What are the three major end products of protein digestion in the small intestine,probiotics quit smoking 101,probiotics for horses tractor supply - 2016 Feature

Cellular Respiration involves 3 stages: Glycolysis, the Citric Acid Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain.
Cellular respiration is the metabolic process that occurs largely in the mitochondria of eukaryotes, whereby cells obtain energy from organic molecules. Certain organic molecules, such as carbohydrates and fats, are formed to store chemical potential energy. During these reactions oxygen is typically consumed, however, the process may be anaerobic (without oxygen) or aerobic (uses oxygen), depending on availability. The first pathway, glycolysis, requires no oxygen and is referred to as anaerobic metabolism. During this stage the organism takes molecules of glucose, a six-carbon sugar, and splits it creating 2 molecules of pyruvate. The second pathway, called the Citric acid cycle (or Kreb's cycle), occurs inside the mitochondria and is capable of generating enough ATP to run all the cell functions.
Acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle by joining to a four-carbon molecule called oxaloacetate. Isocitrate is oxidized and loses CO2 and yields a NADH + H+ transforming from Isocitrate to ?-Ketoglutarate which is a five-carbon molecule. Alcoholic fermentation takes the pyruvate from glycolysis and converts it into acetaldehyde and CO2. Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License unless otherwise noted. The process requires oxygen, and releases carbon dioxide] which are transported between the lungs and cells by the blood. Cellular respiration is the reaction where a cell breaks down these molecules to obtain the energy required for cellular work, such as performing other chemical reactions or moving muscle. It is the oxidation of organic material similar to how carbohydrates (wood) are consumed in a fire to release thermal energy. Once again, the cycle begins with a glucose molecule, which during the process of glycolysis is stripped of some of its hydrogen atoms, transforming the glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid.


In the process it loses a CO2 molecule releasing energy that is stored in a NADH + H+ this changes the ?-Ketogutrate into succinyl CoA.
During this transformation releases energy, which causes surrounding GDP to GTP, which in turn converts ADP to ATP. During the oxidation it loses to H atoms, which are transferred to the carrier enzyme FAD, which is then converted to FADH2. Due to the oxidation the malate is changed to Oxaloacetate, which reacts with a new incoming acetyl CoA starting the cycle all over again(Purves 130-133). One of the major roles of the Mitochondria is to produce energy, generally in the form of ATP.
During this process the NADH + H+ acts as a reducing agent and breaks down the pyruvate into lactic acid (lactate). The molecule NAHD + H+ acts like a reducing agent and takes the acetaldehyde and turns it into ethanol. It involves the transfer of the chemical potential energy by the breakdown (catabolism) of the sugar molecules and the subsequent assemblage (anabolism) of another molecular called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). In cellular respiration, this oxidation process is controlled so that the energy is captured, and used to drive the other processes that go on inside the cell. Although it is not the final step of cellular respiration it still produces some of its own energy in the form of ATP. Next, pyruvic acid is altered by the removal of a carbon and two oxygen atoms, which go on to form carbon dioxide.
Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol but the main reactions of cellular respiration are done in the Mitochondria.
An inhibitor is an enzyme that stops a reaction for continuing or slows it down so that there is not a buildup of intermediates. When glycolysis splits glucose into pyruvate and there is no oxygen, the pyruvate does not go into the mitochondria. Each reaction is designed to produce some hydrogen ions that can then be used to make energy packets (ATP).


When the carbon dioxide is removed, energy is given off, and a molecule called NAD+ is converted into the higher energy form, NADH.
Before the pyruvate reaches the cycle it is diffused into the mitochondria, which is where cellular respiration takes place, and is oxidized into acetyl CoA (coenzyme A). The main enzyme used to slow the process or even bring to a stop of cellular respirations is isocitrate dehydrogenase. Another molecule, coenzyme A (CoA), then attaches to the remaining acetyl unit, forming acetyl CoA. The hydrogen ions are picked up by NAD and another molecule called flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). It works by taking a high concentration of the product of the reaction and using it to suppress the activating enzymes of the whole reaction that were catalyzed to create the products. Eventually, the process produces the four-carbon oxaloacetate again, ending up where it started off.
This process can also take the over abundance of the product and use it in other relations near by to help speed up the synthesis of those reactions.
All in all, the citric acid cycle is capable of generating from 24 to 28 ATP molecules from one molecule of glucose converted to pyruvate. The total yield of ATP molecules from the completion of Fermentation is 2 ATP molecules for every molecule of glucose that goes through glycolysis.
There are two types of fermentation that can take place, Lactic Acid and Alcoholic Fermentation.



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