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The idea of modifying products to suit specific applications and engineer them to make more viable, inspired man to reach the pinnacle where Biotechnology stands today. It is Green biotechnology, when it concerns about agricultural processes and White biotechnology when comes to industrial processes.
If you clearly understood the definition of biotechnology given above, you can figure out that when you convert milk to yogurt or cheese it is nothing but biotechnology, where a living organism (bacteria), makes the product. Selective planting of crops and breeding of animals, has been practiced since Neolithic revolution. The process of fermentation, a natural process based on biological activity of single celled microorganism was first used by Egyptians to bake breads and make wine. The progress of biotechnology in late eighteenth century and dawn of nineteenth century include some crucial discoveries like vaccination, crop rotation to increase yield and land use. In 1953, structure of DNA was proposed, that stirred the research in molecular biology and genetics. With the discovery of restricted enzyme, it became possible to insert foreign genes to bacteria in 1973.


This technique enabled production of human insulin from bacteria and is also considered as the birth of modern biotechnology. Intensive research in this field has not only assured a ray of hope for various life threatening diseases but has also enhanced the quality of life. Red biotechnology deals with pharmacogenomics, designing organisms to produce antibiotics and vaccines, clinical research and trials, gene therapy and diagnostics. DNA, the genetic material, is manipulated by Gene therapy either to replace the defective genes or to supplement normal genes using treatments like Ex-vivo (from outside body) or In-vivo (inside the body).  Gene splicing, a tool of genetic engineering allows scientists to transfer gene from one organism to another. This alteration of genetic make-up of organism led to the development of recombinant DNA, which proved a milestone for production of insulin needed for type-2 diabetes.
Some genes of human insulin are transferred to E-coli bacteria, from which further production of insulin is achieved. HGP  Pharmacogenomics and Medicines: The study of pharmaceuticals and genetics, Pharmacogenomics, makes it possible to design and produce drugs to suit the specific genetic requirements of specific patients. With this technology it is also possible to determine the dosage of drugs appropriate to a patient as genetic information enables to know the response of body to the drug.


Unlike conventional drugs, that treat symptoms in a broad way, the biologics are used specifically. This also triggered hopes of success in developing human clone, which then was just a part of farfetched scientific fictions.
In this technique, a nucleus is removed from one cell and is placed inside an unfertilized egg and can be allowed to grow identical to the donor of original nucleus. Stem cells are cells in their initial stage, when they are not yet specialized to develop into some particular cell. These unspecialized cells can renew themselves for long periods of time through cell division and under certain biochemical conditions can be made to differentiate, i.e. Thus new cells can be inserted in place of damaged ones to treat the injury and the characteristic self renewal property allows generation of tissues to replace tissues in affected areas.



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