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Metabolism of Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Faeces of Mice After a Supplementation of Diets With Agave FructansAlicia Huazano-Garcia1 and Mercedes G.
Variations on the Efficacy of Probiotics in PoultryLuciana Kazue Otutumi1, Marcelo Biondaro Gois1, Elis Regina de Moraes Garcia2 and Maria Marta Loddi3[1] Universidade Paranaense,, Brazil[2] Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul,, Brazil[3] Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa,, Brazil1. From there, several studies have been made and continue being developed with the use of probiotics. Probiotics have been shown in several studies to help improve digestive health, bolster the immune system, help prevent antibiotic-related side effects, and they may effect metabolism in ways that help us burn more calories and store less fat. Renew Life products are sold in drugstores and supermarkets and health stores including CVS, Whole Foods, Vitamin Shoppe and Walmart. The Ultimate Flora products come in a variety of options, including a Kids version, adult 50+, women’s care and more. To enter: Like us on Facebook, sing up for our FREE e-newsletter and leave a comment below about why you want to win Renew Life probiotics.
Would love to give Renew Life Probiotics a try as I definitely need to discover a reliable, worthy brand of quality and Renew Life sounds amazing! I need to get my digestive system back on track and inprove my chances for future weight loss! I would love to try this since a lot of GI problems run in my family, so I would like to keep up on things.
I’ve been very curious about the benefits of probiotics for a while, but I’ve never tried them. Look for an email from me in your inbox (check your spam folder too pls.), and please respond to my email within 48 hours to claim your prize. Quick Manuscript Submission - The procedure of submitting your manuscript is easy and quick. Recently, there is a growing interest of research on the relationship of gut-microbiota and neurological disorders. The concept of the gut-brain axis, a term which describes the complex bidirectional communication system that exists between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract and which is vital for maintaining homeostasis [1,2].
Emotional or physical stressors may cause disturbances at every levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems and affect regulation of visceral perception and emotional response to visceral events [6]. The human gastrointestinal microbiota represents a complex ecosystem that consists of bacteria, archaea, yeasts, planctomycetes and filamentous fungi and viruses, such as Senegal virus [24-30]. The microbiota and host have mutually beneficial symbiotic relationships, which assure balanced habitat [36].
For more than 50 years we have known that the administration of low doses of antibacterial agents promotes the growth of farm animals, consequently, in the United States, the largest use of antibiotics and related antimicrobial substances is within farms, with low doses fed to large numbers of animals used for food production to increase weight gain [41]. As might be expected given the importance of the microbiota in supporting host digestion and metabolism, obesity has been considered as an illness with a potential microbial basis [44]. Several nutrients, including L-glutamine, L-glutamate, glucose, and sucrose, have physiological effects such as protecting the gastric mucosa, improving emotional state, and supplying energy in the subconscious state. The GI tract also is a locus of hormone production, including those involved in energy homeostasis (such as insulin, glucagon, leptin and ghrelin) and growth (for example, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) [59]. In general the braina€“guta€“enteric microbiota axis includes the CNS, the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the enteric nervous system (ENS), and of course the intestinal microbiota.
Figure 2 Bidirectional communications between Gut-Microbiota and Gut-Brain Axis (GBA) in the modulation of the stress response. Microbiota also interacts with host gut-brain axis through neurohumoral communication to influence brain development and behavior [62].
Some of the earliest indications of a critical role of the gut microbiota in stress responses are well recognized.
Serotonergic neurotransmission modulates many brain functions including emotion, cognition, motor function, pain as well as neuroendocrine functions such as food intake, circadian rhythms and reproductive activity [76].
Diet supplementation with prebiotic fiber has been associated with alterations in the expression or content of various gut hormones linked to the regulation of energy balance, notably increasing the satiety hormone PYY and reducing the expression of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin [79]. A potential role for the microbiota in the development of autism, a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life and affects the braina€™s normal development of social and communication skills [82].
Series of studies summarized in recently published reviews indicate a critical role of intestinal commensally microbiota in the development of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis [103,104]. More recent studies substantiate these assertions with demonstrations that commensally flora recognition by toll-like receptors (TLRs) is necessary to induce increased epithelial cell proliferation thus accelerating repair of the epithelial surface following injury and to inhibit inflammation [106].
It has been hypothesized that changing diets are altering the gut microbiota towards dysbiosis and may thus be driving an increase in the incidence of inflammatory diseases. The core neuroendocrine pathway in human is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and activation of this axis takes place in response to a variety of physical and psychological stressors [130]. Signaling molecules released into the gut lumen from cells in the lamina propria that are under the control of the CNS can result in changes in gastrointestinal motility and secretion as well as intestinal permeability, thus altering the GIT environment in which the bacteria reside [2]. Stress also induces permeability of the gut allowing bacteria and bacterial antigens to cross the epithelial barrier and this can activate a mucosal immune response which in turn alters the composition of the microbiome [131]. Recently, some studies indicate a positive effect of probiotics on stress related pathology in upper GI tract, however the effects need to be further evaluated [133]. An early study conducted in a gastroenterology clinic reported a very high lifetime prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder of 34% in newly referred IBS patients [144].
It has also been observed that IBS patients with psychiatric morbidity are characterized by low rectal distension pain thresholds, high rates of healthcare consultations, interpersonal problems and sexual abuse [148]. The system is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological activities such as arousal, vigilance and pain modulation. Within the realm of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes the two distinct disease patterns of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohna€™s disease (CD) has attracted attention as a disorder with an aberrant GIT microbial signature [163-167]. The idea of connection between gut-microbiota and onset of mental illness based on a€?autointoxicationa€™ and a€?intestinal toxemiaa€™ theory and toxemia were used to describe a process where toxins influence systemic health [173]. Now, the evidence of the gut-microbiota influence on behavior and brain chemistry is well documented [67,184].
Transplanting gut bacteria from obese humans into germ-free mice leads to greater weight gain and fat accumulation than mice that were given bacteria from the guts of lean humans, says another breakthrough study from Washington University in St Louis.
Prof Gordon’s group has been at the forefront of research into the link between gut microflora and obesity. Speaking with NutraIngredients-USA, Prof Gregor Reid from the Lawson Health Research Institute at the University of Western Ontario said: “Jeff Gordon's lab always does outstanding science and invariably gets published in top journals.
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INNOBIO is a leading manufacturer of functional nutritional ingredients and an expert in meeting customer specific requirements. If any viral or bacterial infection is causing problems in your stomach and small intestine, it is known as stomach flu and the medical term is 'Gastroenteritis'. Concentration of short chain fatty acids generated by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from the fermentation of Dasylirion sp. Lopez1[1] Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioquimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico1. Proposed interactions between competitive exclusion products, probiotics or immunostimulants, and avian intestinal immunity.
IntroductionIn face of the current debate about the use of antibiotics as growth promoters, due to the probable relationship with resistance to antibiotics used in human medicine, the presence of antibiotic residues in products of animal origin intended for human consumption and the emergent demand from consumer market for products free from additive residues, it was necessary to search for alternative products that could replace antibiotics used as promoters, without causing losses to productivity or product quality. Inconsistent results from the use of probiotics in animal production have been a constraint for the promotion of their use.
Today, we’re lucky to introduce you all to ReNew Life, one of the leading probiotic supplement companies. Thank you for introducing me to these as right now I’ve just been eating yogurt which has so much sugar for probiotics. I’ve revamped my diet significantly as of late and have noticed that my system isn’t adjusting as quickly as I would like.
Increasing number of findings suggests the broader role of gut-microbiota in the modulation of various physiological and pathological conditions and it is now well recognized that a bidirectional communication between brain and gut-microbiota is essential to maintain homeostasis. The gut-brain axis is involved in a multitude of physiological processes including satiety, food intake, regulation of glucose and fat metabolism, insulin secretion and sensitivity, bone metabolism [3,4], and lifespan [5].
Brain communicates with the gut through multiple parallel pathways including autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis, and other connections, which were termed the brain-gut axis [7,8].
The human gastrointestinal tract typically comprises more than 10 times microbial cells that of the number of human cells in our bodies and containA­ing 150 times as many genes as our genome [31,32].
The compositions of the microbiota play an important role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and host health [37].
There are two main mechanisms by which it can maximize nutrient availability, either by the release of calories from otherwise unavailable oligosaccharides or by modulating absorption [42].
Till 2004, there is over 138 data publications and 60 reviews for obesity and microbiota [45]. These nutrients can also modulate subsequent behavior, such as brain activation and behavioral modulation resulting from internal signaling through the gut-brain axis [49]. Scientists working in this field develop a model of obesity by treating mice at their early life time by administering mid-range of US FDA-approved sub-therapeutic level of various antibiotics in their drinking water, and reported that subtherapeutic antibiotic treatment (STAT) in early life growth mice results in significant increase in adiposity, bone mineral density and GIP level. During the feeding, the gut released peptides which are affecting hypothalamic pathways, and especially arcuate nucleus involved in the regulation of satiety and metabolism. For example, alteration in gastrointestinal function is communicated to the brain bringing about the perception of visceral events such as nausea, satiety, and pain or when, in turn, stressful experiences lead to altered gastrointestinal secretions and motility [63]. Germ-free animals were identified as having exaggerated hypothalamica€“pituitarya€“adrenal (HPA) axis activation in response to stress. The gut hormones affect glucose metabolism by altering food intake, body weight, insulin sensitivity, gastric delay, gut motility, glucose levels and plasma glucose levels. 5-HT is an important signaling molecule in the brain-gut axis and the 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells modulates peristaltic, secretory, vasodilatory, vagal and nociceptive reflexes [77]. It has been demonstrated that prebiotic treatment was increasing plasma levels of GLP-1 and PYY [80]. Interestingly in a study of 58 autism patients >90% had gastrointestinal problems compared to none in the control group [83]. The vertebrate GI tract contains an exceptionally complex and dense microbial environment, with bacterial constituents that affect the immune responses of populations of reactive host cells [105], and stimulate a rich matrix of effector mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune responses [32].
TLR signaling is vitally important not only for protection from pathogenic infection, but also for inducing tolerant responses to commensalism. Dietary factors apparently associated with dysbiosis in animal models include high-fat, high-carbohydrate, and low-fibre diets. Although there is no clear epidemiological evidence, which suggests that commensal bacteria contribute to MS pathogenesis, the effects of diet on MS development provide some indirect evidence [123].
Acute stress was shown to cause an increase in colonic paracellular permeability which involved mast cells and overproduction of IFN-I? with decreased expression of ZO-2 and occludin mRNA [132]. There is also evidence that stress may have a profound effect on bacterial flora leading to increased adhesion and translocation of bacteria due to increased barrier permeability. In a population based study in Hong Kong, the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder is significantly higher in subjects reporting IBS symptoms compared to those reporting these symptoms (16.5% vs.
Hyperactivity of the neuroendocrine and visceral perceptual response to physiological (e.g. Altered microbiota is also evident in animal models of inflammation relevant to IBD with a dramatic increase in the Proteobacteria classes of bacteria evident [168]. Later on, brilliant work of British surgeon Sir Arbuthnot Lane and Nobel-Prize-winning microbiologist Ilya Metchnikoff added great explanation for mental health disorders, which development could be connected to autointoxication, when systemic toxin load would influence nervous system function [174].
It is also known, that normal healthy microbiota influences the development and function of CNS, via behavioral and molecular changes [68]. Patrice Cani from the Metabolism and Nutrition research group at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium said the paper provides, “substantial evidence that specific microbial communities as well as their related metabolic capacities contribute to the modulation of energy homeostasis. My one comment with this paper, is that mice data doesn't necessarily tell us much about the human situation even though microbes from humans were used. Schematic representation of the crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the intestinal mucosa.
Effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of Salmonella colonization in broiler chicken.
An alternative is the use of probiotics, which are products made from living micro-organisms or their L-forms (without cell wall). Variations in the efficacy of probiotics can be due to the difference in microbial species or micro-organism strains used, or with the additive preparation methods (Jin et al., 1998a). The probiotics are time-released, which is important because that means they’ll actually get to your lower GI tract where they can work their magic.
I subscribe to your daily newsletter, like both FB pages as well and appreciate the opportunity to give these a try! I think a probiotic like Renew Life Ultimate Flora Probiotics might help to reset the appropriate levels of beneficial bugs in my system. The gut-brain axis includes central nervous system (CNS), the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, autonomic nervous system, enteric nervous system, and intestinal microbiota.


Based on previous studies there is strong evidence that exposure to stress, and release of catecholamines and norepinephrine into the GI tract during stress [9], may be responsible for the dysregulation of the gut-brain axis, via changing the GI motility, secretion of mucus and epithelial cells, thus leading to the different diseases of the gut [10]. Through the cooperative action of different functional microbial groups, the gut microbiota synthesizes essential amino acids and vitamins.
Alteration of gut microbiota can cause number of diseases for example, it has been shown that an increased ratio of the phylum Firmicutes to the genus Bacteroides is linked to obesity [43].
A perturbation of the resident flora in the accumulation of excess fat, microbial influences should not be considered in isolation because obesity is a multifactorial condition that also involves strong genetic factors, hypothalamic dysfunction, and an increase in the consumption of energy-dense food [46]. Put simply, through this bidirectional communication network, signals from the brain can influence the motor, sensory, and secretory modalities of the GIT and conversely, visceral messages from the GIT can influence brain function [60]. The neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, the sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system and the enteric nervous system are the key pathways through which they communicate with each other [64]. This hyper responsiveness was reversed by reconstitution with feces from animals kept in a pathogen- free environment or with a single bacterial strain, Bifidobacterium infantis [67]. It has been shown that low doses of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 can additively reduce food intake in rodents and man [73]. A high incidence of specific psychological features, including anxiety and obsessive compulsive behavior was observed in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Probiotics are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis.
There is evidence to support alterations of the fecal microbiota in patients with autism, with an increase in several subtypes of Clostridium [84,85], pathogens from the family Alcaligenaceae and Sutterella, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of GI disturbances in children with autism [86].
Oral administration of non-absorbable antimicrobials to SPF mice transiently altered the composition of the microbiota and increased exploratory behavior and hippocampal BDNF expression.
The activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway directly enhances intestinal epithelial integrity through translocation of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) [107,108].
These diets are associated with lower levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by the microbiota, leading to inflammation [119]. Recently a review by Berer and Krishnamoorthy, clearly summarized the role of commensal gut flora and brain autoimmunity [124]. Chronic stress disrupts the intestinal barrier, making it leaky and increasing the circulating levels of immune modulator bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide [134]. Furthermore, in terms of exogenous microbial threats, the frequency of Clostridium difficile has been shown to be higher in IBD and may trigger relapse where the disease is established but in remission [169]. A New Jersey physician, Henry Cotton, believed that gut infections are the initiator of all forms of behavioral and mood disorders, and psychosis as well [175]. It is known that cerebral dopamine (DA) synthesis is induced by DA-producing enzymes, inhibited by stimulation of intestinal microbiota through the a€?microbiota-gut-brain axisa€? (MGB). FructansMost plants store starch or sucrose as reserve carbohydrates, but approximately 12-15% of higher plants (representing more than 40,000 species) synthesizes fructans as their main source of carbohydrates [1]. The micro-organisms included as probiotics are usually assumed to be non-pathogenic components of the normal microflora, such as the lactic acid bacteria. However, other factors can justify the variations in the results of probiotic use in poultry, such as origin species, probiotic preparation method, survival of colonizing micro-organisms to the gastrointestinal tract conditions, environment where the birds are raised, management (including the application time and application route of the probiotic), the immunologic status of the animals, the lineage of the poultry evaluated, as well as age and concomitant use or not of antibiotics. It is also found that stress doing the early maturity life in animal, produces microbiota changes associated with inflammatory cytokines and increased levels of corticosterone [11]. The estimated number of species in the gut microbiota varies greatly, but it is generally accepted that the adult microbiota consists of more than 1,000 species which are belong to a few bacterial phyla [33], and more than 7,000 strains [32,34,35]. In addition, by deploying an array of glycosidehydrolases and polysaccharide lysases, the microbiota facilitates utilization of otherwise indigestible food compounds [34,38]. A significant energy source for humans is the bacterial metabolism of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) [47]. The afferent vagus nerve, which innervates the entire gastrointestinal tract and projects to the nucleus of the solitary tract, is then activated, or peripheral humoral factors such as insulin and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are released. But no significant differences for fasting insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, insulin, peptide YY, leptin, or ghrelin levels between control and STAT mice. The vagus nerve is the direct communication observed between the bacteria and the brain [61].
Stress through GBA effect on Gut-Microbiota which is responsible for functional GI disorders and dysbiosis.
This might influence a broad spectrum of diseases, psychiatric conditions and other disorders [65]. More recently, two studies have indicated that germ-free conditions during early growth of mice results in decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to conventional animals [68,69].
The interaction between SCFAs produced by the gut bacteria, and Gpr41 increases circulating levels of PYY, a potent orexigenic agent [48]. Preclinical evaluation of probiotics in rodents suggests that certain probiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity and therefore, better called as psychobiotics [81].
BDNF levels in antimicrobial treated mice were greatly higher in the hippocampus and lower in the amygdala compared with control mice [99]. The basic mechanism of the mucosal immune system is innate immunity and its characteristic ability to distinguish potentially pathogenic microbes from harmless antigens is achieved through pattern recognition receptors. Obesity is regarded as a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, and inflammatory cytokines secreted from adipose tissue are associated with rheumatoid arthritis [120]. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, suggests that the gut flora contribute to the development of this disease and therapeutic administration of probiotics (live beneficial bacteria) or prebiotics (compounds that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria) have been studied in various autoimmune disease models including MS [125,126].
Stress may be an important factor leading to the activation of the immune system resulting in the exacerbation or induction of acute colitis [135,136]. Using the gold standard diagnostic method with psychiatrist-conducted structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV Axis I Disorders, reported that anxiety disorders are diagnosed in 38% of patients with functional dyspepsia compared with 4% in the general population [146]. Yet, there are cumulating evidence showing that the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) involves abnormal processing of visceral nociceptive signals in the brain-gut axis, which leads to visceral hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia [150]. Increased I?-adrenergic activity is significantly correlated with visceral hypersensitivity and symptoms of hard or lumpy stools in constipation- predominant IBS [153,154]. It is well recognized that psychological stress, a factor which can perturb the microbiota, exacerbates the condition [170,171]. The oral treatment of rats with Lactobacillus reuteri which activated calcium dependent potassium channels in enteric neurons in the colonic myenteric plexus, proves that that gut microbiota may affect brain via autonomic nervous system [185,186].
1022-1023, 1027-1031) indicated that microbial populations in the gut are different between obese and lean people, and that when the obese people lost weight their microflora reverted back to that observed in a lean person, suggesting that obesity may have a microbial component.Dr Gordon and his group recently pushed back the scientific boundaries even further in this area. They found that specific Bacteroidetes strains were able to colonize the guts of the obese mice, settling into otherwise unoccupied niches. The paper's finding that certain interactions in the mice were transmissible is interesting, and makes sense given how integrated hosts are with their microbiota, diet and environment.”The report by Ridaura et al. Along with these, there can be fever, headache, dry skin and mouth, chills, muscle pains, etc.Doctor's advice and medication are essential in that case. Fructans are found naturally in plants as a heterogeneous mixture of different polymerization degrees, they are a polydisperse mixture. Probiotic bacteria can also enhance intestinal barrier function by (5) increasing mucus production (Adapted Ng et al., 2009).
However, there is good evidence that non-pathogenic variants of pathogenic species can operate in much the same way as traditional probiotics.
Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss the use of probiotics in poultry, with emphasis on the type of probiotic and micro-organisms used, action mechanism and its relation with the variations on the results of poultry survey.2.
This review covers the significance of gut-brain axis in relation to the overall mental well-being.
Epidemiological studies have implicated stress of psychosocial, physical or immune origin as a trigger of first onset or exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms [12-14]. Interestingly, the gut microbiota modulated the expression of genes involved in immunity, nutrient absorption, energy metabolism and intestinal barrier function in human or mouse intestine [15]. Fermentation of saccharides by gut microbiota is the main source of energy for intestinal epithelial cells [26]. SCFAs can modulate the host energy balance through Gpr41, a G protein coupled receptor that binds SCFA, and is dependent upon the gut microbiome. In addition to absorption and metabolism, recent studies have indicated that the stomach, duodenum, and intestine contain chemosensing taste receptors and some kind of the G-protein coupling receptors (GPRs).
Various dynamic phases of growth in young animals, STAT alterations of the microbiome may affect pluripotent cells that can become osteoblasts, adipocytes, or myocytes.
Similarly dysbiosis effect synthesis of several microbial by-product and precursor that gain access to the brain via the bloodstream and the area postrema, via cytokine release from mucosal immune cells, via the release of gut hormones such as 5a€‘hydroxytryptamine (5a€‘HT) from entero-endocrine cells, or via afferent neural pathways, including the enteric nervous system. Putative mechanisms by which microbes access the brain and influence behavior include microbial products that gain access to the brain, via cytokine release from the mucosal immune cells, via the release of gut hormones such as 5-HT from endocrine cells, or via afferent neural pathways, including the vagus nerve. Conventionalized germ-free mice present with a 2.8-fold increase in plasma serotonin levels respect to control animals [74].
In diarrhea-predominant IBS, plasma cortisol was linearly related to plasma serotonin [78].
Alterations in the BDNF level were consistent with the behavioral changes observed in that study. TLRs are present on cells of the innate immune system and recognize characteristic molecules called pathogen associated molecular patterns [109]. Increased bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) uptake through the gut lumen to other tissues occurs in obese murine models as a response to fat feeding [121], and enhanced systemic exposure to LPS could increase the risk of such inflammatory disorders as rheumatoid arthritis. EAE is typically induced in experimental animals via immunization with myelin antigens in combination with a strong adjuvant. The modulator role of stress-related brain-gut interactions in the IBS pathophysiology, in particular neuroimmune modulation associated with psychological factors and emotional state [6,8,137] has been confirmed by the encouraging outcome of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment modalities aimed at reducing stress perception [138-140]. It has been shown that stress or bacterial-mediated disruption of epithelial barrier function in IBS result in malfunctioning of inflammation tuning-down mechanisms may lead to longstanding increase of gut permeability and hypersensitivity [147]. Furthermore, FGID patients are also characterized by abnormalities in autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. It has also been reported that anxiety induces gastric sensorimotor dysfunction and postprandial symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia [155]. A number of strands of evidence support a role for the microbiota in the pathophysiology of IBS and chief among these is the supporting data for PI-IBS, a term which describes the development of IBS following an episode of bacteriologically confirmed gastroenteritis [115,172].
Great proposal made by a brilliant scientist Elie Metchnikoff, that orally consumed lactic acid bacteria could combat the dangers of autointoxication, could slow the aging via to slowing arteriosclerosis and improve the quality of life [177,178]. In an ‘elegant’ study, the St Louis-based scientists reported that probiotics in a yogurt did not colonize the gut microflora when studied in identical twins, but an additional study in mice revealed that ingestion of probiotic bacteria produced a change in many metabolic pathways, particularly those related to carbohydrate metabolism (Science Translational Medicine, Vol. These bacteria then triggered changes in metabolism, among other metabolic effects, they said. Production of short chain fatty acids in the caecum, colon and faeces in rats associated with human faecal contents and fed with inulins of different chain lengths. Among plants that store fructans, many are economically important, due to its content of fructans, as it is the case of chicory (Cichorium intybus), agave (Agave spp.), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), garlic (Allium sativum) and wheat (Triticum asetivum) [2, 3]. For example, avirulent mutants of Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, and Salmonella Typhimurium can also protect against infection by the respective virulent parent strain (Fuller, 1995). Type of probiotic and micro-organisms usedThere are several types of probiotics available in the market to be used in poultry, with a range of micro-organisms present and, therefore, with different metabolic activities and action modes. Apart from the recent studies highlighting the importance of gut-brain axis, here we also reviewed the interaction of few herbal medicines with gut-brain axis. In adult irritable bowel syndrome patients, acute stress episodes, chronic social stress, anxiety disorders, and maladaptive coping style determine the illness experience, health care-seeking behavior as well as treatment outcome [15,16].
Microbial de-polymerization of complex carbohydrates and proteins gives rise to mono- and oligomeric compounds that are subsequently fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as well as to carbon dioxide and molecular hydrogen [39].
It is thought that interaction between SCFAs produced by the gut bacteria, and Gpr41 increases circulating levels of PYY, an enteroendocrine hormone that reduces gut motility and thus increases absorption of SCFAs [48].
The T1R receptor, which is related to the chemoreception of the sweet and the umami taste, and the T2R receptor, which is related to the chemoreception of the bitter taste, are both expressed in the gut [50,51]. Postulated that STAT exposures selected for microbiota with increased metabolic activity that were able to extract a higher proportion of calories from dietary complex carbohydrates that were relatively indigestible in the control mice.
The cross talk between gut microbiota, the immune system and the brain-gut axis plays an important role in the modulation of the stress response of the gut in the context of the development of different gut disorders as microbiota communicate with the gut-brain axis through different mechanisms viz. Stress and emotions can also influence the microbial composition of the gut through the release of stress hormones or sympathetic neurotransmitters (GABA, 5-HT precursors etc.) that influence gut physiology and alter the habitat of the microbiota and also these catecholamine alter the growth, motility and virulence of pathogenic and commensally bacteria. Administration of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 to Sprague-Dawley rats, for example, has been shown to induce an elevation in plasma tryptophan levels, a precursor to serotonin [75]. On the other hand, changes in BDNF level have also been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression.
Pathogen recognition by a particular TLR results in a cascade of events starting with the activation of the NF-I?B signaling system and resulting in increased cytokine production and T cell activation [110]. Rheumatoid arthritis patients are prone to a higher ratio of fat to muscle mass, so-called sarcopaenic obesity [122], but debate continues about whether sarcopaenia is a cause or an effect of rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, sterilization of the gut by treatment with a mixture of antibiotics reduced the severity of EAE [127,128].
Recent developments showing the critical interdependence between the composition and stability of the microbiota and GI sensory-motor function indicate a novel approach to IBS treatment with a use of probiotics, prebiotics and antibiotics [2,141]. This neural network involves corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) containing neuronal projections that activate both the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Psychological disorders and FGID also share common genetic predispositions particularly the genes that are involved in serotonergic activities. This great work was also supported by Albert Abrams [179], Frederick Forchheimer [180] and was carried out through the early 1930s.
Recent research supporting a role for the microbiota in maintaining normal brain function offers the intriguing possibility that the therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiome might be a viable strategy in the treatment of CNS disorders [84]. National Institutes of Health, the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America, Kraft Foods and Mondelez International.


When you suffer from this disease, fluids go out of your body through vomiting and diarrhoea.Thus, your body lacks water and electrolytes.
Concentration of total short chain fatty acids production in the caecum and the three sections of the colon in mice fed a standard (STD) diet or diet supplemented with Raftiline (RNE-inulin) or Agave angustifolia Oax.
Glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol levels in plasma of mice fed with a standard (STD) diet or diet supplemented with Raftiline (RNE) and A. Five different groups of fructans have been found in nature and distinguished according to the type of linkage between fructose units and the position of the glucose moiety within the structure. Also, they present variations as to the capacity of colonizing the intestine or not, which justifies variations on the results of their use.Bacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, E.
Animal studies have indicated that some herbs or their isolated constituents alter the normal gut flora and have prominent effect on behavioral condition such as anxiety depression and cognition.
Stress-related psychosocial factors such as somatization, neuroticism, and hypochondriasis are also important predictors in the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome [17,18]. Carbohydrate fermentation and short-chain fatty acid production significantly improve the absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus [40]. In addition, GPR120 exists in both the oral cavity and the gastroinestinal tract in rodents.
The increased SCFA concentrations are the metabolic products of this activity, which then may be delivered in increased quantities through the portal circulation to the liver, enabling enhanced lipogenesis.
Alternatively, host stress hormones such as noradrenalin might influence bacterial gene expression or signaling between bacteria, and this might change the microbial composition and activity of the microbiota [66].
Germ-free mice also had significantly lower BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex, which are important components of the neural circuitry underlying anxiety and fear [70, 71].
There are ample evidences which suggest that BDNF and its mediated signaling may participate in the pathophysiology of depression [100]. A mechanistic perspective has been provided by a number of studies which found a persistent elevation in rectal mucosal enteroendocrine cells, T-lymphocytes and gut permeability following the infectious insult in subjects who went on to develop IBS [111,112]. Specific modulation of the enteric microbiota in the context of neuroimmune interactions within the brain-gut axis opens a new promising strategy for stress-related disorders, particularly in the aspects of comorbidity in functional GI disorders such as IBS [1,142].
The alterations in CRF secretion and expression of its receptor, CRF1, involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related, which includes anxiety, depression, and changes in gastrointestinal motility and visceral sensation [147]. It has been reported that the polymorphism of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) genes is associated with the subtypes of IBS [156]. In 1945 Danish scientists found that older adults with dementia had the highest level of clostridia species [181]. These groups consist of inulins, neoseries inulins, levans, neoseries levans and graminans.
In their experiments, the authors observed that the intestinal contents of normal adult birds, orally administered to chicks with one day of age, altered their sensitivity to infection by Salmonella spp.
Thus alteration of gut-brain axis by traditional medicines will be a potential strategy for the management of comorbid CNS disorders and gastrointestinal problems. Enhanced caloric absorption has been implicated as a mechanism for increased weight gain in other murine obesity models [41].
Antidepressant-like property of BDNF has been reported in animal models of depression [101] and it is now established that BDNF contributes to the therapeutic action of antidepressant treatment [102]. Microbiotaa€™s inflammation-suppressing fractions may simultaneously counteract with inflammation-aggravating bacteria, improve the barrier effect of the GI mucosa and more directly interact with inflammation-driving components of the immune system [113]. Lee and colleagues showed that disease protection in germ free mice coincided with reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-c and increased numbers of Forkhead box P3+ (Foxp3+) regulatory T (TReg) cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues and the CNS [129]. Experimental findings suggest that minor irritation of the gut in neonatal animals leading to features of depression and anxiety that persist into adulthood [143]. Polymorphisms in the promoter for synthesis of SERT influence response to serotonergic medications in depression as well as colonic transit response to alosetron, a serotonin receptor-3 (5-HT3) antagonist, in patients with diarrhea predominant IBS [157]. The first practical suggestion to use probiotics for treatment of mental illness was proposed by Scottish physician Hubert J.
However, even those belonging to the same species can have different strains and even these different strains from the same species can have different metabolic activities.
It has been shown that microbiota helps and protects the host against the viruses indirectly via activation of the inflammasome which is crucial for defense against influenza [20,21]. Free fatty acids also interact with GPR40 in the gastrointestinal tract and promote the secretion of GLP-1 [53], and CCK [54]. Enhanced turnover rate of noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-HT has also been demonstrated in the striatum of germ-free mice compared with specific pathogen-free mice [68]. Hence, BDNF might be the common substrate through which alteration in the gut microbiota mediate the behavioral effect.
Multiple studies are regarded as important indicators of a link between alterations in the microbiota and mucosal inflammation in IBS [114-116]. Moreover, IL-10-producing, Foxp3+ TReg cells accumulated in the cervical LNs (cLNs) of antibiotic-treated mice and were able to protect naive recipients against the transfer of EAE [127].
Early life adversity, particularly psychological stress, has been speculated to play an important role of pathogenesis of FGID.
Currently, inulins are extracted from chicory roots, containing fructose chains having a degree of polymerization (DP) from 3 to 60 [2] (Figure 1a). Interestingly, in spite of the fact that microbiota help the host to fight viruses (for example in case of influenza), it may also equally enhance viral infection via influence on virus replication by stimulating the proliferation or activation of target cells [22].
GLP-1 and CCK evoke c-fos positive immunoreactivity in several brain regions, including the amygdala and the periaqueductal gray matter [55-57].
Persistent low grade inflammation is a characteristic of post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) [17] and these patients exhibit greater IL-1I? mRNA expression, both during and after the infection, compared with individuals who do not develop PI-IBS [117]. Other social and environmental factors, such as exposure to war time conditions, infantile and childhood trauma and social learning of illness behavior are predictors of the IBS in adulthood [158,159]. However, for any firm conclusions, properly powered studies are required before using probiotics in treatment of depression [183].
The chemical or enzymatic (endoinulinases) hydrolysis of inulins produces inulins of shorter DP (DP<10), these are called fructooligosaccharides (FOS) [5, 6]. There is a growing appreciation of the critical role played by the commensally microbiota, both in our general wellbeing and in the specific functioning of the brain-gut axis. Intragastric infusion of glucose solution increases blood glucose, GLP-1, and insulin, and circulating GLP-1 acts on neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
IBS patients with normal histology had increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and CD3+ and CD25+ cells in the lamina propria [118]. In recent years, a positive association between psychological stress and abnormal immunity has also been implicated in the pathophysiological mechanism of IBS.
Mexico is considered the origin center of evolution and diversification of the Agave genus, since a large number of agave species are found in its territory.
Interestingly, bacteria may respond directly to stress-related host signals because of interplay between stress and gut microbiota.
Recently, it has been demonstrated that fluctuations in insulin following the intragastric administration of glucose correlate with the blood oxygenation level-dependent response in the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, and nucleus accumbens [49,58].
Increased CD25+ cells in IBS suggests an antigen challenge and these cells are preventing a€?a more florid inflammatory responsea€? [65].
IBS patients have coexisting hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels [130]. The Agave genus includes approximately 166 species and is the largest genus among the Agavaceae family that consists of 9 genera and approximately 293 species [7, 8].
Thereby, stress may influence the outcome of infections by these bacteria in many hosts [23].
Chronic psychological stress leads to maladaptive increase in mucosal permeability and decrease in secretory response of intestinal epithelium to luminal stimuli [160].
The agave plants have the ability to grow in extremely dry-hot environments, where sometimes this plant is the predominant or exclusive flora in that type of a geo-climatic zone, however, they can also be found in diverse ecosystems, such as productive highlands and elevated humidity [9].
It has been shown that the change in intestinal mucosal permeability is mediated by CRF [161,162]. These plants present a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and their principal photosynthetic products are fructans [10], fructans are synthesized and stored in the stems of agave plants. Agave is the most exploited genus and economically important as the raw materials are used on the production of alcoholic beverages such tequila (A. Agave fructans posses a molecular structure compose of a complex mixture containing highly branched molecules with ?(2-1) and ?(2-6) linkages, as well as internal and external glucose units, due to the existence of both types of glucose, agave fructans have been classified as graminans (external glucose) and agavins (internal glucose) [11] (Figure 1b).
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)The gastrointestinal tract is an extremely complex ecosystem containing about 1011 CFU (colony forming units) of bacteria per gram of intestinal content. This large population of bacteria plays a key role in the nutrition and health of the host [18]. The colonic microbiota ferments organic material that cannot be digested otherwise by the host in the upper gut.
These include resistant starch, non-digestible carbohydrates (fructans) as well as some proteins and amino acids [19]. Fructans fermentation also produces a few gases as CO2, CH4, H2 and additionally heat [19, 23]. The presence of both, non-digestible carbohydrates and SCFAs in the colon can positively alter the colonic physiology drastically [24]. An increased in SCFAs synthesis also creates a more acidic environment in the gut, which is important in vivo in terms of colonization resistance against pathogens [18, 20]. The production of SCFAs is affected by many factors, including the source of substrate [26], in particular, the chemical composition of the fermentable substrate, the amount of substrate available, its physical form (e.g.
The gut of mice comprises four sections: caecum, proximal, transverse (medial) and distal colon. The caecum and proximal colon are the main sites where fermentation is carried out, given the number of bacteria and the availability of substrate, because as it moves through the intestine toward the distal colon, there is a lower concentration of water as well as a depletion of carbohydrates and increased pH [22].
SCFAs are rapidly absorbed in the caecum and colon being excreted in the faeces only from 5% to 10% of them [24]. The presence of acetyl-CoA synthetase in the cytosol of adipose and mammary glands allows the use of C2:0 for lipogenesis once it enters the systemic circulation [24]. C3:0 is also a substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis and it has been reported that this acid inhibits cholesterol synthesis in hepatic tissue [31, 32]. Water maintains the balance of the fluids in your body while sugar boosts up your energy, as you feel lethargic when suffering from gastroenteritis. It is the most important SCFA in colonocytes metabolism, where 70% to 90% of C4:0 is metabolized by the colonocytes. Approximately 95% of the C4:0 produced by colonic bacteria is transported across the epithelium, but concentrations in portal blood are usually undetectable as a result of a rapid utilization [33]. The authors concluded that these differences correlated well with the structural differences, FOS has a short DP and inulin a long DP.
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These researchers found that short inulins were rapidly fermented and produced higher concentrations of C4:0 compared with other inulins, hence, chain length is an important factor on the fermentation patterns of SCFAs (Table 1). The differences in SCFAs patterns in these studies may be also attributed to differences in bacteria species present in the faecal inocula or fermentation process used.
These researchers found that branched fructans from Dasylirion (DSC) with a DP range from 3 to 20 and A. Yogurt is full of probiotics that can reduce the effects of infection like vomiting, nausea and diarrhoea. Moreover, the major SCFAs fermentation product, were acetic, formic and lactic acids, wherein the proportions of the acids varied depending on the prebiotic type used by the different bacteria. Figure 4 shows the fermentation products only for the two agave fructans (DSC and ATG) and commercial inulins (RSE and RNE) that better stimulated the growth of bacteria. The authors observed that agave fructans stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli more efficiently (2-fold) that commercial inulins, either long- or short-DP.
They also reported that short-DP fructans in the mixtures highly influenced the rate of fermentation by probiotc bacteria.
Mint: Use it in soups or curry to stay away from gastroenteritis and other stomach-related problems.
Their results indicated no significant differences among the growth of both bacteria genera with the different fructans used.
Production of SCFAs in vivoInulinsNilsson and Nyman [40] evaluated the formation of SCFAs in the hindgut of rats fed with lactulose, lactitol, FOS and inulins of different DP and solubility.
Moreover, FOS, inulins and the mixture of FOS-inulins increased the amount of C4:0 acid in the caecum and colon of the rats fed with the mixture regard to animals fed with standard diet. The authors concluded that the type of diet and the fermentation site in the colon affected the concentration of SCFAs (Table 2).
In another study, the same authors fed rats with 10% of inulin, they found a higher concentration of C3:0 acid in the portal vein as well as a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol levels of the rats fed with this diet with regard to animals that consumed the standard diet [44]. On the other hand, a study carried out using obese rats that received a diet supplement with inulin, a two-fold greater C3:0 concentration in the portal vein and a decrement on triglyceride accumulation in the liver of these animals was observed [45].
A similar result was seen in hamsters fed with different percentages of inulins (8, 12 and 16%). Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower with all the percentages of inulins studied with respect to hamsters fed with the standard diet [46].



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