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AbstractThis paper presents an analysis of the structure of computer science research articles published in the Lecture Notes of Computer Science series.
We  have provided a wide range of articles and encourage our patients to avail themselves of this valuable resource. Many of the studies done on Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression Therapy were done on the Vax-D technology which was one of the early leaders in the development of this exciting approach to the treatment of significant low back and leg disorders. Clinical Trial Study of a Non-Invasive Decompression System in the Treatment of Lumbosacral Radiculopathies. Vertebral Axial Decompression Therapy For Pain Associated with Herniated or Degenerated Discs or Facet Syndrome: An Outcome Study. Short & long term outcomes following treatment with VAX-D for patients with chronic activity-limiting lower back pain. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study of VAX-D and TENS for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain. Vertebral Axial Decompression Therapy for Pain Associated with Herniated or Degenerated Discs or Facet Syndrome: An Outcome Study. Dermatomal Somatosensory Evoked Potential Demonstration of Nerve Room Decompression After VAX-D Therapy. The Effects of Vertebral Axial Decompression On Sensory Nerve Dysfunction In Patients with Low Back Pain And Radiculopathy. Non-Surgical Spinal decompression via Motorized Distraction for Chronic Discogenic Low back Pain. Patient Testimonials“After my spinal decompression treatment I feel like I have a new body, and now have more control of my life without pain. About Natural Pain SolutionsThe Staff at Natural Pain Solutions is committed 100% to your satisfaction! While it is clear that most articles start with an Introduction and end with a Conclusion, the structure of text between these two sections is rather diverse.
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We studied the positions of different section types, and analysed dependencies between them. Tunick as well as to ask any questions you may have about your own individual condition and we will be happy to assist you. Tunick and the staff of Natural Pain Solutions is one of the leading protocols in use today. Non-Surgical Spinal Decompression: Offering Relief to Patients Suffering from Herniated and Degerative Discs. Decompression, Reduction and Stabilization of the Lumbar Spine: A Cost Effective Solution for Lumbosacral Pain. The existence of a standard structure makes the writera€™s task considerably easier, and may be especially helpful to novice writers and writers whose native language is not English. Since the appearance of Swalesa€™ pioneering work on Aspects of Article Introductions in 1981 (Swales 1981), articles in practically all disciplines have been analysed and models of the sections have been presented (for an overview see e.g. 140) says, a€?the main problem is to identify the structural organisation of computer science papers between the introduction and the results or conclusiona€?.Several explanations for this lack of consistency in the structure of CS articles have been proposed. It may be related to the lack of a well-established research paradigm in CS, which Shaw (2003, pp.
726a€“736) argues is evidenced in research papers submitted to the International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). Dudely-Evans and Henderson 1990) have pointed to the relative youth of CS as an academic discipline as an explanation, and we may speculate that as the discipline matures, computer scientists will move towards a standard structure (or a few standard structures). Such a tendency has been identified in other disciplines, including scientometrics: it has been argued that the discipline may be becoming more like the natural sciences (Courtial 1994).

An analysis of introductions in the flagship journal Nursing Research also found that during the first 40A years of the existence of the journal, the use of standard sections and subheadings became increasingly common and had become the norm by the 1990s (Paganuzzi 1991).To throw light on these issues, we analysed the structure of 8,520 CS research articles picked from the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) conference proceedings series published by Springer.
The reason for the selection of LNCS is that it is among the largest series in which computer science conference proceedings are published, on a par with others published by IEEE and ACM. Furthermore, it was easy to automatically collect the data for our research from this series (details are given in a€?Materials and methodsa€?).Our practical aim is to provide CS researchers and writing instructors with information which could help them in writing and teaching. The articles were collected from LNCS volumes 4001a€“4077, 4079a€“4098, 4101a€“4179, and 4181a€“4190, published mostly in 2006 (with the exception of three volumes published in 2007, and one in 2008). The volumes covered various subfields in CS, including software engineering, artificial intelligence, data security, computer networking, algorithms and data structures, human-computer interaction and others. No analysis or processing of other text was performed.In order to collect articles for the analysis, we developed a robot that automatically browsed the web pages of the SpringerLink online library, and retrieved the PDF files of the articles listed there. These objects are normally used by PDF renderers for showing the structure of the document and for allowing quick navigation.
Our robot typically downloaded only the first page of each article, because in linearized PDF files (most SpringerLink PDF files are linearized) the outline of the document is stored together with the first page. After downloading the first page, the connection was dropped, and the article structure extracted and stored in a file with tab separated values. The robot was implemented in Java 2 SE, and for parsing PDF files we used the iText library (Lowagie 2006). We developed our own procedures for opening linearized PDF files and extracting their outlines.The robot attempted to retrieve 8,919 articles. Some articles could not be downloaded due to network issues and the simplicity of our robot. For analyzing the data, we developed a number of macros in Visual Basic for Applications.First-level headings are referred to as section headings, and second-level headings as subsection headings. The dataset contained altogether 49,089 sections (45,937 without bibliography sections) and 32,938 subsections.
We cleaned up the texts of the headings by removing all punctuation marks, mathematical formulas, and formatting.We ignored headings of the third level and deeper. Interestingly, in one of these, one section of the third level had one subheading of the fourth level, under which there was a subheading of the fifth level.In order to analyze the orders in which headings appear in articles, we define a few simple notions. However, if an article contained sections after the bibliography section, their locations could equal 1. We define the locations of all subsections in a given section as equal to the location of the section itself. However, we take the difference between subsections and sections into account in some of our analysis.To analyse the article structures independently of their sizes, and as homogenously as possible, we use the notion of the article part in our analysis.
This type of rounding was chosen because for most article sizes it places the first section to the part 1, and all other sections to parts 2a€“5 (see examples for common article sizes in TableA 1).
At the beginning, we collected statistics on the most common words used in headings, and studied the typical locations of the headings that included these words. In addition, we investigated whether any patterns could be identified in the article headings.
Generally, the last section was a€?Referencesa€? or a€?Bibliographya€?: 3,153 articles had such sections marked in their PDF structure.
We assume that most other articles also included a section with references, but it was marked only in the text, and not put in the PDF outline objects. Our assumption is supported by the results of a small test where we accessed full texts of several such articles: all of them included references.
Statistics were collected on the correspondence of these sections and subsections to different article parts. Note that the search terms were not used as full words: the heading was considered as a match for a given type if a substring with a corresponding search term was found.
This explains the small differences between data in Figs.A 1 and 2, and results presented further on.

For instance, headings with the substring a€?Databasea€? were not classified as the type a€?Dataa€?, because many articles concentrated on various issues related to database management.
Relatively often (in 144 headings), authors combined related work with virtually any other types of sections, including motivation, background, introduction, presentation of own contribution, conclusions, evaluation, and discussion. In cryptography, for example, sections about related-key attacks could as well be contributions.
Therefore, we selected only headings that included rather precise search terms (see TableA 4). Altogether 1,993 articles included sections or subsections with description of related work. It can be clearly seen that they most commonly belonged to the second part of the articles (999 headings out of 2,016). Additionally, related work is often described in either the fourth or fifth part (770 headings altogether). An alternative placement, as a subsection in the first part of the article, was less common (160 headings).
Altogether 7,130 (84%) articles had at least one summarizing section, located using key words from TableA 4.
It is easy to see from Fig.A 7 that such headings were most commonly placed in the last part of an article. Indeed, in 6,967 articles the last section was a conclusion, or it included a summarizing subsection.
However, there were very few of them (84 headings in article parts 1a€“3), and they normally appeared in subsections (62).A special motivational section or subsection was included in 347 articles (4%).
Altogether 889 articles included at least one heading featuring the word a€?Problema€?, and in more than a half of them (474 articles) the first such heading appeared in the second part. The number of sections and the number of subsections related to models was approximately equal (1,758 and 1,818).
However, the distribution of algorithms-related headings in parts 2, 3, and 4 was somewhat different. Most commonly, systems and architectures were described as early as in part 2 of an article (933 headings out of 2,441). Key words related to the descriptions of experiments, simulations, and case studies were found in 3,367 articles (40%). The distributions of headings with results and experiments were very similar (see Figs.A 14, 15). The most usual location was part 4 (586 out of 1,432 headings), followed by parts 2 (411) and 3 (364). A considerable amount of analysis was found also in parts 2 and 3, mostly in subsections (see Fig.A 19).
Explicit descriptions of the writersa€™ own contributions could rarely be found in part 5, and their distribution in all other parts was approximately even (see Fig.A 20).
The relation P can be thought of as the probability that a heading of type B is found in an article that contains a heading of type A.
A positive value of R(A, B) indicates that a heading of type B is more likely to appear in an article that includes a heading of type A, than on the average.
An interpretation of such values is that headings of type A a€?predicta€? headings of type B in the same article.

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