyses the first reaction of the pathway. When the levels of the end product decrease, the enzymes start to work again and the metabolic pathway is switched on. Superoxide released by processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, is first converted into hydrogen peroxide and immediately reduced to give water. It has been proven that probiotics play an important role in treating problems in the stomach and intestine. Antibiotics can disrupt the delicate microbial balance in the intestine, but it has been proven that the balance can be restored through probiotics that lowers the chance of diarrhea. Lactobacillus salivariusIt is a highly effective probiotic bacterium that improves our digestive system and also promotes the growth of beneficial organisms.
If free radicals are not neutralized, they damage healthy cells causing inflammation that leads to chronic diseases.
Antioxidants are chemicals that transfer electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent, and can prevent or slow cell damage. It also plays a pivotal role in maintaining bone density, and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The reason for this is that it explains why some enzymes can bind to many different substrates. In exothermic reactions the energy released by the new bonds formed is greater than the activation energy. Once the inhibitor is released from the allosteric site, the active site returns to its original conformation and the substrate is able to bind again. AntioxidantsOxidation is the transfer of electrons from one atom to another and represents an essential part of both aerobic life and our metabolism, since oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor in the electron flow system that produces energy in the form of ATP. Folate is vital for the development of red blood cells and plays an important role in many bodily functions including cell repair and maintenance, DNA synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and the formation of leukocytes and erythrocytes. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effects of insulin and exercise on muscle lipoprotein lipase activity in man and its relation to insulin action.
If the shape of the active site changes when a substrate binds, this allows many different but similar substrates to bind to the one enzyme. However, problems may arise when the electron flow becomes uncoupled (transfer of unpaired single electrons), generating free radicals [1]. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Antioxidants are important in living organisms as well as in food because they may delay or stop formation of free radical by giving hydrogen atoms or scavenging them.
This is known as oxidative damage, a major cause of aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory processes and cataracts, which are the most characteristic.In certain circumstances, production of free radicals can increase uncontrollably, a situation known as oxidative stress.
Effect of dietary macronutrient composition on tissue-specific lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin action in normal-weight subjects.
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathology of cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. This means an imbalance between the speeds of production and destruction of toxic molecules, leading to an increase in cellular concentration of free radicals. An antioxidant can be defined in the broadest sense of the word, as any molecule capable of preventing or delaying oxidation (loss of one or more electrons) from other molecules, usually biological substrates such as lipids, proteins or nucleic acids. Cells have mechanisms to protect against the harmful effects of free radicals based on a complex defense mechanism consisting of the antioxidants. The oxidation of such substrates may be initiated by two types of reactive species: free radicals and those species without free radicals are reactive enough to induce the oxidation of substrates such as those mentioned.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in over one hundred human disease conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, aging and neurodegenerative diseases [9].
However, the innate defense in the human body may not be enough for severe oxidative stress.
La evidencia demuestra contundentemente que cada una de las estatinas disponibles en el mercado ha mostrado beneficios en desenlaces de morbi-mortalidad cardiovascular.
Hence, certain amounts of exogenous antioxidants are constantly required to maintain an adequate level of antioxidants in order to balance the ROS.
So, antioxidants are also classified into two broad groups, depending on whether they are water soluble (hydrophilic) or lipid (hydrophobic).
As an example, epidemiological evidence indicates that the consumption of grapes reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerosis and platelet aggregation [10].
In general, water soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytoplasm and blood plasma, whereas the liposoluble antioxidants protecting cell membranes against lipid peroxidation. This greater protection may be due to the phenolic components of grapes, which are particularly abundant since they behave as reactive oxygen species-scavengers and metal-chelators.
In the metabolism it is a contradiction that while the vast majority of life requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is a highly reactive molecule that damages living organisms by producing reactive oxygen species. Polyphenolic substances in grapes and other red fruits are usually subdivided into two groups: flavonoids and nonflavonoids. Therefore, organisms possess a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids.
The most common flavonoids are flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin), flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, and tannins), and anthocyanins (cyanin). Usually antioxidant systems prevent these reactive species are formed or removed before they can damage vital components of the cell.
The hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable and reacts rapidly and non-specifically with most biological molecules.
Oxidative stress and diseaseIt is thought that oxidative stress contributes to the development of a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, the pathologies caused by diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegeneration in motor neuron diseases. The decision for use, according to the addenda of NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Educational Program–Adult Treatment Panel III) clinical guidelines recommendations is dependent on the cardiovascular risk (Figure 2), specified in four levels (2,3).
This species produces hydrogen peroxide redox reactions catalyzed by metals such as the Fenton reaction.
In many cases, it is unclear if oxidants trigger the disease, or occur as a result of this and cause the symptoms of the disease as a plausible alternative, a neurodegenerative disease may result from defective axonal transport of mitochondria that perform oxidation reactions.
These oxidants can damage cells starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation or by oxidizing DNA or DNA damage proteins.
A case in which it fits is particularly well understood in the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease.
These effects can cause mutations and possibly cancer if not reversed by DNA repair mechanisms, while damage proteins will cause enzyme inhibition, denaturation and degradation of proteins. Here, the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) seems to trigger the process of atherogenesis, which leads to atherosclerosis, and ultimately to cardiovascular disease.In diseases that have a high impact on the health sector Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most known. The use of oxygen as part of the process for generating metabolic energy produces reactive oxygen species.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are just over 180 million diabetics worldwide and likely to double this number for 2030 is quite high. In this process, the superoxide anion is produced as a byproduct of several steps in the electron transport chain.
Countries like China, India, United States of America and Mexico are at the top of this pathology [16]. Particularly important is the reduction of coenzyme Q in the compound III as a highly reactive free radical is formed as intermediate (Q•-).
In Mexico, this condition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity are estimated to be approximately 10 million individuals with diabetes, of whom 22.7% did not know they are sick, while 55% do not have good control netheir condition. This unstable intermediate can lead to loss of electrons when these jump directly to molecular oxygen to form superoxide anion instead of moving with well controlled series of reactions of electron transport chain. This pathology is multifactorial, presenting various metabolic problems (polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight changes). In a similar set of reactions in plants reactive oxygen species are also produced during photosynthesis under high light intensity. The disorder is characterized by the inadequate use of glucose, due to insufficient production, insulin resistance and some without production of the hormone, resulting in unfavorable a high index of this monosaccharide in the blood. This effect is partly offset by the involvement of carotenoids in photoinhibition, which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centers and thereby prevent the production of superoxide.
This causes abnormal function of some organs, tissues and systems that can cause kidney failure, vision loss, and amputation of a limb, diabetic coma and even death.Different factors increase the likelihood of the individual to develop diabetes as are smoking, sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise coupled with unbalanced diet causes both overweight and obesity.
Another process which produces reactive oxygen species is lipid oxidation that takes place following the production of eicosanoids. Naturally the body causes the formation of free radicals (highly unstable molecules), these chemical species are responsible for cellular aging, but when there is a greater concentration of these molecules may contribute to the development of various diseases and chronic degenerative neuro Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and diabetes.
Obesity increases oxygen consumption and thus the production of free radicals, thus creating the phenomenon known as oxidative stress. Excess fat naturally stored in fat cells, causes the more than normal synthesis of substances called adiposines IL6 or leptines. Alternative medicineDue to the current problem in the health issue we propose the use of herbs as an option to improve the style of living of the people, not only for the adjuvant treatment, but because the use of plants offers great nutritional benefits somehow reducing the incidence of such chronic degenerative diseases. Additionally criticism against the paradigm "to treat until the target" the LDL-C, requesting that the next clinical guides of the ATP IV recommend the treatment with statins in accordance with individual cardiovascular risk independent from LDL cholesterol levels (4).
This is not intended to impair the option of preventive diagnosis by the health sector does not provide such benefits, but rather the use of plants known to have medicinal activity coupled with the clinical - pharmacology, could present better results, for the treatment of the various degenerative chronic diseases.
However, under certain circumstances, it may lose its parity orbital, either giving or capturing an electron. Given the increasing scientific evidence that the etiology of several chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes is influenced by factors such as metabolic redox imbalance. When this occurs, the resulting orbit exhibits an unpaired electron, making the atom in a free radical. Is currently booming studying the formation of metabolites against free radicals that diverse plant species presents.
Rosuvastatin, however, has a methyl-sulfonamide group which allows more interaction with some amino acid residues of the MHG CoA reductase, and this way to have a high affinity for the active site of the enzyme (5).
An example of this has been widely documented, is the cranberry, a plant used for treating various diseases and, as has been discovered, is due to its potential antioxidant that has these properties beneficial to health [18, 19].Similarly, Mexico has focused attention on other plants with potential antioxidant properties and for some years and was used in the treatment of diabetes. Additionally, rosuvastatin hepatic selectivity shall be taken into account as it is a relatively hydrophilic (the same as pravastatin), compared to other statins, and therefore its uptake by other type of different cells would be limited (6). In this regard, since 2006, our research work focused on the task of describing the effects of plants such as Noni (Morinda citrifolia), Moringa (Moringa oleifera), the Guarumbo (Cecropia obtusifolia Bertolt), the Musaro (Lophocereus sp.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) in murine models of chemically induced diabetes with streptozotocine.
In fact, classic head-to-head randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) such as STELLAR (Statin Therapies for Elevated Lipid Levels compared Across doses to Rosuvastatin), have shown rosuvastatin to be the inhibitor of HMGCoA reductase significantly achieving greater LDL-C decreases (Table 3) (7). Free radicals attack DNA avoiding cell replication and contributing to cellular aging.The normal body processes produce free radicals that involve food metabolism, breathing and exercise. We are also exposed to environmental elements that create free radicals such as industrial pollution, snuff, radiation, drugs, chemical additives in processed foods and pesticides.


Antioxidant effects in Mexican plantsThe use of traditional medicine is widespread in Mexico and plants are indeed the first source for preparing remedies in this form of alternative medicine. Not all free radicals are dangerous because, for example, immune cells create free radicals to kill bacteria and viruses, but if there is sufficient control by antioxidants, healthy cell can be damaged.The reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a collective term, widely used, comprising all the reactive species, whether or not free radicals, focus their reactivity in an oxygen atom.
Among the various compounds found in plants, antioxidants are of particular importance because they might serve as leads for the development of novel drugs. MetabolitesIn general, water soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytoplasm and blood plasma, whereas the liposoluble antioxidants protecting cell membranes against lipid peroxidation. The search for natural sources of medicinal products that also have antioxidant and radical scavenging activity is on the rise [23,24]. It was demonstrated that by duplicating statin dose, a 4% and 7% additional reduction of LDL-C was obtained. Among the medicinal properties associated with them are the following: the fruitand bark of Licania arborea is used as a soap for hair infections, the latex from Ficus obtusifolia is employed as an anti parasitic and also for reducing fever, Bunchosia cannesens is prescribed as an antidiarrhoeic, Sideroxylon capiri is used for hiccups, as an antiseptic for cleaning wounds, and women use its leaves in a water bath after giving birth. In the same way, it was documented that both statin dose and LDL-C level base are predictors to reach treatment goals in high-risk patients (Table 4). The latex of Sapium macrocarpum is used against scorpion stings, fever and some skin problems such as warts; its use as an anti-coagulant is also widespread. The latex of Ficus cotinifolia is used in the treatments of urinary infections, vomiting, malaria and against inflammatory pathologies of the spleen. The leaves of Annona squamosa are used in cicatrisation of wounds, diarrhoea, ulcers, menstrual disorders, and also to help weight loss. The leaves of Vitex molli are used to treat stomach ache, digestion disorders, nervous alterations, and also scorpion stings. Piper leucophyllum is employed for reducing fever and its dried leaves are used for cleaning eyes and as spice in cooking.
The leaves and bark of Gliricidia sepium are used against high fever, skin infections, urine disorders, malaria, and headache.
The Mexican and Central America native species of Astianthus viminalis is used for the curing of diabetes and malaria and to reduce hair loss. Most common adverse effects include myalgia, constipation, asthenia, abdominal pain, and nausea (16). Swietenia humilis is used as anti parasitic, and it is also utilized for hair care as a shampoo.
Several meta-analysis have found all statins to have a similar safety profile (17,18), the most frequent adverse effects occurring with higher doses of statins (19).
Someone could believe, however, that rosuvastatin could have difference related to adverse as against other statins. The fruit and the latex of Jacaratia mexicana are used against ulcers in the mouth and digestive disorders. Due to occurrence, FDA (US Food and Drug Agency) has added up a warning in the labeling from all statins advising that they may increase glycemia and hemoglobin A1c levels, recognizing, however, statins cardiovascular benefits overweight such mildly increases.
Pseudobombax ellipticum is used in respiratory disorders such as cough, and also against fever and as an anti microbial.
The flowers and the latex of Plumeria rubra can be used for stopping vaginal blood shed, and toothache, and the latex of the plant is used against earache. Herbs are used in many domains, including medicine, nutrition, flavouring, beverages, dyeing, repellents, fragrances, cosmetics [26].
Many species have been recognized to have medicinal properties and beneficial impact on health, e.g.
Other effects additional to LDL-C reduction by statins include enhancement of endothelial dysfunction, diminution of vascular inflammation, stabilization or regression of atherosclerotic plate and platelet aggregation inhibition (37). Crude extracts of herbs and spices, and other plant materials rich in phenolics are of increasing interest in the food industry because they retard oxidative degradation of lipids and thereby improve the quality and nutritional value of food. The basic flavonoids structure is the flavan nucleus, which consists of 15 carbon atoms arranged in three rings (C6–C3–C6), labelled A, B, and C (Figure 3). Various clases of flavonoid differ in the level of oxidation and saturation of ring C, while individual compounds within a class differ in the substitution pattern of rings A and B. The differences in the structure and substitution will influence the phenoxyl radical stability and thereby the antioxidant properties of the flavonoids.
Plant species belong to several botanical families, such as Labiatae, Compositae, Umbelliferae, Asteracae, Polygonacae and Myrtacae.
Many spices have been investigated for their antioxidant properties for at least 50 years [29,30].4. After one week the solvent was decanted and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. It was prepared a calibration curve of DPPH type in methanol at concentrations of 40, 120, 160 and 200 ug. Figure 4.Graph showing the colour change of DPPH from purple to yellow when it is exposed to an antioxidant substanceIt was found that higher concentrations of M. The protocol is divided into two parts, one of which was evaluated for antioxidant activity from four different extracts from leaves of Azadirachta indica: a) methanol, b) infusion, c) ethyl acetate and d) ethanol. This was done by measuring the percent inhibition of loss of the color purple to yellow the respective front DPPH extract (Figure 6).
It was found that infusion of Neem showed the highest antioxidant activity (80% inhibition) than the other extracts even from the first minute after initiating the reaction. This would correspond to the ethnomedical use that people from rural zones done with this tree, and then take it as a tea before the first food of the day. It was found that the commercial preparation showed the highest antioxidant activity throughout the reaction time (Figure 7), presented as a% inhibition greater than 50% from the first minute (68% inhibition), reaching end of the reaction with values higher than 85% inhibition of the presence of radical DPPH. Compared to the various organs of Passiflora edulis, the Neem leaf extract showed higher antioxidant capacity from the reaction started, it displayed a% inhibition of DPPH radical by 66% to reach 15 minutes of reaction, and reaching values greater than 85% inhibition at 60 minutes, falling a little activivty (63% approximately) at 90 min. This would confirm previous data of different authors and from our laboratory (unpublished data), in the sense of the effectiveness of Neem tree leaves for the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, it has proven effective in significantly reducing blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-treated mice, an effect that may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites of the steroid type saponins, flavonoids and phenols among others that seem to owe much its hypoglycemic action, thanks to its antioxidant properties. These results disagreed with the effect observed with the Noni fruit, where it was reported that the antioxidant effect of protection tends to increase with respect to higher concentrations in tests performed with lyophilized juice extracts [35]. In the same way, according to the results from VOYAGER (9) meta-analysis, it shall be taken into account that the reaching the LDL baseline cholesterol and the dose of stating used (Table 4).
From this concentration the experiment was performed with a duplicated calibration curve at different concentrations, which was read at 517nm.
An average concentration of those used for standard curve analysis was chosen for the initial concentration of the methanol extract from leaves of Morinda citrifolia. And the question raised in this connection is whether rosuvastatin is more cost-effective than other statins, specifically in cardiovascular high-risk risk patients. The answer is yes, and it was confirmed by DISCOVERY BELUX study (47), as did as well POLARIS study (42). Additionally, other study used a Markov model to Project the number of CV events and the cost associated to a high-risk population in several pharmacological treatment context, established that using rosuvastatin instead of other statins may reduce cardiovascular events in this type of population and saving cost for several US dollars of United States health systems (59). These results have been confirmed in other RCTs including subjects from other geographic locations, among which PULSAR study (38, 60). Oleifera leaves was carried out in methyl alcohol for the phytochemical sieve, the results are shown in the following table (Table 2), and qualitative tests that were performed for each secondary metabolite are named in the same table. Similarly, rosuvastatin has conclusively demonstrated in the several different economic evaluations to be the most cost-effective compared to other pharmacological options.
By taking into account these assertions together with the quality of evidence found in the studies aforementioned; rosuvastatin could be considered as the first-choice for cardiovascular high-risk patients. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.
Three reasons to abandon low density lipoprotein targets: an open letter to the Adult Treatment Panel IV of the National Institutes of Health. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR Trial). Comparative dose efficacy study of atorvastatin versus simvastatin, pravastatin and fluvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia (The CURVES study). Meta-analysis of comparative efficacy ot increasing dose of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin versus simvastatin on lowering levels of atherogenic lipids (from VOYAGER). 3rd Wednesday, and Friday dosing of rosuvastatin in patients previously intolerant to statin therapy. Effectiveness and tolerability of every-otherday rosuvastatin dosing in patients with prior statin intolerance. Impact of 10 mg rosuvastatin daily or alternate-day on lipid profile and inflammatory markers. Comparison of benefits and risk of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin from a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Adverse events associated with individual statin treatments for cardiovascular disease: an indirect comparison meta-analysis.
Meta-analysis of drug induced adverse events associated with intensive-dose statin therapy. Use of multiple international healthcare databases for the detection of rare drug-associated outcomes: a pharmacoepidemiological programme comparting rosuvastatin with other marketed statins.
Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized statins trials. For the Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering (MIRACL) Study Investigators. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S).
The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Prevention ofcardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and abroad range of initial cholesterol levels. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease(PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Primary prevention of Cardiovascular disease in type 2diabetes in the Collaborative Aorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre ramdomised placebo controlledtrial. Efficacy and safety of statin treatment for cardiovascular disease: a network meta-analysis of 170 255 patients from 76 randomized trials. A randomized, controlled trial os simvastatin vs rosuvastatin in patients with acute myocardial inraction: the secondary prevention of acute coronary events-reduction of cholesterol to key European targets trial. Comparison of lipidmodifying efficacy of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in patients with acute coronary syndrome (from the LUNAR Study). Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin 10 mg and atorvastatin 20 mg in high-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia- Prospective study to evaluate the Use of Low doses of the Statins Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin (PULSAR). Statin therapy alters the relationship between apolipoprotein B and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol targets in high risk patients. The MERCURY II (Measuring Effective Reduction in Cholesterol Using Rosuvastatin therapy II) trial. Efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin 40 mg vs atorvastatin 80 mg in high risk patients with hypercholesterolemia: results of the POLARIS study. A randomised study comparing the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin with atorvastatin for achieving lipid goals in clinical practice in Asian patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (DISCOVERY-Asia study) Curr Med Res Opin.
For the DISCOVERY Alpha Study Group Rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in achieving lipid goals in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease in clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study (DISCOVERY Alpha Study) Curr Ther Res.
Direct statin comparison of LDL-C values: an evaluation of rosuvastatin therapy (DISCOVERY - Canada). The DISCOVERY PENTA study: a DIrect Statin COmparison of LDL-C Value - an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin therapY compared with atorvastatin. Efficacy and tolerability of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin when force-titrated in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Cost effectiveness analysis of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin from a Canadian Health System perspective.
Cost effectiveness of rosuvastatin in treating patients to low-density lipoprotein goals compared with atorvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin (a US analysis of the STELLAR trial).
Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapies according to selected patients characteristics. Impact of rosuvastatin use on costs and outcomes in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease in US Managed Care and Medicare populations: a data analysis. Cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin in comparison wuth generic atorvastatin and simvastatin in a Swedish population at high risk of cardiovascular events.




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