Probiotics and the gut microbiome kit,enzymes associated with digestion in humans have,are probiotics actually good for you 707 - New On 2016

Our skin is the largest organ in our body, and it’s a complex ecosystem made up of several layers and components. The skin is semi-permeable, meaning that although it’s mostly a barrier between us and our environment, some stuff can get in and out. Hair originates in follicles deep in the subcutaneous layer, the deepest layer below the dermis. We have hair follicles and sebaceous glands all over our body, except for the palms of our hands and soles of our feet. Acne forms when pores become congested with old skin cells, which is more likely when the skin is oily and skin cells stick together. Acne vulgaris is the form of acne most of us are familiar with and accounts for nearly all acne experienced. The food we eat and our body fat cells play a role in sebum production, hormones, and inflammation. Acne during puberty is often associated more with growth hormone (GH) than with testosterone and estrogens. High insulin levels and insulin resistance are associated with worse acne and more sebum (side note: more body fat can lead to more insulin resistance). Androgens can directly influence skin cells if the cells have high levels of androgen receptors. Thus, stress (whether physical or general life stress) plus inflammation (whether existing or prompted by stress) make acne worse.
Foods that are highly processed and cooked often contain compounds that promote oxidative stress and inflammation (see All About Cooking and Carcinogens).
While there have been noted associations between dairy consumption and acne starting back in the 1800s, some data indicate no association. Dairy foods produce a high insulin response, increase hormone levels in the body and alter inflammation – all factors that lead to unfavorable acne outcomes.
The unfavorable associations between dairy and acne haven’t been noticed with fermented dairy products, maybe because bacteria in fermented dairy use IGF-1, leaving less for us to absorb. Some experts theorize that whey protein in particular may encourage acne, since it’s a strong promoter of insulin.
Those with acne might be more likely to experience gastrointestinal problems like bloating and constipation.
Gut health is often diminished when chronically stressed, leading to inflammation and maybe even a leaky gut. There may be a connection between wheat gluten and acne (as well as between gluten and other skin conditions). Diets based around whole plants can lead to slightly lower IGF-1 levels and slightly higher IGF-1 binding protein levels (leaving less available IGF-1 circulating in the body). These substances, found in foods such as soy, may inhibit androgen-forming and acne-promoting enzymes, but don’t appear to play a major role in helping acne.
There doesn’t seem to be an association between chocolate (in its most unprocessed form) and acne. Skin cells have also been found to act as immune cells that signal an over-active immune system. Hens that receive nutritious feed (or even better, free-ranging pasture that includes bugs and other small animals) produce more nutrient-dense eggs (including beneficial vitamin A and omega-3 fatty acids) that may help to deter acne. Supplementation with pantothenic acid (500-1000 mg daily should be sufficient) can be quite effective, and a far safer alternative to commercial prescription medications such as oral contraceptives and retinoids.
Observing cultural shifts in diet can also clue us into what foods might be associated with acne.
They don’t eat processed foods, sugars, flours or processed wheat, processed oils, nor much dairy. They often eat fermented foods — foods that are high in beneficial probiotics for gut health. They eat as much as possible of any animals consumed: dark and white meat, organ meats, connective tissues, etc. One good experiment is to try doing without wheat, dairy, and sugar for a month to see if it helps. During times of hormonal fluctuation (like puberty) excess sebum production likely occurs to protect hair follicle growth.
Our skin is replaced every 28 to 45 days. Sebaceous glands have receptors for neuropeptides, like endorphins. The plant extracts from Azadirachta indica (Neem), Sphaeranthus indicus (Hindi), Hemidesmus indicus (Sarsaparilla), Rubia cordifolia (Common Madder) and Curcuma longa (Turmeric) seem to be anti-inflammatory and might suppress bacteria on the skin that promote acne. In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research.
Lactic Acid Bacteria as Probiotics:Characteristics, Selection Criteria and Role in Immunomodulation of Human GI Muccosal BarrierDaoud Harzallah and Hani Belhadj[1] Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif, Algeria1. Science journalism is an essential medium for keeping the general public well informed about ground breaking and exciting science. Over the past decade, research into the microbial organisms that live in and on human beings has exploded dramatically. Figure 1~ A quick search for “Microbiome” in scienctific journals online demonstrates how significantly this field of research has been growing over the past ten years [2]. While microbial communities are present in all areas of they human body, the highly complex intestinal microbiome has become one of the core areas of research. Recently our understanding of the scope of this microbial involvement has taken a surprising turn. This microbiome-gut-brain connection has stirred up public interest as well as scientific curiosity. In reality, while there is strong preliminary evidence (primarily in rodents) that alterations to or the entire absence of gut microbiota correlates with changes in mood and behavior, there has also been a significant amount of misleading journalism about what scientists really know.
Much of the hype surrounding the human microbiome and how it may influence mental health stems from a long standing belief that manipulating the gut microbiota confers positive health benefits to the host. Last December, researchers at Oxford University conducted a trial that tested for emotional and physiological effects of prebiotics on a small group of human volunteers.
The researchers gave a group of 45 healthy volunteers (22 male and 23 female) a fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS), or a placebo (maltodextrin) every day for 3 weeks. In addition, when attention to negative versus positive words was measured, B-GOS supplementation correlated to increased focus on positive stimuli (Figure 3). From this data, the researchers conclude that the B-GOS supplement has similar effects as some anti-depressant and anti-anxiety pharmaceuticals, and that prebiotic usage has behavior effects in humans[5]. Perhaps what is most worrisome about this research is that there is a glaring conflict of interest, as a major source of funding came from Clasado Ltd. To test how the consumption of this probiotic cocktail impacted neurological function, the researchers used a combination of fMRI, which scans and monitors brain activity, and a face-matching attention task. What they found was that the group given the probiotic supplement had a lower amount of activity in several areas of the brain during the experimental task.
While the data is very preliminary and provides no direct evidence of a bacterial dependent mechanism for these changes, it is interesting to see in humans what has for sometime been observed in rodents: that the presence or absence of certain bacterial strains in the gut appear to affect the brain. It is, however, important to note that this study on probiotics shares the same controversy in terms of conflict of interest as the previously-discussed Oxford paper on the effect of prebiotics: it was funded by the Groupe Danone, the makers of Dannon Yogurt. Setting aside a discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of these papers or their possible conflicts of interest, it is most interesting to look at how this research has been reported in the media. For instance, the prebiotics paper has been picked up by multiple news outlets around the world, in one form or another reporting that “some people feeling stressed, anxious or depressed could receive relief by downing probiotics and prebiotics,” or that “[prebiotics] may have an anti-anxiety effect”[4,8]. Of course, the critical viewpoint presented in this piece by no means renders the field meritless. It’s not terribly difficult to turn your bottles of fizzy goodness, into something EVEN tastier. Flavoring kombucha can be easily done in two different stages and depending on the type of flavor that you are looking for a different flavor can be given just by the stage that you choose. If you would like to add fresh fruit or herbs to your kombucha, add it to the bottles and fill with kombucha. The GetKombucha Silver Continuous Brewing Kit contained everything I could possibly need to get started making my own Kombucha at home! ONE Fully Grown Organic Kombucha Mushroom Culture – 6 inches in diameter!  Individually packaged in its own organic kombucha starter tea ~ add both cultures in with your brewer to speed up fermentation times OR save one for future experimental brewing with your kombucha boosters! Dispenser Spigots, Covers, Fastener Bands, PH Strips, Muslin Tea Filters, Brewing Gloves, and More!  We give you everything you need to make brewing a breeze.  We even include double the spigots and covers in both black and white so you can customize your brewer and alwas have a backup… we got you covered! All information on The Hippy Homemaker is meant for educational and informational purposes only. Not sure what the question was but I learned that you can blend Kombucha with juice or just flavor it with fruits and herbs. Some people like yogurt with probiotics for breakfast, lunch and even dinner, but very few actually know why it’s such a great idea to choose only yogurt brands with probiotics in them. There’s an elemental difference between your average yogurt with probiotics and a brand that claims to offer yogurt with most probiotics. It’s not a medicine for your bowel ailments – although doctors do advice probiotics when you have improper bowel movements, but that’s mostly about stimulating the body to jump back into “normal function” mode. You’d want to have them back in your body to do the dirty work in your gut, but the problem is gut flora cannot be restored by the average food items.
Probiotic ice creams and even chocolate are available, but they are not readily absorbed by body – if you really want to restore your gut flora, yogurt with probiotics is the way to go.
One serving of yogurt contains enough vitamin C to fight off the ill effects of common flu and fever. So, it’s time you started getting thanks from your digestive system, your heart and your spouse by just having some tasty probiotic rich yogurt everyday!
Home About Live Cultures Live Cultures About Live Cultures Live Cultures What are Probiotics?
Whilst probiotics may not be a quick acting cure for thrush, optimising one's friendly bacteria with probiotics should help to maintain a healthy balance of beneficial flora in the gut, and thereby reduce the ability of pathogenic yeasts like Candida to overgrow.
For those who suffer from thrush specifically when taking antibiotics, see OptiBac Probiotics For those on antibiotics. While each case is unique, you can greatly improve your chances of clear skin with food and lifestyle strategies.
These hair follicles are paired with sebaceous glands, which secrete sebum, an oily substance that lubricates both hair and skin. If we also have high levels of bacteria on the skin plus systemic inflammation, we have ourselves a full fledged acne party. Hormonal changes likely have the greatest influence on acne (think birth control medications, anabolic steroids and puberty). GH goes from the brain to the liver and triggers the release of Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1).
Medications that lower insulin and control glucose often have the side effect of less acne. With acne, inflammatory hormones and cell signals are upregulated — the skin is a hive of inflammatory activity. Evidence shows that people with acne have an over-active cortisol secretion system, one that is particularly expressed in the sebaceous glands. These nutrients help fight free radicals that break down skin elastin, produce collagen, and repair skin damage.
As rapid growth ends and the youngster can feed themselves, milk consumption is stopped (well, not in humans). IGF-1 from cow’s milk survives pasteurization and homogenization and digestion in our gut, and can enter the body as an intact hormone (cow and human IGF-1 share the same sequence). A compound called betacellulin (which can be found in dairy foods) may increase skin cell division and decrease skin cell death – leading to worse acne.
Consider eliminating all sources of wheat and gluten from your diet for a month and see if that helps.
While genetics (mom seems to play a bigger role) and ethnicity contribute to acne, it appears that how we live each day matters too. Studies show that dark chocolate can improve insulin sensitivity and improve blood flow to the skin and skin hydration.
Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory Western diet (with lots of omega-6 fats) tends to negatively influence acne. Whole foods, soluble and insoluble fibre, omega-3 fats, coconut, and Brassica vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kohlrabi, etc.) can have a beneficial influence on gut health, in part by improving gut motility. All of these things worsen GI tract problems, and acne is strongly connected to gluten enteropathy.
Our gut is home to countless bacteria and if gut health is out of whack, this might have a negative influence on acne. High-selenium foods include nuts (Brazil nuts in particular), fish, poultry, meat, wild game, mushrooms, whole grains, and eggs. This includes Inuit, Okinawa islanders, Ache hunter-gatherers, Kitavan islanders, and rural villages in Kenya, Zambia and Bantu.
Make a strong solution of chamomile and peppermint, swish your face in it, and let it sit for a while on the skin.
Next time you throw fruit in your Supershake, wipe your face with the pineapple or squished orange rinds.
A single-blinded, randomized pilot study to evaluate the effect of exercise-induced sweat on truncal acne. Prevalence of acne vulgaris in Chinese adolescents and adults: A community-based study of 17,345 subjects in six cities. Prevalence, severity, and severity risk factors of acne in high school pupils: A community based study. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine.
IntroductionAs it was reported by Chow (2002), the notion that food could serve as medicine was first conceived thousands of years ago by the Greek philosopher and father of medicine, Hippocrates, who once wrote: 'Let food be thy medicine, and let medicine be thy food'. Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract are able to respond to infection by initiating either nonspecific or specific host-defence response (Kagnoff and Eckmann 1997, Strober 1998). But in the process of translating complex research into attractive material for general consumption important details and subtleties are often lost.
Collectively termed the human microbiota, it is estimated that there are perhaps 10x more microbial than human cells cohabiting our bodies[1]. Scientists have already demonstrated that the gut microbiome is importantly involved in the development of the human immune system, and that abnormalities in microbial diversity are correlated with several inflammatory diseases, as well as colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity [1]. The past few years has seen a significant increase in scientific publications that examine if and how the microbiome may also influence our mood and behavior.
The suggestion that our intestinal bacteria are involved in behavior and mood has been particularly marketable, as it is an appealingly simple explanation for depression, anxiety, eating behavior, and even memory. There are two primary ways of altering the intestinal microbiota, either with probiotics, which are live microorganisms, or prebiotics which are essentially bacterial food sources that cannot be metabolized by the host organism.
Looking at two very recent studies that report a link between human intestinal microbiota and the brain we can start to get an idea.
The amount of time it took participants to complete that task gave researchers an idea of how much attention volunteers paid to the different types of stimuli.
In general, we experience a significant increase in cortisol levels within the first hour of getting up in the morning, theorized to be a physiological means of preparing for anticipated stress during the day [6]. The majority of other emotional tests showed no significant difference in response between the test groups.


These are bold claims, and while they openly acknowledge that their findings are preliminary, the suggestion that prebiotic consumption will effect human behavior is simply not conclusive from the correlations they observe. Brain activity was monitored during a resting state and while subjects performed tasks that had them identify certain emotions in human faces [7]. In particular they note there were noticeable changes in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain, a region of the midbrain that is involved in pain regulation[7].
Dannon both funded part of this research as well as provided the probiotic milk product that this trial tested. Though popular articles may describe some of the particulars and vagaries of the research, they seriously misrepresent the correlations and data by presenting preliminary evidence as something close to proven fact.
There is promising evidence that the microbiome is intimately involved in human health, including brain function and behavior. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page.
Technically, if you have the GetKombucha Continuous Brewing system, you don’t HAVE to bottle your kombucha. This is the period of time after bottling before you put your final kombucha into the fridge to drink. Raises your brewer an additional foot making the total height 2 feet and enables bottling your kombucha a breeze on any counter top!
Use the coupon code: hippyhome25 on a purchase of $150+ (on anything on the site) when you check out and you will recieve a $25 virtual gift card!
However, I only recommend products or services I have personally used myself and are in alignment with The Hippy Homemaker's ideals. The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
It seems pretty easy to make too although you do have a bit of a waiting period for your first batch.
I’ve made my own kombucha before but it never ends up tasting as good as the kinds from the store and I forget to make new tea and move my scoby over.
For the uninitiated, yogurt itself has achieved its super-food status courtesy probiotics – these are gut friendly bacteria that help with digestion and their population needs to be restored when depleted. Average yogurt is prepared by adding bacteria to fresh milk that anabolizes (opposite of metabolism) the milk and produces the “creamy consistency” thing that people know as yogurt.
Doesn’t matter how long you spend milking your slushie machine – it’s not going to give you back the lost bacteria if it’s not a yogurt based slushie. If you are a religious yogurt consumer, you might even say good bye to you Vitamin C supplements! That simply means your heart would thank you if you take two – three servings of yogurt everyday! Candida occurs naturally within the intestines, mouth, skin and vagina of most people - yet problems occur when this yeast is able to overgrow, in which case thrush can occur. For those who suffer from oral thrush, probiotics may be helpful for that too, however more research needs to be carried out into which strains are best.
Lower fat, higher fiber diets can increase levels of sex hormone binding proteins, thus lowering free levels of circulating androgens. The catch here is that you usually have to get these from whole foods for them to be of any benefit. Lots of insulin means lots of tissue growth and androgen production, which are both contributors to acne.
Balancing fat intake and ensuring enough omega-3s seems to be important for overall skin health. Potential and established health benefits associated with the usage of probiotics (Leroy et al., 2008).
However, during recent times, the concept of food having medicinal value has been reborn as 'functional foods'. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell or recognition by the host cell is often an essential first stage in the disease process.
Unfortunately these losses can result in misleading representations of science, communicating preliminary and correlative data as nearly proven fact. Scientists have become increasingly interested in studying the human microbiota because these organisms contribute a huge amount of genetic material to the overall human genome. The idea being that the microbial cultures in our guts are interacting with our nervous systems through the molecules and proteins they secrete.
If there is a link between the intestinal microbiota and the brain then pre and probiotics present exciting avenues for psychological therapies. By examining their methods, conclusions, the various interest groups involved, and the accompanying media coverage we can get a sense of both what is known, where the research is headed, and the aspects that have been skewed in the media. Immediately after waking on the mornings of the first and final days of the trial, participants self-collected samples of saliva. For example, if patients were able to count the number of stars in the same location as the positive stimulus more quickly that those in the location of the neutral stimulus, this indicated that they were more attentive to positive stimuli. This correlation between prebiotic consumption and lower cortisol levels may demonstrate a connection between the gut microbiome and the human nervous system.
Such a situation is common across industry-funded research, and underlines the persistent tension between financial and academic interests threatening scientific objectivity. Kristen Tillisch an associate professor of medicine at UCLA in 2013, the study involved 36 women given either a milk product supplemented with probiotics, milk without probiotics, or no intervention over the course of 4 weeks. Forbes magazine wrote that this research showed how “brains of people ingesting a probiotic for four weeks had less activity in brain areas associated with excessive anxiety”[9].
But there is equally clear evidence that media coverage walks far ahead of the scientific work it intends to report, too often condensing preliminary, correlative and complex data into pat headlines. Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers.
Depression, anxiety come from the gut: Surprising new research suggests ‘prebiotics’ can help. What’s a girl to pick when she already has all of the herbs and fruit at her fingertips? With the Continuous Brewing system, you just pour into your glass what you want to drink and then replace that much sweet tea into the certified lead free porcelain brewer.
The type of tea and herbs that you use during this step, will set the stage for your kombucha’s base flavors. After you have bottled your kombucha, you can either choose to put it into the fridge right away (the cold helps stop the fermentation process) or you can allow it to sit out for 24-48 hours after bottling, for secondary fermentation (this is how you make it fizzier).
Now that is healthy and does have a good amount of probiotics in it, but what about those brands that claim to offer maximum probiotics in yogurt?
Junk food, too much stress, dehydration, improper food habits and sedentary lifestyle can wreak havoc on our digestive health and that’s when the friendly bacteria in our gut take the beating and eventually get flushed out of the system. If you have the best yogurt with probiotics, you’ll not only have a healthy digestive system, but also a healthy immune system. Now, here’s the best part – yogurt can significantly reduce chances of infection in your private parts. Candida is thought to overgrow when the body's balance of good and bad bacteria is disrupted. To read more on this, you may find the following blog post interesting: Could probiotics help with oral thrush? These folks often experience a surge of circulating androgens and IGF-1, along with lower levels of sex hormone binding proteins.
1 gram of EPA from a supplement (check your fish oil to see how much EPA is in it) might be useful for acne treatment. Key and desirable criteria for the selection of probiotics in commercial applications (Vasiljevic and Shah, 2008). The list of health benefits accredited to functional food continues to increase, and the gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, because it acts as an interface between the diet and all other body functions. A wide range of gastrointestinal cell surface constituents, such as several glygoconjucates, can serve as receptors for bacterial adherence (Servin and Coconnier 2003, Pretzer et al., 2005). The genomes of our microbiota, and the way they interact with the human host, are collectively termed the microbiome.
Altogether, the accumulating body of scientific literature has provided early glimpses at potential links between our gut bacteria and conditions such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and autism [3]. Subjects were then given a series of emotional processing tasks in which attention to positive versus negative stimuli was measured. Researchers observed that those given prebiotics tended to be less attentive to negative stimuli [5]. The researchers suggest that this correlation may point to prebiotics having an anti-anxiety affect that is similar to existing pharmaceuticals. Fecal samples from the volunteers were analyzed for Bifidobacterium lactis, which was the active probiotic in the supplement, such that potential control subjects were screened to be B. While the general idea is accurate, making the connection to anxiety is still a stretch and grossly oversimplifies the research. If you would like to make your kombucha even fizzier, like soda, bottling is going to be the way to go for you! You can use just black tea, green tea, a combination of both (Dave at GetKombucha’s favorite blend is a combo of both!), or even add in dried herbs to steep with the teas to boost specific healing properties. To add specific flavor to your kombucha, you can add all kinds of flavoring options, such as fresh fruit, juice, or dried herbs. GetKombucha has teamed up with us to give away one of their Silver Continuous Brewing Kits (that’s a $197 value!). Readers are advised to do their own research and make decisions in partnership with their health care provider.
When that happens, you pick up stomach infections easily and it’s not before you’ve dumped some antibiotics inside you that you’d be saying goodbye to those digestive problems. Irregular skin texture, rough patches and blemishes are easily removed through regular consumption of probiotic enriched yogurt. As the gut flora gets restored, the harmful bacteria responsible for infections in the reproductive organs are shown out of the door. This disruption may occur due to factors such as antibiotics, hormonal changes including pregnancy, and by a disruption of the natural pH balance of the vagina caused by factors such as scented intimate products and soaps.
One of the most promising areas for the development of functional food components lies in the use of probiotics and prebiotics which scientific researches have demonstrated therapeutic evidence.
Furthermore, epithelial cells express constitutively host pattern recognition receptors (PRRS), such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). There are many examples of media distorting or overselling science, but right now there is probably no better example than much of the coverage of research on the human microbiome and how its manipulation might impact human mental health. The fundamental hypothesis that is driving, and increasingly validated by, human microbiome research is that all of this microbial activity adds up to a significant impact on human physiology.  More and more we are developing an understanding of what kinds of microbes are living where, and how they are intimately involved in human health and disease. The likely end result is the degradation of public trust in the integrity and validity of scientific research.
I figured for the sake of research, I would just try one bottle of each one that I found appealing! My very first batch of kombucha, I made it exactly to the recipe so that I could taste the difference when I started getting creative. It is first heated to remove any bacteria, and then cooled and then measured amounts of clinically inactive bacteria are introduced. Thrush is not commonly known as an STD but it may sometimes be passed on from one sexual partner to another. Nowadays, consumers are aware of the link among lifestyle, diet and good health, which explains the emerging demand for products that are able to enhance health beyond providing basic nutrition. Since the Hippy Hubby loves to homebrew beer, we did have his brown flip top bottles around, but I wanted something cuter for my purposes, so I went to Specialty Bottle to get mine. Now, after several batches, I have been adding yerba mate on top of the tasty whole leaf tea blend that GetKombucha supplied me with. The end product isn’t your common curd – it’s loaded with healthy bacteria that can restore gut health. I love buying containers from them because they don’t have an item minimum, so if you are buying just a few containers for a gift or for your own home, they are definitely the easiest place to purchase from.
TLRs are also found on innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages (Vinderola et al., 2005). They can be found in fermented products as meat, milk products, vegetables, beverages and bakery products. They are part of the microbiota on mucous membranes, such as the intestines, mouth, skin, urinary and genital organs of both humans and animals, and may have a beneficial influence on these ecosystems. Other known recognition receptors are nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, which recognize both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. LAB that grow as the adventitious microflora of foods or that are added to foods as cultures are generally considered to be harmless or even an advantage for human health. Since their discovery, LAB has been gained mush interest in various applications, as starter cultures in food and feed fermentations, pharmaceuticals, probiotics and as biological control agents. Increased epithelial barrier permeability is frequently associated with gastrointestinal disorders contributing to both disease onset and persistence (Lu and Walker 2001, Berkes 2003). In food industry, LAB are widely used as starters to achieve favorable changes in texture, aroma, flavor and acidity (Leory and De Vuyst, 2004). The gatekeeper of the paracellular pathway is the tight junction, which is an apically located cell-cell junction between epithelial cells. The tight junction permits the passage of small molecules, such as ions, while restricting the movement of large molecules, such as antigens and microorganisms, which can cause inflammation.
Du to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities some LAB strains are used in food biopreservation. Origine and safety of probiotics An old dogma of probiotic selection has been that the probiotic strains should be of “human origin”.
Many of the indications for probiotic activity have been obtained from effects observed in various clinical situations.
One may argue that from evolutionary point of view, describing bacteria to be of human origin does not make much sense at all. The requirement for probiotics to be of human origin relates actually to the isolation of the strain rather than the “origin” itself. Usually, the strains claimed to be “of human origin” have been isolated from faecal samples of healthy human subjects, and have therefore been considered to be “part of normal healthy human gut microbiota”.
Overview of probioticsThe most tried and tested manner in which the gut microbiota composition may be influenced is through the use of live microbial dietary additions, as probiotics.
In reality the recovery of a strain from a faecal sample does not necessarily mean that this strain is part of the normal microbiota of this individual, since microbes passing the GI tract transiently can also be recovered from the faecal samples (Forssten et al., 2011). In practice it is impossible to know the actual origin of the probiotic strains, regardless of whether they have been isolated from faecal samples, fermented dairy products or any other source for that matter. Isolation of a strain from faeces of a healthy individual is also not a guarantee of the safety of the strain—such a sample will also always contain commensal microbes which can act as opportunistic pathogens, or even low levels of true pathogens, which are present in the individual at sub-clinical levels.
However, at the beginning of this century probiotics were first put onto a scientific basis by the work of Metchnikoff (1908).
He hypothesised that the normal gut microflora could exert adverse effects on the host and that consumption of ‘soured milks’ reversed this effect.
However, many species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium were isolated frequently from various types of infective lesions. The origin of the first use can be traced back to Kollath (1953), who used it to describe the restoration of the health of malnourished patients by different organic and inorganic supplements. Later, Vergin (1954) proposed that the microbial imbalance in the body caused by antibiotic treatment could have been restored by a probiotic rich diet; a suggestion cited by many as the first reference to probiotics as they are defined nowadays.


Similarly, Kolb recognized detrimental effects of antibiotic therapy and proposed the prevention by probiotics (Vasiljevic and Shah, 2008) Later on, Lilly and Stillwell (1965) defined probiotics as “…microorganisms promoting the growth of other microorganisms”.
The idea of health-promoting effects of LAB is by no means new, as Metchnikoff proposed that lactobacilli may fight against intestinal putrefaction and contribute to long life. Although minor side effects of the use of probiotics have been reported, infections with probiotic bacteria occur and invariably only in immunocompromised patients or those with intestinal bleeding (Leroy et al., 2008). Other definitions advanced through the years have been restrictive by specification of mechanisms, site of action, delivery format, method, or host. An issue of concern regarding the use of probiotics is the presence of chromosomal, transposon, or plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes amongst the probiotic microorganisms.
At this moment, insufficient information is available on situations in which these genetic elements could be mobilised, and it is not known if situations could arise where this would become a clinical problem (Leroy et al., 2008).
The mechanism of action of probiotics (e.g, having an impact on the intestinal microbiota or enhancing immune function) was dropped from the definition to encompass health effects due to novel mechanisms and to allow application of the term before the mechanism is confirmed. Furthermore, certain mechanisms of action (such as delivery of certain enzymes to the intestine) may not require live cells.
In vitro safety screenings of probiotics may include, among others, antibiotic resistance assays, screenings for virulence factors, resistance to host defence mechanisms and induction of haemolysis. In relation to food, probiotics are considered as “viable preparations in foods or dietary supplements to improve the health of humans and animals”. According to these definitions, an impressive number of microbial species are considered as probiotics. ConclusionThe individual diversity of the intestinal microflora underscores the difficulty of identifying the entire human microbiota and poses barriers to this ?eld of research.
Selection of probioticsMany in vitro tests are performed when screening for potential probiotic strains. The first step in the selection of a probiotic LAB strain is the determination of its taxonomic classification, which may give an indication of the origin, habitat and physiology of the strain.
It is also apparent that even a single strain of probiotic may exert its actions via multiple, concomitant pathways. All these characteristics have important consequences on the selection of the novel strains (Morelli, 2007). Probiotics have long been used as an alternative to traditional medicine with the goal of maintaining enteric homeostasis and preventing disease. This conclusion was brought forward due to uncertainty of the origin of the human intestinal microflora since the infants are borne with virtually sterile intestine.
Clinical trials have shown that probiotic treatment can reduce the risk of some diseases, especially antibiotic-associated diarrhea, but conclusive evidence is impeded owing to the wide range of doses and strains of bacteria used. However, the panel also underlined a need for improvement of in vitro tests to predict the performance of probiotics in humans. While many probiotics meet criteria such as acid and bile resistance and survival during gastrointestinal transit, an ideal probiotic strain remains to be identified for any given indication.
Many studies, as discussed above, have shown that probiotics increase barrier function in terms of increased mucus, antimicrobial peptides, and sIgA production, competitive adherence for pathogens, and increased TJ integrity of epithelial cells. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that a single probiotic will be equally suited to all indications; selection of strains for disease-specific indications will be required (Shanahan, 2003). Current investigation into the mechanism of action of speci?c probiotics has focused on probiotic-induced changes in the innate immune functions involvingTLRs and its downstream systems Like NF-?B, and other pathways (Yoon and Sun, 2011). Although the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics have been demonstrated in experimental animal models of allergy, autoimmunity, and IBD, information from clinical trials in humans is scarce. The ability to adhere to the intestinal mucosa is one of the more important selection criteria for probiotics because adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered to be a prerequisite for colonization (Tuomola et al., 2001). The table below (Table 2) indicates key creteria for sellecting probiotic candidat for commercial application, and figure 1 presents major and cardinal steps for sellecting probiotic candidats.It is of high importance that the probiotic strain can survive the location where it is presumed to be active.
Therefore, more research, especially in the form of well-designed clinical trials, is needed to evaluate the ef?cacy and safety of probiotics (Ezendam and Van Loveren, 2008). For a longer and perhaps higher activity, it is necessary that the strain can proliferate and colonise at this specific location.
Probably only host-specific microbial strains are able to compete with the indigenous microflora and to colonise the niches. Besides, the probiotic strain must be tolerated by the immune system and not provoke the formation of antibodies against the probiotic strain. On the other hand, the probiotic strain can act as an adjuvant and stimulate the immune system against pathogenic microorganisms. Basic initial characterization of strain identity and taxonomy should be conducted, followed by evaluation with validated assays both in studies of animal models and in controlled studies in the target host. In vitro assays are frequently conducted that have not been proved to be predictive of in vivo function. Technological robustness must also be determined, such as the strain’s ability to be grown to high numbers, concentrated, stabilized, and incorporated into a ?nal product with good sensory properties, if applicable, and to be stable, both physiologically and genetically, through the end of the shelf life of the product and at the active site in the host. Assessment of stability can also be a challenge, since factors such as chain length and injury may challenge the typical assessment of colony-forming units, as well as in vivo function (Sanders, 2008). Dose levels of probiotics should be based on levels found to be ef?cacious in human studies.
Furthermore, the impact of product format on Figure 1.Scheme of the Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics for Food Use. The common quality-control parameter of colony-forming units per gram may not be the only parameter indicative of the ef?cacy of the ?nal product. Other factors, such as probiotic growth during product manufacture, coating, preservation technology, metabolic state of the probiotic, and the presence of other functional ingredients in the ?nal product, may play a role in the effectiveness of a product. Potential mechanisms of action of probioticsA wide variety of potential beneficial health effects have been attributed to probiotics (Table 3). Claimed effects range from the alleviation of constipation to the prevention of major life-threatening diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and cardiovascular incidents.
Some of these claims, such as the effects of probiotics on the shortening of intestinal transit time or the relief from lactose maldigestion, are considered well-established, while others, such as cancer prevention or the effect on blood cholesterol levels, need further scientific backup (Leroy et al., 2008). The mechanisms of action may vary from one probiotic strain to another and are, in most cases, probably a combination of activities, thus making the investigation of the responsible mechanisms a very difficult and complex task. In general, three levels of action can be distinguished: probiotics can influence human Probiotic organisms can provide a beneficial effect on intestinal epithelial cells in numerous ways.
Gut microbiotaThe human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a complex and dynamic population of around 500-1000 of different microbial species which remain in a complex equilibrium.
It has been estimated that bacteria account for 35–50% of the volume content of the human colon. These include Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Escherichia and Veillonella. The bacterial strains with identified beneficial properties include mainly Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. The dominant microbial composition of the intestine have been shown to be stable over time during adulthood, and the microbial patterns are unique for each individual. However, there are numerous external factors that have potential to influence the microbial composition in the gut as host genetics, birth delivery mode, diet, age, antibiotic treatments and also, other microorganisms as probiotics.
The intestine is one of the main surfaces of contact with exogenous agents (viruses, bacteria, allergens) in the human body. It has a primary role in the host defense against external aggressions by means of the intestinal mucosa, the local immune system, and the interactions with the intestinal microbiota (resident and in transitbacteria).
Gut microbiota influences human health through an impact on the gut defense barrier, immune function, nutrient utilization and potentially by direct signaling with the gastrointestinal epithelium (Collado et al., 2009). In healthy adults, 80% of phylotypes belong to four major phylogenetic groups, which are the Clostiridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria groups. Also, studies have found that mucosal microbiota is stable along the distal gastrointestinal tract from ileum to rectum, but mucosa-associated microbiota is different from fecal microbiota.
The number of bacterial cells present in the mammalian gut shows a continuum that goes from 101 to 103 bacteria per gram of contents in the stomach and duodenum, progressing to 104 to 107 bacteria per gram in the jejunum and ileum and culminating in 1011 to 1012 cells per gram in the colon (Figure 3a). In addition to the longitudinal heterogeneity displayed by the intestinal microbiota, there is also a great deal of latitudinal variation in the microbiota composition (Figure 3b).
The intestinal epithelium is separated from the lumen by a thick and physicochemically complex mucus layer. The microbiota present in the intestinal lumen differs significantly from the microbiota attached and embedded in this mucus layer as well as the microbiota present in the immediate a: variations in microbial numbers and composition across the length of the gastrointestinal tract. For instance, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, members of Enterobacteriacea, Enterococcus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Ruminococcus were all found in feces, whereas only Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus were detected in the mucus layer and epithelial crypts of the small intestine (Sekirov et al., 2010). Upon passage through the birth canal, infants are exposed to a complex microbial population. After the initial establishment of the intestinal microbiota and during the first year of life, the microbial composition of the mammalian intestine is relatively simple and varies widely between different individuals and also with time. Survival and antagonism effects of probiotics in the gutThe intestinal epithelium is the largest mucosal surface in the human body, provides an interface between the external environment and the host. The gut epithelium is constantly exposed to foreign microbes and antigens derived from digested foods. Thus, the gut epithelium acts as a physical barrier against microbial invaders and is equipped with various elements of the innate defense system. In the gut, two key elements govern the interplay between environmental triggers and the host: intestinal permeability and intestinal mucosal defense. Resident bacteria can interact with pathogenic microorganisms and external antigens to protect the gut using various strategies.According to the generally accepted de?nition of a probiotic, the probiotic microorganism should be viable at the time of ingestion to confer a health bene?t. Although not explicitly stated, this de?nition implies that a probiotic should survive GI tract passage and, colonize the host epithelium. A variety of traits are believed to be relevant for surviving GI tract passage, the most important of which is tolerance both to the highly acidic conditions present in the stomach and to concentrations of bile salts found in the small intestine. These properties have consequently become important selection criteria for new probiotic functionality. One of the mechanisms by which the gut ?ora resists colonization by pathogenic bacteria is by the production of a physiologically restrictive environment, with respect to pH, redox potential, and hydrogen sul?de production.
Probiotic bacteria decrease the luminal pH, as has been demonstrated in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) following ingestion of the probiotic preparation VSL#3. Several bacteriocins produced by different species from the genus Lactobacillus have been described.
The inhibitory activity of these bacteriocins varies; some inhibit taxonomically related Gram-positive bacteria, and some are active against a much wider range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as yeasts and molds.
Lacticin 3147, a broad-spectrum bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis, inhibits a range of genetically distinct Clostridium dif?cile isolates from healthy subjects and patients with IBD.
A further example is the antimicrobial effect of Lactobacillus species on Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric mucosa, achieved by the release of bacteriocins and the ability to decrease adherence of this pathogen to epithelial cells (Gotteland et al., 2006). The pretreatment of intestinal (T84) cells with lactic acid-producing bacteria reduced the ability of pathogenic E.
Adhesion and invasion of an intestinal epithelial cell line (Intestine 407) by adherent invasive E. Probiotics and the mucous layerMost mucosal surfaces are covered by a hydrated gel formed by mucins. Mucins are secreted by specialized epithelial cells, such as gastric foveolar mucous cells and intestinal goblet cells, Goblet cells are found along the entire length of the intestinal tract, as well as other mucosal surfaces.
Of the 18 mucin-type glycoproteins expressed by humans, MUC2 is the predominant glycoprotein found in the small and large bowel mucus. The NH2- and COOH-termini are not glycosylated to the same extent, but are rich in cysteine residues that form intra- and inter-molecular disul?de bonds.
These glycan groups confer proteolytic resistance and hydrophilicity to the mucins, whereas the disul?de linkages form a matrix of glycoproteins that is the backbone of the mucous layer (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010).
Although small molecules pass through the heavily glycosylated mucus layer with relative ease, bulk fluid flow is limited and thereby contributes to the development of an unstirred layer of fluid at the epithelial cell surface.
As the unstirred layer is protected from convective mixing forces, the diffusion of ions and small solutes is slowed (Turner, 2009). This gel layer provides protection by shielding the epithelium from potentially harmful antigens and molecules including bacteria from directly contacting the epithelial cell layer, while acting as a lubricant for intestinal motility. Mucins can also bind the epithelial cell surface carbohydrates and form the bottom layer, which is ?rmly attached to the mucosa, whereas the upper layer is loosely adherent. The mucus is the ?rst barrier that intestinal bacteria meet, and pathogens must penetrate it to reach the epithelial cells during infection (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010).Probiotics may promote mucus secretion as one mechanism to improve barrier function and exclusion of pathogens. In support of this concept, probiotics have been shown to increase mucin expression in vitro, contributing to barrier function and exclusion of pathogens.
Several studies showed that increased mucin expression in the human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 (MUC2) and HT29 (MUC2 and 3), thus blocking pathogenic E. However, healthy rats did not display increased colonic TFF3 expression after stimulation by VSL#3 probiotics (Caballero-Franco et al., 2007). Furthermore, mice treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce chronic colitis did not exhibit increased TFF3 expression or wound healing when subsequently treated with VSL#3. This observation indicates that probiotics do not enhance barrier function by up-regulation of TFF3, nor are they effective at healing established in?ammation. Therefore, use of current probiotics is likely to be effective only in preventing in?ammation as shown by studies in animal models (Ohland and MacNaughton, 2010).5.
Interaction of probiotic bacteria with gut epitheliumThe composition of the commensal gut microbiota is probably influenced by the combination of food practices and other factors like the geographical localization, various levels of hygiene or various climates. The establishment of a normal microbiota provides the most substantial antigenic challenge to the immune system, thus helping the gut associated lymphoid tissus (GALT) maturation. The intestinal microbiota contributes to the anti-inflammatory character of the intestinal immune system.
Several immunoregulatory mechanisms, including regulatory cells, cytokines, apoptosis among others, participate in the control of immune responses by preventing the pathological processes associated with excessive reactivity. An interesting premise for probiotic physiological action is their capacity to modulate the immune system. Consequently, many studies have focused on the effects of probiotics on diverse aspects of the immune response. Following consumption of probiotic products, the interaction of these bacteria with intestinal enterocytes initiates a host response, since intestinal cells produce various immunomodulatory molecules when stimulated by bacteria (Delcenseri et al., 2009). Furthermore, The indigenous microbiota is a natural resistance factor against potential pathogenic microorganisms and provides colonization resistance, also known as gut barrier, by controlling the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. It has been suggested that commensal bacteria protect their host against microbial pathogens by interfering with their adhesion and toxic effects (Myllyluoma, 2007).A fraction of ingested probiotics are able to interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), depending on the presence of a dynamic mucus layer. Probiotics can occasionally encounter DCs through two routes: DCs residing in the lamina propria sample luminal bacterial antigens by passing their dendrites between IECs into the gut lumen, and DCs can also interact directly with bacteria that have gained access to the dome region of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) through specialized epithelial cells, termed microfold or M cells. The interaction of the host cells with microorganism-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are present on the surface macromolecules of probiotic bacteria will induce a certain molecular response.
The host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can perceive probiotic signals include Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the C type lectin DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Some molecular responses of IECs depend on the subtype of cell, for example, Paneth cells produce defensins and goblet cells produce mucus.
Important responses of DCs against probiotics include the production of cytokines, major histocompatibility complex molecules for antigen presentation, and co-stimulatory molecules that polarize T cells into T helper or CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) or subepithelial dome of the GALT.
Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens.



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Comments to “Probiotics and the gut microbiome kit”

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