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Saprophytes are herbivores  if they live off of plant matter, carnivores if they live off of animal matter, or  omnivores if they obtain their nutrition from both.
In response to signals, the gallbladder squeezes stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts.
Gallstones (cholelithiasis): For unclear reasons, substances in bile can crystallize in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often due to a gallstone in the gallbladder.
Abdominal ultrasound: a noninvasive test in which a probe on the skin bounces high-frequency sound waves off structures in the belly. HIDA scan (cholescintigraphy): In this nuclear medicine test, radioactive dye is injected intravenously and is secreted into the bile. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): Using a flexible tube inserted through the mouth, through the stomach, and into the small intestine, a doctor can see through the tube and inject dye into the bile system ducts. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP): An MRI scanner provides high-resolution images of the bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. Endoscopic ultrasound: A tiny ultrasound probe on the end of a flexible tube is inserted through the mouth to the intestines. Abdominal X-ray: Although they may be used to look for other problems in the abdomen, X-rays generally cannot diagnose gallbladder disease. This illustration is labeled with the location of the pancreas as well as the location of surrounding organs and ducts. All of the images used on this website are found in various places throughout the internet and are believed to be within the public domain. If you think any content on this website infringes your copyright please let us know, and we will evaluate and possibly remove the images in question. Eating food raises your blood sugar levels - and carbohydrate foods like these make it rise particularly quickly. An organ which makes enzymes for the digestive system and the hormones insulin and glucagon to control the blood sugar levels. Groups of pancreatic cells which make the hormones such as insulin which control the blood sugar levels. When you drink beverage alcohol around 2 to 8 percent is lost through urine, sweat, or the breath.
The acetaldehyde is then converted by a different enzyme into the acetyl radical as shown in Figure 2. These three enzymes are each found in different parts of the body and each of them handles the hydrogen atoms which are stripped off from the alcohol molecule in a different way.
Alcohol dehydrogenase: The name "alcohol dehydrogenase" sounds like quite a mouthful, but it is quite self-explanatory if we break it down into its component parts. Alcohol dehydrogenase is the workhorse of the alcohol enzymes--it breaks down the majority of the alcohol that enters the human body. The alcohol dehydrogenase molecules do their work primarily in the stomach and the liver, although traces of them are found in other tissues as well. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1): In light social drinkers nearly all the alcohol consumed is taken care of by alcohol dehydrogenase as described above.
Summary: Figure 3 summarizes how the three enzymes interact with alcohol to produce acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase does its work in the mitochondria of cells and removes a hydrogen atom from acetaldehyde to produce an acetic acid radical as is shown in Figure 2 above. Alcohol metabolism produces excess amounts of NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide plus Hydrogen). Women: If a woman and a man of the same weight drink the same amount of alcohol under the exact same circumstances, the woman will on the average have a much higher BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) than the man. East Asians and American Indians: Most individuals use a form of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase called ALD2 to metabolize the acetaldehyde which results from alcohol metabolism. Additionally many East Asians and American Indians have a form of alcohol dehydrogenase that is more efficient at turning alcohol into acetaldehyde than that of people from other genetic backgrounds.
Menopausal Women: Apparently hormone changes which occur at menopause can cause menopausal women to become more intoxicated on smaller doses of alcohol. People with Liver Damage: People with liver damage produce less alcohol dehydrogenase than do those with healthy livers and thus can become more intoxicated on smaller doses of alcohol. Frequent Heavy Drinkers: Frequent heavy drinkers produce more alcohol dehydrogenase than other people and thus become less intoxicated on larger quantities of alcohol. The surface area of the human stomach is only a couple of square feet, but because the small intestine has protrusions called villi, the surface area of the small intestine is thousands and thousands of square feet. Alcohol Concentration: Many people find that they get much more intoxicated when drinking straight vodka than they do when drinking beer. Flavor: People also tend to drink strongly flavored drinks more slowly than tasteless drinks. Diet Soda: Diet soda interacts with alcohol too, so people who drink mixed drinks made with diet soda will become intoxicated more quickly and achieve higher BACS than people drinking identical drinks made with regular soda. You should check this reference if you have any concerns about the interaction of a medication which you are taking with alcohol.
Aspirin: For some reason we are not quite sure of aspirin appears to block the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. Cayenne pepper: Cayenne pepper dilates the blood vessels and apparently leads higher BACs and more exposure of the brain to alcohol. Ambien: mixing alcohol with ambien is just about a sure recipe for a blackout or a brownout. Benadryl (diphenhydramine), Dramamine (dimenhydrinate), and Unisom Nighttime (doxylamine): Mixing alcohol with any antihistamine which causes drowsiness will definitely enhance the feeling of drowsiness many times over. The only normal route of ingesting alcohol is drinking it--but this is not the only route possible.
Inhalation: AWOL (Alcohol With Out Liquid) is an alcohol inhalation device that has been released in the US and the UK.
Injection: Some scientific researchers give alcohol injections to research subjects when they wish to bypass the stomach. Alcohol enema: This is another rather dangerous and sometimes deadly form of alcohol administration. Transdermal: Alcohol can also be absorbed through the skin although this is quite a slow and impractical method of ingesting it. When a drug like valium is broken down by the human body the resultant metabolites are harmless.
Figure 4 graphically illustrates the difference between steady state metabolism and half life metabolism. Practically every animal from the fruit fly to the elephant has a way to break down ethyl alcohol because ethyl alcohol is found everywhere in nature. Not only are we constantly ingesting alcohol along with the food we eat, our own bodies produce alcohol as a part of the digestive process. With alcohol so omnipresent in nature it is necessary that animals have a way to break alcohol down, otherwise it would just accumulate in the body and no animal could function properly because the animals would always be constantly intoxicated.
Other alcohols such as methyl alcohol (wood alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) do not normally occur in nature.
The difference between wood alcohol--also known as methyl alcohol or methanol--and ethanol is that wood alcohol has one less carbon and two less hydrogen atoms. Rubbing alcohol (C3H8O)--also known as isopropyl alcohol--is more poisonous than ethanol but not as poisonous as methanol. Although alcohol may cause a slight rise in blood sugar levels when initially ingested--the overall effect of alcohol is to cause a drop in blood sugar.
Because of alcohol's effect on blood sugar people with diabetes are recommended to have no more than one or two standard drinks per day and to avoid drinks high in carbs.
If you frequently experience indigestion, see your doctor so that he or she can examine you, determine the cause of your symptoms, and provide treatment.
A peptic ulcer is a hole or a break in the mucous membrane that lines the digestive tract, allowing digestive acids to come in contact with cells in the lining, injuring them.
Many people who have a peptic ulcer have no symptoms, but most experience a burning or gnawing pain in the abdomen.

Contrary to popular belief, peptic ulcers are not caused by eating spicy foods or by stress.
Over-the-counter antacids may provide temporary relief from symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and excess stomach acid, but they also may mask symptoms of a more serious underlying disorder. The most common cause of peptic ulcer is a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). If the ulcer is caused by H pylori, your doctor will probably recommend treatment for 2 to 3 weeks with antibiotics (usually two different drugs) and ulcerhealing medication to decrease the amount of acid in your stomach or medication to protect the stomach lining. Over time, an untreated ulcer may cause a perforation (hole) in the wall of the stomach or duodenum.
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been growing in popularity in the past few years. There are also glands such as the salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas that are attached to the alimentary canal. Cholecystitis causes severe pain and fever, and can require surgery when inflammation continues or recurs.
Cholecystitis is likely if the scan shows bile doesn’t make it from the liver into the gallbladder.
Glucagon makes your liver break down glycogen, converting it back into glucose which can be used by the cells. All three of these enzymes work by stripping two hydrogen atoms off from the alcohol molecule. Alcohol dehydrogenase is actually the name for a family of enzymes which break down alcohol--each of which has a slightly different molecular structure. The hydrogen which is released when alcohol dehydrogenase turns alcohol into acetaldehyde is bound to a compound called NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) to form NADH (this is short for Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide plus Hydrogen). For more information about this enzyme please visit the Wikipedia entry alcohol dehydrogenase.
However, the enzyme Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) becomes quite active in metabolizing alcohol in chronic heavy drinkers. This excess of NADH can lead to acidosis from lactic acid build-up and hypoglycemia from lack of glucose synthesis.
This is because women have much less of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in their stomachs than men do.
However, many East Asians and American Indians produce a form of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase called ALD2*2 which is far less efficient at breaking down acetaldehyde than ALD2. The end result is that these people wind up with large amounts of the poisonous compound acetaldehyde in their bodies whenever they drink alcohol. Older men are likely to become more intoxicated on smaller amounts of alcohol than younger men. These people can metabolize up to 38 ml (over 2 standard drinks) of alcohol per hour whereas the average person metabolizes only around 13 ml (about 0.7 standard drinks) per hour. The drug antabuse binds to the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and prevents it from breaking down the acetaldehyde produced by the metabolism of alcohol. Because of this fact the small intestine is many, many times more efficient than the stomach at absorbing alcohol.
The actual fact--as I am sure that many of us know from experience--is that it makes a great deal of difference what one drinks.
This is because they get a lot more alcohol in their bodies in a lot shorter period of time when drinking the vodka. So most people will get more alcohol into their system per hour when drinking vodka than they will when drinking whiskey. People drinking carbonated drinks will become intoxicated more quickly and achieve higher BACs than people dinking the same amount of alcohol per hour in the form of non-carbonated drinks.
Researchers in Adelaide, Australia found that the stomach emptied into the small intestine in 21.1 minutes for the people who drank mixed drinks made with diet soda. Just for a quick reference we will note here some very common Over The Counter (OTC) and prescriptions medications and a few other substances which you should be very cautious about mixing with alcohol.
What this means is that if you take aspirin before drinking you will became much more intoxicated on a much smaller dose of alcohol than usual. In short if you drink alcohol while ingesting a lot of cayenne pepper you will become much drunker than usual. Avoid mixing alcohol with Percocet, percodan, vicodin, oxycontin, codeine, morphine or any other narcotic pain killers.
AWOL's manufacturers claim that when alcohol is vaporized and inhaled it can lead to intoxication as much as 10 times as quickly as drinking and allows one to sober up with no hangover in an equally rapid time frame. It was the comparison of the effects of injected alcohol with orally ingested alcohol which led scientists to conclude that women have less alcohol dehydrogenase in their stomachs than men do.
It is for this reason that drugs like valium are broken down as quickly as the body can process them--and hence they have a half life.
Every time you eat a piece of fresh fruit, drink a glass of fresh orange juice, or have a slice of freshly baked bread then chances are that you are getting trace amounts of alcohol along with it. Our digestive tracts contain millions of micro-organisms which are necessary for us to properly digest our food. Some chronic alcoholics turn to drinking rubbing alcohol when ethanol is unavailable--and some even come to prefer it.
Untreated diabetes can lead to severe consequences including blindness, amputation of limbs affected by gangrene and even death--so diabetics are recommended to be especially cautious about their alcohol intake. This portion of the digestive tract produces and receives from other organs a wide range of chemicals to break down food for nutrient absorption.
This painful, burning sensation in the upper abdomen is often accompanied by nausea, bloating, belching, and sometimes vomiting. Contact your doctor promptly if your indigestion is accompanied by vomiting, weight loss, lack of appetite, blood in vomit or stool, pain when you eat, or severe pain in the upper abdomen.
You may find that certain foods or situations (such as exercising too soon after eating) are related to your indigestion.
Peptic ulcers most often occur in the first few inches of the duodenum (duodenal ulcers) or in the stomach (gastric, or stomach, ulcers).
Pain caused by a duodenal ulcer tends to follow a consistent pattern: pain is absent on awakening, appears by midmorning, is relieved by eating, recurs 2 to 3 hours after each meal, and wakes the person during the night.
However, long-term use of painkillers such as aspirin or ibuprofen can interfere with the stomach’s natural ability to protect itself against exposure to stomach acid and other digestive juices and can lead to ulcer formation. Always use caution when self medicating with over-the-counter antacids, and talk to your doctor if you use antacids regularly. These corkscrew-shaped bacteria burrow into the protective lining of the stomach or small intestine and attach to underlying cells. He or she will probably recommend an examination of your stomach and duodenum using either an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series or endoscopy (see “Diagnostic Procedures,” Post). For example, as an ulcer eats away at the stomach or duodenal wall, blood vessels may be damaged and may bleed into the digestive tract.
This allows bacteria and partially digested food to leak into and infect the sterile abdominal cavity, which, in turn, can lead to peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs). Removing the gallbladder in an otherwise healthy individual typically causes no observable problems with health or digestion yet there may be a small risk of diarrhea and fat malabsorption. When catalase turns alcohol into acetaldehyde the hydrogen which is released is bound to hydrogen peroxide molecules which then become water. There is another variety aldehyde dehydrogenase found in the human body which is called ALDH2*2. If the same man and woman are given an injection of alcohol instead of drinking it they will tend to have the same BAC.
This acetaldehyde causes their faces to flush and leads to headaches, nausea, vomiting, heart palpitations and other extreme physical unpleasantness. Since acetaldehyde is a poison, as it builds up it produces very unpleasant symptoms including facial flushing, headaches, nausea, vomiting, heart palpitations and other extreme physical unpleasantness.
If you want the alcohol to be absorbed into the bloodstream slowly so that your BAC will only rise slowly, your best bet is to keep the alcohol in the stomach for as long as possible. As a general rule of thumb the less concentrated the alcohol in a drink the less alcohol one will put into their body per hour.

There is, however, a trade-off here because many people drink carbonated drinks more slowly than non-carbonated drinks. It is generally recommended that you do not take aspirin for around six hours before drinking alcohol.
If you love your liver then don't take Tylenol or Tylenol PM or anything else containing acetaminophen with alcohol or when you are hungover. Self-administration of alcohol by injection is extremely dangerous and should never be attempted. When we plot the metabolism of alcohol on a graph we get a straight line--in other words the rate of decay of alcohol is linear. Among these micro-organisms are yeasts which produce alcohol from sugars within our own bodies. Alcohol dehydrogenase converts methanol into formaldehyde (CH2O) and aldehyde dehydrogenase turns this formaldehyde into a formic acid radical (CH2O-).
Eating before, during or after drinking can help to alleviate this blood sugar drop somewhat. Artificially sweetened versus regular mixers increase gastric emptying and alcohol absorption. The stomach uses both mechanical means and chemicals (such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin) to break down food. Symptoms of indigestion accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck, or left arm can be warning signs of heart disease or a heart attack.
While stomach ulcers occur more frequently in women than in men and generally develop after age 60, duodenal ulcers are the most common type of ulcer among both men and women and usually first occur between ages 30 and 50. This pattern continues for a week or more, but the pain may disappear without treatment and then recur months or even years later.
If you develop an ulcer from taking painkillers regularly, your doctor will recommend that you stop using them immediately and will probably prescribe ulcer-healing medication (such as cimetidine, famotidine, or ranitidine) to decrease the amount of acid in your stomach or medication (such as sucralfate) to protect the stomach lining from digestive juices.
The bacteria then release chemicals that further damage the mucous membrane and expose the cells to the damaging effects of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. All of them bring about the same chemical reaction--the difference is that some varieties of alcohol dehydrogenase work more efficiently than others. The hydrogen released by this reaction is bound to oxygen and to NADPH to form water and NADP+. Although catalase is active everywhere in the body, catalase is of particular interest to researchers because it metabolizes alcohol in the brain. This is because when the alcohol is injected it bypasses the alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach.
If you have taken aspirin before drinking be cautious and try to limit your alcohol intake as much as possible. However the simple fact is that alcohol is absorbed very rapidly through the large intestine and the rectum and there are no enzymes here to break it down. This means that if you take a 10 mg dose of valium, then 35 hours later half of it will have been metabolized and only 5 mg will remain.
Monkeys are known to seek out fermented fruit for the intoxicating effect and Indian elephants have been known to break into breweries or wineries to drink up what is stored there.
Both formaldehyde and formic acid are highly poisonous and quickly lead to blindness and death.
Drinks with lots of carbs like beer or mixed drinks with sugary mixers can lead to blood sugar spikes preceding the blood sugar drop. The duodenum releases hormones that stimulate the pancreas to ensure the proper release of enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. However, some people have persistent indigestion that has no identifiable cause; this is called functional indigestion or nonulcer indigestion. This usually causes inflammation of the stomach (gastritis) and can lead to formation of an ulcer. If a large blood vessel is damaged, the bleeding is life-threatening and requires immediate medical treatment. A peptic ulcer that has perforated, is bleeding, or has not responded to treatment with medication usually requires surgery to correct the problem.
Any time you see a chemical term which ends in the suffix "-ase" you know that you are dealing with an enzyme.
As we shall see below, these variations in the alcohol dehydrogenase molecule can explain why some individuals react differently to alcohol than others. The acetaldehyde released into the brain by the metabolism of alcohol by catalase has the potential to combine with neurotransmitters to form new compounds known as THIQs (tetrahydroisoquinolines, also sometimes called TIQs).
The symptoms of flush syndrome are exactly the same as the symptoms caused in people who take the anti-drinking medication antabuse.
There is a valve between the stomach and the small intestine called the pyloric valve, and when this valve is closed the alcohol will stay in the stomach. Thus the same dose of alcohol given by enema will produce a much higher BAC than if one drinks it. In another 35 hours half of this will be metabolized and only 2.5 mg will remain and so on.
The reason why alcohol has a steady state metabolism rather than a half-life metabolism is because the primary decay product of alcohol metabolism--acetaldehyde--is poisonous.
The duodenum releases another hormone to stimulate the gallbladder to contract and release bile (which is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder) into the duodenum to digest fats.
Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, taking certain medications, or being exhausted or stressed can cause or worsen indigestion. Other symptoms of both types of peptic ulcers include feeling bloated, belching, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.
Helicobacter pylori may be responsible for more than 80 percent of all stomach ulcers and more than 90 percent of all duodenal ulcers.
Symptoms of damage to a large blood vessel include weakness or dizziness when standing, vomiting blood, and fainting.
The type of surgery depends on the size and location of the ulcer and whether there are complications (such as perforation). Some researchers believe that THIQs are the cause of alcohol addiction and that the presence of THIQs distinguishes addicted drinkers from social drinkers. There was a famous case of death by sherry enema in Texas where the wife was acquitted of murder charges. When we plot the metabolism of valium on a graph we get an exponential curve--in other words--drugs which have a half life have an exponential rate of decay.
The body must eliminate the acetaldehyde produced by the breakdown of alcohol before any more alcohol can be processed in order to avoid acetaldehyde poisoning. This tremendous concentration of powerful chemicals accounts for many of the problems that can occur in the stomach and duodenum. The bleeding usually can be stopped in a procedure using an endoscope (viewing tube), but general surgery may be required. So "de-hydrogen-ase" means "an enzyme which removes hydrogen atoms", and "alcohol dehydrogenase" means "an enzyme which removes hydrogen atoms from the alcohol molecule".
Other researches strongly dispute the validity of the THIQ hypothesis of alcohol addiction.. This slows down the rate of alcohol metabolism to a Zero Order Reaction rather than a First Order Reaction. It is estimated that individuals with severe flush syndrome do not develop alcohol problems because they find drinking alcohol to be extremely unpleasant. Bluesman Charlie Patton spoke the truth when he said "If you eat a lot of fat meat you don't get so drunk." This was his formula for maintaining when he played at parties where the booze flowed all night long.

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