What enzymes are involved in mechanical digestion,probiotic bc30,probiotic bifidobacterium animalis bb-12,florajen3 probiotic side effects uk - Step 1

The digestive system uses mechanical and chemical activities to break food down into absorbable substances during its journey through the digestive system.
Visit this site for an overview of digestion of food in different regions of the digestive tract.
The processes of digestion include six activities: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical or physical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. The first of these processes, ingestion, refers to the entry of food into the alimentary canal through the mouth. In chemical digestion, starting in the mouth, digestive secretions break down complex food molecules into their chemical building blocks (for example, proteins into separate amino acids).
Food that has been broken down is of no value to the body unless it enters the bloodstream and its nutrients are put to work.
In defecation, the final step in digestion, undigested materials are removed from the body as feces. Digestive System: From Appetite Suppression to Constipation Age-related changes in the digestive system begin in the mouth and can affect virtually every aspect of the digestive system. Pathologies that affect the digestive organs—such as hiatal hernia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease—can occur at greater frequencies as you age. Neural and endocrine regulatory mechanisms work to maintain the optimal conditions in the lumen needed for digestion and absorption. The walls of the alimentary canal contain a variety of sensors that help regulate digestive functions. The walls of the entire alimentary canal are embedded with nerve plexuses that interact with the central nervous system and other nerve plexuses—either within the same digestive organ or in different ones. The digestive system ingests and digests food, absorbs released nutrients, and excretes food components that are indigestible. Offer a theory to explain why segmentation occurs and peristalsis slows in the small intestine.
The smell of food initiates long reflexes, which result in the secretion of digestive juices. Fat digestion is somewhat complicated for humans and animals both, but the process can generally be reduced to three steps.
Much of the human body is made of water, which means that food usually has to be digested in an aqueous solution. There are two organs in the body that secrete substances essential to the digestion of fats: the liver and the pancreas. The small intestine, however, is also an aqueous area, and the lipase is only able to attack and break down the outer layer of most fatty particles. Fatty acids, cholesterol, and other products of fat digestion are typically absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
Once fat hits the bloodstream, it can go almost anywhere in the body, and has a profound impact on blood sugar as a whole. A number of things can go wrong in the fat digestive process, though problems are more likely when the system is overloaded with fats all at once, or when something is wrong with either the bile or lipase production centers. This is why you can have your gallbladder removed if you have to, and it won't kill you, but it will make it more difficult to eat certain things.
The rate at which the stomach empties is determined by both the contents of the stomach and the processing that is occurring in the small intestine. Food takes 3 to 6 hours to complete its digestive path through the small intestine, the site of virtually all nutrient absorption.
Most substances required for chemical digestion within the small intestine are imported from the pancreas and the liver. Function: To convert food into small molecules for transport across the cell membrane, to be used as an energy source by cells. If the lower oesophageal sphincter (tight circular muscle just prior to stomach) does not close the hydrochloric acid (HCl) can enter the oesophagus causing reflux.
Venous blood leaves the gut carrying nutrients absorbed across the gut wall and is transported to the liver before returning to the right side of the heart. Mainly water, with bile salts, cholesterol, lecithin and some ions with bile salts involved with the emulsification of fats. If there is not enough bile salts or lecithin, or too much cholesterol, or the gall bladder becomes inflamed then gallstones form.
A yellow-green, alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments (primarily bilirubin), cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and a variety of electrolytes.
Secretion of pancreatic juice is regulated by local hormones and the parasympathetic nervous system. Breaks down fats (triglycerides) already emulsified by the bile salts and converts them to fatty acids and monoglycerides. Glucagon – increases blood sugar by speeding up the conversion of glycogen (storage form of sugar) back to glucose and converting amino acids, glycerol and lactic acid to glucose (in the liver). Blood Flow – the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, organ or entire circulation in a given period.
Fainting usually happens when your blood pressure drops suddenly, causing a decrease in blood flow to your brain. Fainting is usually nothing to worry about, but it can sometimes be a sign of a serious problem.
The central cavity of the CNS consists of the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. The cerebral hemispheres comprise about 83% of the brain mass and are characterised by ridges and grooves called gyri and sulci. One hemisphere (usually the left) dominates language abilities, math and logic while  the other hemisphere (usually the right) dominates visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion and artistic and musical skills. Frontal lobe - responsible for voluntary somatic functions, olfaction, intellect, cognition, learning, memory and personality. Parietal lobe – responsible for skin sensory and muscle sensory organ inputs. Association areas – these communicate with motor and sensory areas to analyse and act on sensory inputs. Cerebral White Matter – responsible for communication between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centres. Basal Nuclei (basal ganglia) – play a role in motor control and the regulation of attention and cognition.

Contains about a dozen nuclei and plays a role in mediation sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning and memory.
The brain is protected by the skull, meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier. 3 connective tissue membranes that cover and protect the CNS, protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses, contain cerebrospinal fluid and partition the brain. Acetylcholine (Ach) – neurotransmitter junctions, preganglionic fibres of the ANS and parasympathetic postganglionic fibres.
The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of releasing and inhibiting hormones sent through the hypophyseal portal system.
Gonadocorticoids – weak androgens which are converted to testosterone and oestrogens in the tissue cells. Function – holding many body parts together and some of the cells protect the body from infections.
Organ: A structure within a differentiated role in the body and containing different tissues. The consideration of the intermolecular [between molecules] interactions and the chemistry involved into it, rather than intramolecular [within molecule], is the major objective of the supramolecular chemistry. The origination of the concept of the molecular machine is also fascinated by the molecular network of the supramolecules as well as their systematic arrays.
This article was published in SPECTRUM, a science magazine published by ChemSA-Central Department of Chemistry, TU in 2005.
Chemistry syllabus of Master of Science in Chemistry of Tribhuvan University, 1999 has been scanned from printed copy and  uploaded here. Note the route of non-fat nutrients from the small intestine to their release as nutrients to the body.
There, the food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down the carbohydrates in the food plus some lipid digestion via lingual lipase. This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract.
Mechanical digestion is a purely physical process that does not change the chemical nature of the food. These secretions vary in composition, but typically contain water, various enzymes, acids, and salts. This occurs through the process of absorption, which takes place primarily within the small intestine. Problems in the small intestine may include duodenal ulcers, maldigestion, and malabsorption.
These regulatory mechanisms, which stimulate digestive activity through mechanical and chemical activity, are controlled both extrinsically and intrinsically.
These include mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and osmoreceptors, which are capable of detecting mechanical, chemical, and osmotic stimuli, respectively.
The main digestive hormone of the stomach is gastrin, which is secreted in response to the presence of food. The six activities involved in this process are ingestion, motility, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. By slowing the transit of chyme, segmentation and a reduced rate of peristalsis allow time for these processes to occur. First the fats are emulsified, which means that they are suspended in a liquid, typically the acids of the small intestine. This can present something of a problem for fats that aren’t water-soluble, though, and many aren’t.
These tend to be unaffected by the enzymes in saliva which means they reach the stomach largely unchanged, and the stomach acids aren’t always strong enough to alter their basic composition. On a basic level, all that this means is that fatty substances have been suspended in a watery solution in order to end up with a relatively smooth or seamless liquid. Lipase is a digestive enzyme that works in many of the same ways as enzymes elsewhere along the digestive tract, particularly in the saliva and the stomach.
This organ determines how much of the substances to distribute to the body and how much to send out as waste.
People usually feel full based on the chemistry of their blood sugar rather than the actual contents of their stomach or how much they’ve eaten by volume. People with chronic problems with their livers or gallbladders often have to be really careful to control the fats they eat, since fat digestion tends to be slower and more cumbersome in these cases. When I was a kid my father was trying to lose weight for some reason and he had got it into his head that since you need water in order to digest food, if you don't drink much water you will block food absorption and you won't gain as much weight.
Important for heavy drinkers, people taking large amounts of vitamin C, people who eat no animal products at all (and their breast fed babies). Breast milk is a poor source, newborns can’t make their own so an injection is often given at birth to cover them until they can. Important for people who eat 8 – 10 raw egg whites daily, people taking long-term high dose antibiotics, heavy drinkers, people with chronic health conditions. If you faint, it’s important to see your health care provider and find out why it happened. The hemispheres are separated along the midline by the longitudinal fissure, and are separated from the cerebellum along the transverse cerebral fissure. It refers to that sort of molecular system which is made up of a distinct number [more than one] of molecular assemblies.
In this area, molecule acts as a building block unlike in traditional molecular chemistry [where atom acts as a building block]. The molecular rotors, molecular brakes, molecular gears, quantum gyroscopes, molecular ratchets etc.
Chewing increases the surface area of the food and allows an appropriately sized bolus to be produced. It includes both the voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis.
There, most nutrients are absorbed from the lumen of the alimentary canal into the bloodstream through the epithelial cells that make up the mucosa. A slice of pizza is a challenge, not a treat, when you have lost teeth, your gums are diseased, and your salivary glands aren’t producing enough saliva. Problems in the large intestine include hemorrhoids, diverticular disease, and constipation.

However, most digestive processes involve the interaction of several organs and occur gradually as food moves through the alimentary canal ([link]).
Extrinsic nerve plexuses orchestrate long reflexes, which involve the central and autonomic nervous systems and work in response to stimuli from outside the digestive system.
Gastrin stimulates the secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach mucosa. From here they are broken down with a series of enzymes and proteins, and finally they are absorbed and distributed. Digestion starts for many types of food right in the mouth, where the saliva starts processing food and preparing it for the stomach.
Many people find the concept easier to understand by thinking about common household emulsifications like mayonnaise. Fat that has been emulsified is usually a lot easier for lipase to break down and in most cases the decomposition is complete, meaning that all parts of the fat molecules are exposed and deconstructed into particles that can be easily absorbed by the bloodstream.
A lot of this depends on a person’s overall health and general level of activity, since the body will make adjustments when it comes to how much fat it needs to perform certain tasks. In most cases the quality and type of food are more important to satiety than the actual amount consumed. Undigested or improperly digested fats typically lead to abdominal cramping and loose, watery stools. So, even if your father had managed to delay digestion, it wouldn't have made him less hungry and being thirsty actually makes you more likely to overeat.
The blood enters the liver through the hepatic portal vein and leaves the liver through the hepatic veins, going to the inferior vena cava. Peristalsis consists of sequential, alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of alimentary wall smooth muscles, which act to propel food along ([link]). It includes mastication, or chewing, as well as tongue movements that help break food into smaller bits and mix food with saliva. Lipids are absorbed into lacteals and are transported via the lymphatic vessels to the bloodstream (the subclavian veins near the heart). Swallowing can be difficult, and ingested food moves slowly through the alimentary canal because of reduced strength and tone of muscular tissue. Conditions that affect the function of accessory organs—and their abilities to deliver pancreatic enzymes and bile to the small intestine—include jaundice, acute pancreatitis, cirrhosis, and gallstones.
Stimulation of these receptors provokes an appropriate reflex that furthers the process of digestion.
Short reflexes, on the other hand, are orchestrated by intrinsic nerve plexuses within the alimentary canal wall.
A number of internal organs, particularly the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, play essential roles in this process.
The stomach’s gastric juices then turn many foods into something called chyme, which is basically a semi-digested solid with more readily available nutrients.
In general, though, about half of the cholesterol that enters the small intestine never makes it into the bloodstream, and the ratio is only slightly higher for most fatty acids. Too much causes minor stomach upsets, fatigue, weakness and affects anti-clotting medications. Although there may be a tendency to think that mechanical digestion is limited to the first steps of the digestive process, it occurs after the food leaves the mouth, as well. Neurosensory feedback is also dampened, slowing the transmission of messages that stimulate the release of enzymes and hormones. This may entail sending a message that activates the glands that secrete digestive juices into the lumen, or it may mean the stimulation of muscles within the alimentary canal, thereby activating peristalsis and segmentation that move food along the intestinal tract. These two plexuses and their connections were introduced earlier as the enteric nervous system. People who have problems digesting fat, whether chronically or just temporarily, often have a number issues, most of which are characterized by abdominal pain and trouble passing “normal” or predominantly solid stools. By whipping the egg yolks — an emulsifier — and the oil together and then adding vinegar slowly, the oil and water or, in this case, vinegar, are held together in a mostly permanent way. Not because it sits in the stomach for longer, but because it takes so long to digest, that it keeps your energy levels even for longer. Peristalsis is so powerful that foods and liquids you swallow enter your stomach even if you are standing on your head. The mechanical churning of food in the stomach serves to further break it apart and expose more of its surface area to digestive juices, creating an acidic “soup” called chyme. Short reflexes regulate activities in one area of the digestive tract and may coordinate local peristaltic movements and stimulate digestive secretions. These GI hormones are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, called endocrinocytes, located in the mucosal epithelium of the stomach and small intestine. Segmentation, which occurs mainly in the small intestine, consists of localized contractions of circular muscle of the muscularis layer of the alimentary canal. For example, the sight, smell, and taste of food initiate long reflexes that begin with a sensory neuron delivering a signal to the medulla oblongata. These hormones then enter the bloodstream, through which they can reach their target organs. The fatty substances become suspended in the watery environment and stay that way for the rest of their time in the body.
These contractions isolate small sections of the intestine, moving their contents back and forth while continuously subdividing, breaking up, and mixing the contents. The response to the signal is to stimulate cells in the stomach to begin secreting digestive juices in preparation for incoming food. By moving food back and forth in the intestinal lumen, segmentation mixes food with digestive juices and facilitates absorption. In contrast, food that distends the stomach initiates short reflexes that cause cells in the stomach wall to increase their secretion of digestive juices.

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