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Natural Marketing Institute’s (NMI) Health and Wellness Trends Survey (2008 HWTD) reported that U.S.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in your gastro intestinal tract. A healthy lower intestine should contain at least 80-85% friendly bacteria or probiotics to prevent growth of disease causing micro-organisms like E. Poor eating habits, chlorinated drinking water, stress, use of antibiotics, medical treatments can destroy the gastrointestinal micro flora and allow harmful bacteria to multiply.  Thus, make the body susceptible to yeast and bacterial infection and other disorders including gas, cramping, or diarrhea.
Probiotic supplements contain millions to billions of live bacteria to bolster and replenish levels of health promoting good microbes in your digestive tract. Probiotic products are available in different formulations with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Enterococcus faecium and other beneficial bacteria. The most numerous probiotic bacteria normally present in the small intestine are species of Lactobacilli. Probiotics are already present in our normal digestive system and generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Before launching ofActivia probiotics were known by a small percentage of the population and natural product shoppers and healthcare professionals.But this is a good product for general good health. This form is unable to receive your inquiry from aol, hotmail, gmail or others but company email address.After send online enquiry, we will reply you as soon as possible, if not get any response on time please contact us by Tel or Email.
Find business opportunities for probiotic toothpasteBuy probiotic toothpasteWhere can I buy the toothpaste in Australia please? Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Milk and Dairy Products: Vectors to Create Probiotic ProductsGabriel-Danut Mocanu1 and Elisabeta Botez1[1] Department of Food Science, Food Engineering and Applied Biotechnology, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, „Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania1. Aerococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae).Seven of the twelve genera of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, and Tetragenococcus, are used directly in food fermentations. Probiotic Meat ProductsRenata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo1, Sergio Bertelli Pflanzer2 and Carolina Lugnani Gomes2[1] School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Sao Jose dos Pinhais, Parana,, Brazil[2] Food Technology Department, Faculty of Food Engineer, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo,, Brazil1. Santos FL, Ferreira CLLF, Costa NMB.Modulacao da colesterolemia por meio de prebioticos e probioticos.
Ferreira CLLF.Grupo de bacterias lacticas- Caracterizacao e aplicacao tecnologica de bacterias probioticas. Heenan CN, Adams MC, Hosken RW.Growth medium for culturing Probiotics bacteria for applications in vegetarian food products. Use carbohydrates ferments glucose produced and acetic acid lactic acid (2), do not produce gas (co2) propionic acid and butyric acid.
Improvement of benefical effect of probiotic dairy products through the use of bioactive compounds from plants5.1. The relationship between SOD activity and iron content of products obtained with ABY 3 cultureTable 7. Technological flowchart for manufacturing the new product – Probiotic yoghurt with added medicinal plant extractsTable 12. IntroductionThe most important function of alimentation is represented by the assurance of human metabolic needs as well as wellbeing and satisfaction induced by sensorial characteristics of food. IntroductionThe growing concern of consumers regarding the food health and safety issues has led to the development of products that promote health and well-being beyond its nutritional effect [1]. For example, fermented foods such as Yoghurt and Kefir are sources of beneficial bacteria, a probiotic, which your body requires for health. Can be decomposed body bowel indigestible chitosan fibers or more, to prevent against bacteria lactic acid. In the same time, by modulating some target functions of the body, the food components might have benefic psychological and physiological effects, beside the nutritional ones, already accepted.
Functional foods are those which promote beneficial effects to human?s health beyond nutrition. Mayo, Selection criteria for lactic acid bacteria to be used as functional starter cultures in dry sausage production: An update. Petaja, Screening of commercial meat starter cultures at low pH and in the presence of bile salts for potential probiotic use.
For a right dose and selection of probiotics, I would encourage you to discuss with a personal health professional. In fact, their presence is often undesirable, in part, because they are sometimes used as indicators of fecal contamination and also because some strains may harbor mobile antibioticresistance genes.Importantly, some strains of Enterococcus are capable of causing infections in humans.
Their effects are due to the addition of active ingredients, the removal or the replacement of undesirable compounds in its composition [2].The marketing of food for health benefits began in 1960s. Holley, Microbiological and sensory quality of dry fermented sausages containing alginate-microencapsulated Lactobacillus reuteri. Kulozik, Microencapsulation of probiotic cells by means of rennet-gelation of milk proteins.
Kulozik, Influence of casein-based microencapsulation on freeze-drying and storage of probiotic cells. Itoh, UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium choride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation. We are situated at a new frontier of nutrition, in which the foods are evaluated by their biological potential and by their ability to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases. Likewise, Carnobacterium are also undesirable, mainly because they are considered as spoilage organisms in fermented meat products. In 1970s the trend was to eliminate or reduce the harmful constituents like sugars and fats from food. Kotzekidou, Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Greek dry-fermented sausage in respect of their technological and probiotic properties. Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria. Henriksson, Application of nontraditional meat starter cultures in production of Hungarian salami. We can talk today about the fact that food for health represent an expanding field: probiotic functional food.
In essence, probiotic functional food are products that, by their biological active compounds and consumed in current diets, contribute to optimal human physical and psihycal health.The appearance and development of functional probiotic food are the response of production field to the results of cellular and molecular biology field research, which demonstrates the implication of food components in proper functioning cellules and subcelular structures.
Probiotics as functional foodsIn the last decades consumer demands in the field of food production has changed considerably. However, lately, those meat products are considered unhealthy by a part of population because of their fat content and the use of additives and spices in their formulation. Kondo, Effect of intestinal Lactobacillus starter cultures on the behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in fermented sausage. Villani, Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics. Casaburi, Technological and probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus strains as starter for fermented sausage manufacture.
Baldi, Evaluation of functional aspects in Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages. Yamanaka, Lactobacillus acidophilus group lactic acid bacteria applied to meat fermentation. The importance of these studies is essential in contemporaneous context in which the environment assaults by many ways the human body, fully stressing it’s protection, adaption and equilibrium maintenance systems.
Therefore, the addition of probiotics to the fermented sausages could promote the health benefits associated with lactic acid bacteria and contribute to the increase in the consumption of such products [7, 8].The use of probiotics seems more promising in raw fermented meat products like salami as they are made with raw meat and consumed without prior heating, which would kill the probiotic bacteria [9, 10]. Suihko, Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures. Cordoba, Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in iberian dry fermented sausage. Budde, Identification of potential probiotic starter cultures for Scandinavian-type fermented sausage. Internet], 2009updated 2001; cited 2009 May 25] Evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria.
By their specific action, the food components might contribute to the maintain the normal parameters of cellular edificium and of the human body equilibrium. However, the incorporation of probiotic bacteria to these products also represents a technological challenge because of the known sensitivity of probiotic to curing salts, spices and other ingredients used in the formulation of the fermented sausages [11].


Nowadays we are assisting to an intensification of research in food – alimentation – health relationship field. The increasing demand on such foods can be explained by the increasing cost of healthcare, the steady increase in life expectancy, and the desire of older people for improved quality of their later years [19, 15, 20].The term ‘‘functional food’’ itself was first used in Japan, in the 1980s, for food products fortified with special constituents that possess advantageous physiological effects [21, 22].
Cantor, Functional properties of novel protective lactic acid bacteria and application in raw chicken meat against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis.
Unlike the last years, the customers from many countries become more and more interested in health beneficial determined by alimentation, including probiotic functional food. Fermented sausagesFermented sausages are defined as a mixture of ground lean meat and minced fat, curing salts, sugar and spices, which are embedded into a casing and subjected to fermentation and drying [6, 13, 14].The quality of fermented sausages is closely related to the ripening process that gives color, flavor, aroma, and firmness to the product which are developed by a complex interaction of chemical and physical reactions associated with the fermentative action of the microbiological flora present in the sausage. It inhibits oral harmful bacteria to eliminate the root causes of tooth decay, gum diseases, ulcers and bad breath. In handmade production processes of fermented sausages, fermentation occurs spontaneously by the action of in nature bacteria present on meat.
The amount of intake and form of the functional food should be as it is normally expected for dietary purposes. In industrial processes the microbiological flora, responsible for the fermentation process, is known as starter culture [6]. Therefore, it could not be in the form of pill or capsule just as normal food form’’ [23].European legislation however, does not consider functional foods as specific food categories, but rather a concept [22, 24]. Starter cultures are defined as preparations containing live microorganisms capable of developing desirable metabolic activity in meat. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by microorganismes belonging to different eubacterial taxonomic groups.
The history of probiotics began with the history of man; cheese and fermented milk were well known to the Greeks and Romans, who recommended their consumption, especially for children and convalescents. They are used to increase the microbiological safety, to maintain stability by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms and to improve the sensory characteristics of fermented sausages [1].
Bacteriocins are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and inhibit harmful bacteria in the oral region without affecting beneficial bacteria.
Probiotics are defined as the living microorganisms administered in a sufficient number to survive in the intestinal ecosystem. Starter cultures are formed by mixing of different types of microorganisms, where each one has a specific function. From a product point of view, the functional property can be included in numerous different ways as it can be seen in table 2. Lactic bacteria are used in order to generate controlled and intense acidification which inhibits the development of undesirable microorganisms, and provides increased safety and stability to the product.
This component of the probiotic is found to be inhibitory on gum infections and tooth decay. The term „probiotic“ was first used by [2] in 1965 to describe the „substances secreted by one microorganism that stimulate the growth of another“. Bacteriocins have a direct inhibitory effect on harmful bacteria found in the dental crevices. A powerful evolution of this definition was coined by [3] in 1974, who proposed that probiotics are „organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance“ [4]. According to alternative classification, some functional products are (1) ‘‘add good to your life’’, e.g. In more modern definitions, the concept of an action on the gut microflora, and even that of live microorganisms disappeared [5] in 1998 defined probiotics as the „food which contains live bacteria beneficial to health“, whereas [6] in 2001 defined them as „microbial cell preparations or components of microbial cells that have a beneficial effect on the health and well-being“.Some modern definitions include more precisely a preventive or therapeutic action of probiotics. It is difficult, however to find good biomarkers for cognitive, behavioural and psychological, functions. Finally, since probiotics have been found to be effective in the treatment of some gastrointestinal diseases [6], they can be considered to be therapeutic agents.
Other group (2) of functional food is designed for reducing an existing health risk problem such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure. Despite these numerous theoretical definitions, however, the practical question arises whether a given microorganism can be considered to be a probiotic or not. Health benefits of probioticsSince Metchnikoff’s era, a number of health benefits have been contributed to products containing probiotic organisms.
While some of these benefits have been well documented and established, others have shown a promising potential in animal models, with human studies required to substantiate these claims. The probiotics in use today have not been selected on the basis of all these criteria, but the most commonly used probiotics are the strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus (S. More importantly, health benefits imparted by probiotic bacteria are very strain specific; therefore, there is no universal strain that would provide all proposed benefits, not even strains of the same species. Moreover, not all the strains of the same species are effective against defined health conditions. Probiotic dairy productsFoods that affect specific functions or systems in the human body, providing health benefits beyond energy and nutrients—functional foods—have experienced rapid market growth in recent years.
According to current taxonomy, the lactic acid bacteria group consists of twelve genera (table 1).
This growth is fueled by technological innovations, development of new products, and the increasing number of health-conscious consumers interested in products that improve life quality. Since the global market of functional foods is increasing annually, food product development is a key research priority and a challenge for both the industry and science sectors. Probiotics show considerable promise for the expansion of the dairy industry, especially in such specific sectors as yogurts, cheeses, beverages, ice creams, and other desserts. This book chapter presents an overview of functional foods and strategies for their development, with particular attention to probiotic dairy products.
Types of probiotic dairy productThe most common probiotic dairy products worldwide are various types of yogurt, other fermented dairy product, various lactic acid bacteria drinks and mixture of probiotic (fermented) milks and fruit juice. Typically, the species used as the starter culture are selected from strains naturally predominant in meat products and hence, well adapted to this environment. In table 3 are listed some dairy functional food products that have been developed recently in Faculty of Food Science and Engineering.
Therefore, these species present a tendency to have greater metabolic capacity which is reflected on the development of the proper sensory and physical-chemical characteristics on the product [6].Given the adverse conditions of the meat matrix for a number of microorganisms, including those considered probiotics, several studies suggest the selection of probiotic properties in lactic bacteria from commercial starter culture traditionally used in fermented meat products and therefore, already adapted to grow in these conditions.
These cultures will provide to the product the same sensory and technological characteristics than the traditional starter cultures, and exert beneficial effects to health [8, 15, 18]. The incubation of obtained fermented dairy drink was made at 37°C for 5 hours.The addition of carrot juice (at a percentage of 10%) had a positive effect on physical – chemical and microbiological parameters of fermented dairy drink. Combining goat milk with carrot juice can get some food with potential therapeutic role.As a result of the lactose fermentation, the titratable acidity increased fast during the incubation period. At the end of the storage period (after 5 days), the highest value of titratable acidity was 61 ?T. The pH of the obtained new product decreased during incubation period, and will stabilize during storage period, pH = 5.1 after 5 days of storage. The evolution of the number of microorganisms was analyzed for each sample during incubation and storage period.
Probiotic fermented sausagesAlthough the concept of including probiotics in meat products is not entirely new, only a few manufacturers consider the use of fermented sausages as vehicles for probiotics [7, 17].
It was observed that the fermented dairy drink with added carrot juice product had been preserving its functional properties during storage (over 108 cfu mL-1 probiotic bacteria).The products were analyzed in terms of fluid flow thus establishing their rheological behavior. Several meat products containing probiotics with claims for health bene?ts have been commercialized.
The literature shows that the rheological properties of fermented dairy products depend on the development of lactic bacteria as a consequence of metabolic changes leading physicochemical substrate in milk.In figure 2 is presented the variation of shearing stress (?, Pa) according to the shearing rate (??, s-1).
A salami containing three intestinal LAB (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bi?dobacterium spp.) was produced by a German company in 1998.
There was determined that samples have a rheological behavior similar with the one of the non-Newtonian fluids, time independent, therefore a pseudoplastic behavior. In the same year, a meat spread containing an intestinal LAB (Lactobacillus rhamnosus FERM P-15120) was produced by a Japanese company [26-28].Fermented sausages are suitable for the incorporation of probiotic bacteria since mild or no heat treatment is usually required by dry fermented meat products, thus providing the suitable conditions required for the survival of probiotics [3, 14, 26]. The sausage has to be designed in such a way as to keep the number and viability of probiotic strain in the optimum range. Pasteurization of milk is achieved by maintaining standardized milk at 95 °C for 5 minutes. Those cultures are called protective starter cultures and do not promote significant changes in physical and sensory characteristics of the product.


In this storage period, coagulum is more compact, the flavor and taste become more pleasant. On the other hand, probiotic cultures are, by definition, those that after ingestion in sufficient number employ health benefits in addition to their nutritional effects [6, 8, 15]. However, often, the probiotic cultures have also been used in meat products as protective cultures, since both of these cultures have the ability to survive in adverse environments and to produce organic acids and bacteriocins [18].
Likewise, probiotics added to meat products are also known as functional starter cultures since they contribute to safety, can provide sensory and nutritional benefits and promote health [6].The success of probiotics in other types of foods, especially dairy products, is based on scientific evidence of beneficial effects provided by some microorganisms. In meat products, the beneficial effects must be proven with the consumption of these products.
CheesesPerhaps no other fermented food starts with such a simple raw material and ends up with products having such an incredible diversity of color, flavor, texture, and appearance as does cheese. From the good results obtained with dairy products it is not possible to conclude that a probiotic species will have the same effect on another type of product.
It is even more remarkable that milk, pale in color and bland in flavor, can be transformed into literally hundreds of different types of flavorful, colorful cheeses by manipulating just a few critical steps.Just what happened to cause the milk to become transformed into a product with such a decidedly different appearance, texture, and flavor?
This is due to the fact that the performance and properties of microorganisms are environment-dependent. To answer that question, it is first necessary to compare the composition of the starting material, milk, to that of the product, the finished cheese (figure 4).In an attempt to diversify the range of probiotic dairy products, there has been made a series of research on the introduction of probiotic bacteria in cheese. According to [33], cheese is an interesting way of supplying probiotic bacteria due to the chemical composition of the raw milk that encourages their growth, metabolism and viability and also due to their relatively low acidity compared to other food products. In 2009, [34] used probiotic fresh cheese and peach pulp in order to obtain a dessert, according to figure 5. Most used probiotic cultures in meat productsProbiotics are mainly the strains from species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, was introduced in the fresh cheese as an agent of milk maturation, during coagulation stage. Other than these, some species of Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Saccharomyces and Propionibacterium are considered as probiotics due to their ability to promote health in the host [32].In fermented meat products several studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using probiotic Lactobacillus.
This influenced the sensorial properties of the product, which achieved a creamy texture including in its structure the minced peach pulp and fat globules from the cream. The research of the above mentioned authors continued, in the attempt to obtain a similar product using goat milk [35]. Although there was expected a reserved attitude of the consumer because of the unpleasant flavour of goat milk, this was not observed.In 2010 a new probiotic product based on fresh cheese was obtained, by mixing fresh cheese with caraway, cream and salt. The probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium lactis BB 12) were introduced in cheese at milk maturation stage. Telemea is a cheese variety originated in Romania, from where its manufacture spread to other Balkan countries and Turkey [38].
Evolution of probiotic bacteria during different stages of manufacturing process is presented in table 4. Conclusion of the study is that Telemea cheese can be considered a probiotic product, even if the high salt concentration disadvantages probiotic bacteria growth, as long as the number of viable cells remains above 107 cfu g-1.
Criteria for the selection of probiotic cultures for meat productsThe criteria for a microbial culture to be considered probiotic are the stomach acidity resistance, lysozyme and bile resistance and the ability to colonize the human intestinal tract using mechanisms of adhesion or binding to intestinal cells [7, 8, 23, 35].
Other authors have also included the ability to tolerate pancreatic enzymes as a required characteristic of probiotic cultures [16].Additionally to the criteria described above, the probiotic bacteria need to have GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status [36]. Currently, this concept also includes the antibiotic resistance evaluated by Qualified Prediction Security Program suggested by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). The ability of probiotic bacteria used in meat products to resist to some antibiotics can be genetically transmitted to other bacteria.
Scientific studies report genetic determinants for bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline [14].
Normally, the lactic acid bacteria are sensitive to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides, quinolones and glycopeptides [18]. However, the addition of lyophilized culture can delay the fermentation time and reduce the culture viability in the final product.
This procedure is also indicated when probiotic strains are inhibited by ingredients of the sausage composition [6, 38].Microencapsulation increases the viability of bacteria due to the protective effect of a polymeric membrane formed around the bacterial cells.
The methods used for microencapsulation of lactic acid bacteria are extrusion and emulsification. Extrusion produces microcapsules with 2-3 mm in diameter which are 60 times greater than the microcapsule formed by emulsification. The materials most commonly used for the microencapsulation of probiotics include alginate, starch, k-carrageenan, guar gum, xanthan gum, gelatin and milk whey proteins. Muthukumarasamy and Holley [38] tested the microencapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in alginate for use in fermented meat product and found no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the product. Despite the microcapsules were visible to naked eye, they were detected as fat particles by the panelists due to their size and color similarity. Rivera-Espinoza and Gallardo-Navarro [17] encapsulated Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus reuteri in alginate to increase the survival of probiotics in fermented meat. Recently, Poulin, Caillard, and Subirade [39] created succinylated ?-lactoglobulin tablet to protect B.
Heidebach, Forst and Kulozik [40] reported higher viability of Lactobacillus F19 encapsulated with casein during freeze storage compared to Bifidobacterium Bb12. Furthermore, the same authors [41] microencapsulated these two strains with rennet-induced gelation of milk, obtaining higher yields and improved survival rates. Lactic acid productionOne of the most important characteristics of Lactobacillus in fermented meat products is the production of lactic acid.
The acidification has positive effects on safety and on the sensory characteristics of the product. The pH decrease in fermented sausages provides the coagulation of myofibrillar proteins, resulting in the increase of firmness and cohesiveness of the final product, and contributes to the flavor and red color. Inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is also provided by the fast decrease of pH and lactic acid production in appropriate quantities. The fast decrease in pH values during fermentation of sausages can also contribute to the prevention of the accumulation of biogenic amines, which are harmful to health [14].However, it is important to confirm that the lactic acid bacteria used as probiotic produce the L(+) isomer lactic acid and do not produce the D(-) isomer lactic acid, due to the higher inhibitory effect on undesirable microorganisms of the L(+) lactic acid. Resistance to salt (NaCl) and nitrite (NO2)According to Arihara and Itoh [43] and Sameshima et al.
Thus, the use of cultures resistant to curing salts is the first condition for the production of sausage with probiotic properties [23].Sameshima et al. Bacteriocin production in meat productsBacteriocins are peptides or proteins produced by microorganisms which destroy or inhibit the growth of gram positive bacteria, in particular Listeria monocytogenes.
The use of bacteriocin-producing cultures in meat products may represent a considerable benefit to the consumers health and safety of the product, since bacteriocins do not pose toxicological hazards arising from their consumption and act as a natural form of preservation in the products. The production of bacteriocins has been detected in several lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat products such as L.
Such inhibition is related to a reduction in intracellular pH of the bacteria caused by non-dissociated lactic acid form, which due to its lipophilic nature, it diffuses through the cell membrane and causes collapse of the electrochemical gradient, promoting bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects [14, 36].The survival of the probiotic to the gastric juice depends on its ability to tolerate low pH. Meat, as well as milk, has buffers characteristics in acid environment and can thereby protect the probiotic from the adverse environment of the stomach [1].Erkkila and Petaja [22] reported the resistance of species of Lactobacillus pentosus, L. The authors found that from a total of 14 lactic acid bacteria that survived at pH 2.5 during 3 hours, 5 belonged to the Lactobacillus casei group.
These authors also mention studies on the resistance of 20 strains of Lactobacillus isolated from infant faeces to acidic conditions and report the high viability rate of 3 strains of L.
The intensity of its inhibitory effect on microorganisms is determined by the concentration of salts in the bile composition [47].
Bile salts act by destroying the lipid layer and the fatty acids of the cell membrane of microorganisms. However, some Lactobacillus strains are able to hydrolyze bile salts by excreting bile salt hydrolase enzyme that weakens the detergent power of the bile [23].
Lactobacillus bile resistance has also been associated with other factors such as the stress response system as well as with the elements that involve the maintenance of cellular wall integrity, the energetic metabolism, the amino acid transport and the fatty acid biosynthesis [48].According to Erkkila and Petaja [22] and Pennacchia et al.
During meat sausage processing, Lactobacillus added to the batter are encapsulated by the matrix consisting of meat and fat.



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