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Mechanical Digestion – breaks down food into smaller pieces Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into forms that cells can absorb. STRUCTURE OF THE WALL Mucosa – mucous membrane Epithelial tissues on a bed of connective tissue This layer absorb nutrients, secrete chemicals, and protect the underlying layers. THE MOUTH (ORAL CAVITY) The mouth: Receives food Mechanically breaks up solid particles using TEETH & TONGUE Chemically digest food using saliva. THE PALATE AND UVULA The palate forms the roof of the oral cavity Hard Palate - bony roof of the mouth Formed by the palatine bones and portions of the maxilla Soft Palate - Muscular arch Uvula – cone-shaped projection During swallowing, muscles draw the soft palate and the uvula upward preventing food from entering the nasal cavity.
T HE TONGUE Thick, muscular organ Manipulate foods and aids in swallowing Mucous Membrane Frenulum Root Anchored to the hyoid bone. ESOPHAGUS Peristalsis involuntary muscle contractions to move food along Esophageal Hiatus – opening in the diaphragm, passage for esophagus Hiatal hernia – part of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus.
PANCREAS An organ which secretes both digestive enzymes (exocrine) and hormones (endocrine) Pancreatic juice digests all major nutrient types.


SMALL INTESTINE Function chemical digestion major organ of digestion & absorption absorption through lining over 6 meters!
ABSORPTION IN THE SI Much absorption is thought to occur directly through the wall without the need for special adaptations Almost 90% of our daily fluid intake is absorbed in the small intestine. T HE LARGE INTESTINE The large intestine is named because of its diameter It has four parts: 1. Other dietary sugars such as sucrose and lactose (both disaccharides) are broken down further by different carbohydrase enzymes. NOTE: Ita€™s important you recall the main digestive enzymes, the food types they break down and where they are produced. Complex molecules are broken down into simple molecules by the action of specialised proteins called enzymes. INTRODUCTION Chemical Digestion – decomposes food into smaller molecules Add these terms to vocabulary list… The digestive system consists of: The alimentary canal – extends from mouth to anus Accessory glands –secrete chemicals into the alimentary canal.


Submucosa – Beneath the mucosa Loose connective tissue Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels This layer nourishes the surrounding tissues, and carries away nutrients.
This action is called mastication Makes a BOLUS (wet ball of food) The mouth also functions as an organ of speech, and sensory reception. ENZYME COCKTAIL includes enzymes top break down all compounds: proteins, lipids and carbohydrates Alkaline (base) neutralizes acidic chyme coming from stomach. Proteins are long chains of amino acids, and protease enzymes break them into peptides (smaller chains of amino acids molecules) and eventually into individual amino acids, which are small and easily absorbed in the small intestine. It digests complex fat (or lipid) molecules into simple, soluble fatty acid and glycerol molecules.



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