Three types of enzymes in the digestive system,live combined bifidobacterium and lactobacillus tablets india,what is the best digestive enzyme to take for acid reflux 99.com - 2016 Feature

Most of the characterized ribozymes are molecules of ribonucleic acid that catalyze reactions on one of their own phosphodiester bonds or within other RNAs. In order to drive this reaction in the direction written it can be coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP.
The measurement of the serum levels of numerous enzymes has been shown to be of diagnostic significance.
The measurement of plasma troponin I levels are highly diagnostic of necrosis of cardiac muscle. Elevated serum GGT levels are found in diseases of the liver, biliary system, and pancreas. The CAs catalyze the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3– and as such these enzymes are involved in respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, pancreatic exocrine secretions of digestion, and gastric acid.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have a broad spectrum of utility including the treatment of glaucoma, as anti-epileptics, and as diruetics in the treatment of certain forms of hypertension.
Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial gum infections that affect the tissues and bone that support teeth and hold them in place.
Countless bacteria fill the mouth and certain types produce toxins and enzymes that can irritate the gums and cause inflammation. Smoking or chewing tobacco–  Tobacco users are much more likely than nonusers to develop plaque and tartar on their teeth, have deeper pockets, and have greater loss of bone and tissue supporting teeth. Medications– Many drugs, such as steroids, oral contraceptives,  or medications used to treat epilepsy, cancer, and blood pressure, can affect the gums or reduce saliva production.
Bridges that no longer fit properly, crooked, crowded teeth, or defective fillings may hold plaque in place and increase the risk of periodontal disease development. Hormone levels– Changes in hormone levels due to puberty, pregnancy, and oral contraceptives can cause increased sensitivity in gum tissue to toxins and enzymes and can accelerate growth of some bacteria. Genetics- Certain patients may be predisposed to a more aggressive, severe type of periodontitis due to genetics. Parotid glands: These are the largest salivary glands and are found in front of and just below each ear. There are also hundreds of small (minor) salivary glands lining parts of the mouth, nose, and larynx that can be seen only with a microscope. More than half of all salivary gland tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread to other tissues. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body.
Endoscopy : A procedure to look at organs and tissues inside the body to check for abnormal areas.
Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.
Because salivary gland cancer can be hard to diagnose, patients should ask to have the tissue samples checked by a pathologist who has experience in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. The tumor is not larger than 4 centimeters and has spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller.
One day Rose-Lynn Fisher wondered if her tears of grief would look different compared to her tears of joy, so she began to explore them up close under a microscope.
She studied 100 different tears and found that basal tears (the ones that our body produces to lubricate our eyes) are drastically different from the tears that happen when we are chopping onions. People are surrounded by toxins, from contaminated air we breathe to pesticide-covered and hormone-infused sustenance. The aging process causes hair loss for many people, but age isn’t the only factor for the problem. TEENAGERS Arin Andrews and Katie Hill look like any loving young couple posing in their swimwear. The cardiac-specific TnI isoform is encoded by the TNNI3 (troponin I type 3, cardiac) gene. The muscle CPK isoform is expressed from the creatine kinase, muscle (CKM) gene while the brain isoform is expressed from the CKB gene.
The gene nomenclature for the carbonic anhydrases is CA1-CA4, CA5A, CA5B, CA6, CA7, CA9, CA12, CA13, and CA14). The two CAs expressed in erythrocytes are CA I and CA II, both of which are cytosolic enzymes.
The CA inhibitors that are diuretics function by inhibiting the CA isoforms present in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT).


When does coupling occur in the body and why?nrg released by exergonic rxn is used for endergonic rxn, when ATP is broken down= releases nrg via high nrg bond betw. What happens in catabolism?A substrate to break apart (in a hydrolysis reaction), bigger molecules broken into smaller ones, ex.
WRITTEN What is a coenzyme (4 marks)?non protein organic molecules that bind to enzymes + serve as carrier for chemical groups, vitamins= small organic molecules that are needed for synthesis of coenzymes (become a part of its structure) ex. How does pH affect rate of rxn?usually there is an optimum pH for each enzyme= usually for most human ones it is neutral (ex. What happens in non-competitive inhibition?a molecule binds to allosteric site= shifts 3D structure of enzyme=prevents substrate from binding to active site, ex. Where the gum line meets the tooth, it forms a slight v-shaped crevice known as a sulcus, the depth of which is typically around three millimeters or less in healthy teeth.
As a result of this inflammation, which can sometimes be painless, damage can occur at the attachment of the gums and bone to the teeth. A family history of tooth loss periodontal disease need to pay particular attention to the health of their gums.
Saliva has enzymes that help digest food and antibodies that help protect against infections of the mouth and throat.
The three main pairs of salivary glands are the parotid glands, the sublingual glands, and the submandibular glands. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
For example, if salivary gland cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually salivary gland cancer cells.
Cancer may have spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the tumor and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. The tears that come about from hard laughter aren’t even close to the tears of sorrow. All tears contain organic substances including oils, antibodies, and enzymes and are suspended in salt water. Emotional tears have protein-based hormones including the neurotransmitter leucine enkephalin, which is a natural painkiller that is released when we are stressed.
But despite his extravagant displays of affection, many a male ends up as an easy meal for the always-hungry female.Spiders are efficient predatorsA spider can easily go from drowsy to lethal in a split second.
Dependent upon the tissue of expression, three major CPK isoforms are found in human tissues. All five of these genes (GGT1, GGT2, GGT5, GGT6, and GGT7) encode a precursor protein that is post-translationally cleaved into a heavy and a light chain.
The presence of CA in erythrocytes is critical for the transfer of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs. However, as tissues become damaged due to periodontal disease, the sulcus develops into a pocket that is greater than three millimeters. Always advise your dentist of any medications you are currently taking and any changes in your health. The patient lies on a table that slides through the CT scanner, which takes x-ray pictures of the inside of the head and neck.
Plus, the tears seen under the microscope are crystallized salt and can lead to different shapes and forms.
The heavy chain anchors the enzyme to the membrans while the light chain possesses the catalytic activity. The transmembrane CA isoforms are CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIV while the CA isoform that is anchored to the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage is CA IV.
CA I and CA II along with CA VB and CA IX are expressed within the GI tract where they play an important role in overall digestive processes. R groups= pH is too low (below optimal) =the positive hydrogen ions interact with the negative R groups in the protein and tear them away, pH is too high (above optimal) :negative hydroxide ions interact with the positive R groups in the protein and tear them away. But some males attempt to beat the system by substituting seeds and other indigestible plant parts in the gift wrap.
In addition to these five genes there are three human genes that encode GGT light chain proteins only and, therefore, the encoded proteins are not associated with membranes.


CA II is found in cerebrospinal fluid and measurement of increases are useful in the diagnosis of various brain diseases. The inhibition of CA by these drugs results in bicarbonate retention in the urine, potassium retention in urine and decreased sodium absorption. Enlarged pockets make it difficult to practice effective oral hygiene as they harbor and promote the growth of harmful bacteria. If these pockets are left untreated, periodontal diseases may eventually lead to tooth and bone loss. Humans express three additional genes designated as carbonic anhydrases due to sequence similarity to functional carbonic anhydrases, however, the encoded proteins do not possess carbonic anhydrase activity.
Even in the dark, some spiders can make out the location of a flying insect — and jump up to catch it in midair.Fangs subdue and kill preySpiders tranquilize and then kill their prey by injecting venom into the victim with their two needle-shaped fangs. These three genes are designated CA8, CA10, and CA11 and all three are predominantly expressed within the CNS. Spiders can only consume liquid food, so the prey must first be digested outside the body by enzymes that spiders spit into the victim.Spiders weave silky trapsVirtually all spiders have three sets of spinnerets, and many species can produce as many as seven different types of silk. Although the encoded proteins of these three CA related genes lack CA activity, the importance of the proteins can be demonstrated by the fact that the neurological defect in the lurcher mutant mouse is the result of a loss of CA8 gene expression. This silk is used to create the spider’s web and to trap prey once it has landed in the web. Some spider webs also give off phero-mones, which can attract the opposite sex.Wrapped up in the momentIn some spider species, the male first spins a web, pinning the female to its surface before climbing on top and mating from above by inserting his palpi in her genital opening. While mating, both spiders hang upside down from a thread of silk that the male has attached to the female’s web. As she hangs in this position, she is more docile than usual but is still in a position to pounce.
In some cases, she bites him to death and starts to eat him — even as his body continues mating. Death could easily result, so in many species, the male is equipped with special hooks on his front pair of legs, which he uses to hold on to the female’s fangs — like two fencers locking their swords. Afterward the male usually walks away, although sometimes he’ll stick around for another go.
Unlike many other spider species, the female rarely injures or eats the male.They build a special, protective homeThe vast majority of spiders typically begin their lives encapsulated with a large number of siblings in an egg case, which is made by the female in order to protect her eggs.
Then, despite the fact that the female has a genital organ, he pierces her abdomen with his specialized palpi, which are equipped with both hooks and pointed needles, and injects his sperm right next to her ovaries. He then leaves his diving bell — an air-filled bubble that serves as home — in search of a female. After an underwater dance nearby, mating takes place in the female’s diving bell, with the male leaving his abdomen outside. Male water spiders are usually larger than females; this is one of the few spider species in which the male dares to stay with the female until she has laid her eggs.
Some males even turn the tables and eat their mates.Starving for affectionAmong most spiders, the female is larger than the male — in some species females are up to 10 times larger than males. Large females can lay more eggs than smaller ones, but the reason for the males’ size is less clear. Perhaps the advantage is that smaller males sexually mature at the same rate as their female counterparts, increasing their chances of being in sync when it’s time to mate.
Or, since smaller males have to travel far in their quest for females, being small may make this easier.
Finally, small males are easy to overlook and thus may sneak around undetected (and uneaten) in females webs.Signaling the call to mateMale spiders, particularly those with good vision, like wolf and jumping spiders, often use signals that can be seen and heard from a distance by females. Their palpi and legs can be moved in specific patterns and rhythms, something like the flag signals once used by military outfits. Among several species, the males signal to females and rivals using sounds that are produced when the male pounds his body, legs or palpi against the surface of the ground or vibrates his entire body.Surrendering his bodyImmediately before Tidarren genus males become sexually mature, they perform a special ritual in which they amputate one palpus by twisting it off while it is stuck in a tiny web they have made. However, males with one palpus are faster and have better endurance than their two-palped counterparts. As a precaution, the male may prick the female with his venomous stinger to limit her fighting spirit.Praying mantises lose their headsIf a female mantis sees her mate while they are mating, or if they are otherwise interrupted, she will eat him.



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