Probiotic bacteria lactobacillus acidophilus ncfm and bifidobacterium lactis bi-07,probiotic acidophilus and weight loss yoga,probiotic supplement lactobacillus rhamnosus mexico - Downloads 2016

Iaiaei iaeaieuoaa aieiaiea o?aiuo a ea?anoaa iioaioeaeuiiai ea?aaiiai n?aanoaa i?eaeaeaee e naaa eaeoiaaoeeeu.
N ioe?uoeai e aiaa?aieai a i?aeoeeo aioeaeioeeia iaae?aaeny anieane iee?iaeieiaee e eco?aiey ?iee ii?iaeuiie iee?ioei?u a eeoa?iii aeioaiica, iineieueo iaaaoeaiia aicaaenoaea aioeaeioeeia ia ?aeoai?iieeoa?iue o?aeo naycaii aeaaiui ia?acii n ia?ooaieai iee?iaiiai ?aaiiaaney e aicieeiiaaieai i?aa?aniiei?aiiinoe e eioaeoee aioeaeioeeionoie?eauie ooaiiaie.
Aaeoa?ee naiaenoaa Lactobacillus iaiaoiaaiiua a?aiiiei?eoaeuiua ianii?iia?aco?uea iaeeaaoiua eee oaeoeuoaoeaiua aiay?iau n aunieie oa?iaioaoeaiie aeoeaiinou?.Ia ?enoiea ecia?a?ai o?aaiaio aaeoa?eaeuiie eoeuoo?u. Lactobacilli are normal inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals where they are widely considered to exert a number of beneficial roles including immunomodulation, interference with enteric pathogens, and maintenance of a healthy intestinal microflora.
Lactobacillus acidophilus, commonly called acidophilus, is one of several stains of friendly probiotic bacteria normally found in the intestines and vagina.
Intestinal flora, like acidophilus, play an important role in keeping the immune system healthy, the digestion system in balance, and in producing vitamins.
As acidophilus breaks down foods, it produces lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other beneficial byproducts. Also, acidophilus consumes many of the same nutrients these unfriendly organisms depend on, thus limiting their food source and ability to proliferate. Acidophilus supplement included in your daily diet appears to help keep your digestive system in balance and offset some of the negative effects caused by ingested toxins and viruses.
In a study reported in the February 1998 issue of Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs researchers tested the effect of using L.
After three weeks, researchers took blood samples to determine the phagocytic activity (ability to destroy foreign bacteria) of each person’s white blood cells.
Blood samples were examined again six weeks after stopping probiotic supplementation and the phagocytic activity was still much greater than at the beginning of the study.
In one study, Dr Schroder found that women suffering from a high incidence of vaginitis generally had high-alkaline pH and low levels of L.
Another study reported in a 1960 issue of American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology concluded that use of L.
Other potential probiotics include a variety of Lactobacillus species (spp) such as the casei GG , rhamnosus , NCFM, DDS-1, and johnsonii strains, Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharaomyces boulardii, Bacillus spp., and Escherichia coli . Preventing and treating diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea, particularly from rotavirus (a virus that commonly causes diarrhea in children). Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and, possibly, inflammatory bowel disease IBD (such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis).
Aiding the treatment of respiratory infections such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Other conditions under investigation for use of probiotics include colon cancer, HIV related diarrhea, and Helicobacter pylori, an organism that can lead to development of ulcers. Prebiotics are found in breast milk, onions, tomatoes, bananas, honey, barley, garlic and wheat. Prebiotics occur naturally in foods, but supplements provide a more concentrated source of this substance. Liquid preparations may be used as a lotion and applied topically to diaper area for yeast infections and diaper rashes. If the child is on antibiotic therapy, ? tsp or ? capsule can be taken orally 2 hours after each dose of antibiotics to replace beneficial bacteria. Vaginal infections: 8 ounces of yogurt (with live active cultures containing one of the Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains listed above) daily or an oral daily supplement containing at least 1 to 2 billion live organisms. Mild gastrointestinal upset may occur in some individuals (not on antibiotic therapy) who take more than 1 to 2 billion L. AbstractAging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence.
Fig.A 4Levels (mean with SEM) of the Bifidobacterium genus, the Bacteroidesa€“Prevotella group, the Lactobacillusa€“Enterococcus group, the C.
PubMedDerrien M, Collado MC, Ben Amor K, Salminen S, de Vos WM (2008) The mucin degrader Akkermansia muciniphila is an abundant resident of the human intestinal tract. Bifidobacterium longum ir viena no pirmajam bakterijam, kas atrodama jaundzimušo un zidainu zarnu trakta.
Streptococcus Thermophilus lieto laktozes nepanesamibas un citu zarnu trakta slimibu, tostarp hroniska gastrita, arstešana. B.animalis samazina iekaisuma procesus, uzlabo imunitati un organisma reakcijas uz patogenam bakterijam. Lactobacillus rhamnosus biezi deve par vienu no labakajam Lactobacillus sugas bakterijam to labveligas iedarbibas del. Tag words: lactic acid bacteria, LAB, homolactic, heterolactic, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc, lactic acid, cheese, curds, yogurt, butter, buttermilk, sour cream, cheesemaking, bacteriocins, nicin, lantibiotics, vaccine delivery, lactococcus genome, probiotics. Beneficial bacteria also play a critical role in your body’s ability to fully absorb the nutrients you eat.
Of course, if you’re a dairy lover you can use these suggestions but also check out this post on 10 Cultured Dairy Foods and how to use them. A much loved and much loathed fermented cabbage dish hailing from northern Europe, naturally prepared sauerkraut is both tart and salty. A starter culture sometimes called a kombucha mushroom, mother or scoby(symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts) is necessary to prepare kombucha. Kombucha, like other fermented foods and beverages, is rich in beneficial bacteria and vitamin B12. If you don’t mind a short wait, check out the cultures and starters exchange here at Nourished Kitchen where you can find kombucha mothers free for shipping. SauerrA?A?ben, like sauerkraut, is a fermented vegetable from northern Europe where fermentation offered an opportunity to preserve the harvest throughout the tough, cold winters.
Composed of soybeans in combination with barley or rice, miso is a traditional Japanese condiment used primarily in soups or as a seasoning for vegetables, meats and fish (check out my misoyaki salmon recipe). Water kefir, alternatively known as tibicos and Japanese water crystals, is a probiotic beverage similar to Kombucha and Ginger Beer. If you don’t mind a short wait, check out the cultures and starters exchange here at Nourished Kitchen where you can find water kefir grains free for shipping. Moroccan preserved lemons are naturally fermented without the use of a starter – just benign bacteria and yeasts naturally present in the air, on our skin and on the fruits themselves.
They’re remarkably well-suited to a variety of dishes including classic Moroccan cuisine like lemon and olive roasted chicken and tagines, but I like to serve preserved lemons as a condiment in combination with fresh parsley and fresh garlic. Coconut kefir is a probiotic beverage prepared from young coconut water and a starter culture.
Ginger beer, much like water kefir, offers a healthy, wholesome alternative to super-sweet sodas. Most pickles on your grocery store shelves are pickled using vinegar, but as tasty as this method might be, it is not optimal. Not everyone has the time or energy to pound cabbage and salt into sauerkraut or crack a fresh coconut to prepare coconut kefir; so, for those of you with limited time you can still find wholesome, naturally fermented dairy-free foods that can enliven your belly with beneficial bacteria. If you still can’t find what you need, check out the Nourished Kitchen Resources page which categorizes companies offering fermented foods.
As I’m learning how to make cultured foods, I am adding a small amount of whey to my condiments. Seems to me taking these wonderful fermented products would be helpful to restore homeostasis of the body’s gut flora! Marci: I know your comment was posted quite some time ago, but for those who have the same question, my alternative medicine doctor told me that candida is a sign of a leaky gut. One very important probiotic drink is forgotten to list here, is milk kefir, which is cultivated alike tibicos but milk kefir grains are used, also called Tibetian grains (some people call them mushrooms).
Can I make fermented coconut milk at home by using commercial cultured coconut milk and coconut water ? Oh, also I read recently of a guy in South Australia using water kefir + (water & milk excess grains) to enhance his sauerkraut fermentation.
These beneficial or friendly bacteria help protect the body from hostile organisms that can cause yeast infections, intestinal toxemia, and other health problems. This particular bacterium functions better in acidic environments than most other microorganisms. Unfortunately, this army of friendly bacteria is under constant attack by a diverse group of enemies.
If you currently are not taking a probiotic supplement on a regular basis, we strongly suggest you reconsider.
Schroder conducted research to determine the importance of pH in the vagina and the role beneficial bacteria played in reducing vaginitis. Studies have suggested that consumption of yogurt or milk that contains specific strains of Lactobacillus or supplements with Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium may improve the natural immune response. Examples include asthma, hay fever, food allergies to milk, and skin reactions such as eczema. Clinical experience also suggests that placing yogurt with live acidophilus cultures directly to the vaginal area, using a disposable spatula and wearing a sanitary pad, helps to relieve itching and inflammation.
These beneficial bacteria help protect the body from hostile organisms that can cause yeast infections, intestinal toxemia, and other health problems.

Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. A  They break down potentially negative components of your diet like oxalic acid, manufacture natural vitamins and perform a slew of other duties that keep you well and healthy. A  Decidedly fresher than the canned version you’ll find on grocery store shelves, real sauerkraut has a crispy, not mushy, texture and is loaded with vitamin C and B vitamins.
A  Latin America brings us cortido a dish in which cabbage combines with carrots, onion and red pepper while Korea brings us kimchi in which cabbage combines with radish, ginger, chilies, garlic and other goodies. A  A  A fermented tea thought to originate in Russia or China, kombucha has long been considered a health tonic. A  A 12-oz bottle may set you back as much as $4.59, but you can brew your own kombucha at home with minimal effort provided you have a starter culture. A  Alternatively, check out the Nourished Kitchen Resources page which lists sources for kombucha mothers under Fermented Food Starters. Miso is primarily fermented by aspergillus oryzae, a mold, that is also responsible for the transformation of soybeans into shoyu or tamari. A  Miso is high in vitamin K (learn about vitamin K and other fat soluble vitamins) as well as vitamin B6. A  While you may use it to season cooked foods, doing so destroys heat-sensitive microbiota.
A  Alternatively, check out the Nourished Kitchen Resources page which lists sources for water kefir under Fermented Food Starters.
Just as with sauerkraut, sauerrA?A?ben and other fermented vegetables and fruit, preserved lemons are rich in beneficial bacteria and their acidity is sufficient enough to keep pathogenic bacteria at bay. A  Much of the vitamin C is concenctrated in the lemon’s rind which is customarily discarded due to its astringent, bitter flavor. A  Best championed by the Body Ecology Diet, coconut kefir combines many of the benefits of coconut with the benefits of probiotics. A  Properly prepared, ginger beer will even be naturally fizzy and is often loved by children most of all. A  Sour pickles are the traditional alternative to vinegar pickles and are prepared using a simple solution of unrefined sea salt and clean, chlorine-free water. A  Coconut milk yogurts, sour pickles, traditional sauerkraut and even sour beets can be found on the shelves of well-stocked health food stores while even many grocery stores will stock raw kimchi. I really like kimchi as well, a Korean fermented vegetable side dish and I still have yet to try kefir. Wouldn’t these fermented products, full of beneficial bacteria, overpower the candida overgrowth, candida bacteria gone bad and out of control, and bring it under control and re-balance the intestinal flora? This is very popular milk fermented drink in Russia (they have a patent for it), Poland, it is also known in Japan, Italy and few more countries. Both easy to make at home as you can buy starter tempeh on internet & natto (an acquired taste) can be made from starter or a purchased pack. This is particularly beneficial for individuals that are lactose intolerant and can’t produce this enzyme. Further research is needed to confirm these early findings and to best understand how the improved immune function may or may not help in warding off infections. Inulin is a long-chain oligosacchride (from 2-60 sugars) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are short-chain oligosaccharides (from 2-7 sugars).
In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The top and the bottom of the box represent upper and lower quartiles, respectively, and the band within the box is the median.
A  Indeed, there are many, many dairy-free foods rich in probiotics and beneficial bacteria. A  Furthermore, the process of fermenting cabbage actually creates isothiocyanate – a substance thought to inhibit the formation of cancer and tumors. Kombucha, like other fermented foods and beverages, has a sour flavor with a taste reminsicent of apple cider vinegar combined with club soda, though home-brewed kombucha is often less acidic than storebought.
A  From time to time, strands of viscous strings appear on the bottom of the scoby and these are normal and a good source of B vitamins. A  Glucaric acid is deeply detoxifying and recent research indicates great promise that glucaric acid is effective in the treatment and prevention of cancer. A  Tender, sweet turnips are shredded or, if you like them like we do, julienned and mixed with unrefined sea salt before they’re pounded down to release their juice. A  When making a good miso soup, wait to add the miso paste until the stock has cooled to blood temperature and then allow it to slowly disolve into the liquid. A  Like kombucha mothers, water kefir grains are a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts including lactobacillus hilgardii – the species that gives water kefir grains their characteristic appearance.
A  Culturing lemons naturally with unrefined salt and brine renders the lemon rind not only edible, but also delicious.
A  Coconut water is rich in minerals like calcium and potassium, but it is relatively sweet.
Traditional ginger beer is cultured using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts similar to water kefir grains, indeed, there’s some evidence that water kefir grains and the ginger beer plant are substantially the same in that both ginger beer plants and water kefir grains share many of the same characteristic bacteria. A  This solution encourages the growth of lactic-acid producing beneficial bacteria which customarily outcompete pathogenic bacteria.
Though traditionally soy based, the great thing is at home you can make it with any beans, lentils or even try grains you want. The whiskers indicate the minimum and the maximum, and the average of the data is marked with a€?plus signa€?Fig.A 3Fecal levels of clostridial cluster XIV (a), F. A  In an interesting theory called the hygiene hypothesis, researchers have discovered that an overly sanitary home, birth and environment (i.e. A  By preparing miso soup in this fashion, the miso retains food enzymes and other characteristics of living foods. A  Next, simply allow the water kefir to ferment over the course of a day or two, bottle and store in the fridge. A  By introducing beneficial bacteria into the fresh coconut water, the bactertia metabolize its sugars and produce lactic and acetic acids which lower the overall glycemic index of the beverage. A  Moreover, traditional sour pickles are raw after culturing unlike vinegar-based cucumber pickles which are cooked durieng the canning process thus killing food enzymes, bacteria and destroying heat sensitive vitamins. I find that a dairy free probiotic supplement is also an easy way to to get your daily beneficial bacteria dose.
Nicaaiea ?a oaaeaoe?iaaiiuo oi?i ?eauo aaeoa?ee a oi a?aiy ieacaeinu aaconiaoiui, a nayce n ?ai eioa?an e i?eiaiaie? iee?iaia a ea?aaiuo oaeyo ianeieuei oaan. The whiskers indicate the minimum and the maximum, and the average of the data is marked with a€?plus signa€?L. London, Ontario, CanadaFranceschi C, Capri M, Monti D, Giunta S, Olivieri F, Sevini F, Panourgia MP, Invidia L, Celani L, Scurti M, Cevenini E, Castellani GC, Salvioli S (2007) Inflammaging and anti-inflammaging: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans. A  The kombucha scoby metabolizes the sugar converting it to various acids which provide kombucha with its characteristically tart flavor. A  Readers of Sally Fallon’s landmark book, Nourishing Traditions, will be familiar with this method of preparing ginger beer. You can sprinkle in on room temperature food, or take the capsule with a little bit of food. In effect, beneficial bacteria actually train your immune system to recognize true threats, but their benefits venture beyond interacting with your immune system to your benefit.
A  In this version, powdered ginger and sugar mixed together to encourage the growth of wild bacteria and yeasts and this ginger bug is introduced into sugar water to and allowed to continue to brew.
A  Sometime this week I’ll post a tutorial showing you how you can prepare traditional sour pickles at home. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The whiskers indicate the minimum and the maximum, and the average of the data is marked with a€?plus signa€?Analysis of microbial groups by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry (FISH-FCM) did not reveal major differences in the bacterial populations between the time points. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. The average levels of the genus Bifidobacterium, the Bacteroidesa€“Prevotella group, the C. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. The levels of these groups were not significantly changed during the intervention and follow-up phases.
Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations.
No increase in fecal calprotectin and I?-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers.
In contrast, age-related changes in intestinal microbiota and their potential role on the health status are only starting to be revealed. Probiotic bacteria have great potential in improving the health of the elderly, as probiotics have the capacity to improve immune functions (Gill and Rutherfurd 2001) and modulate specific components of the intestinal microbiota (Lahtinen et al.

Briefly, homogenates were centrifuged (16,000A—g, 5A min), and the supernatants were collected. For IgA measurement, the samples were extracted with bovine serum albumin as described previously (Peuranen et al. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that aging is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota (Bartosch et al. The results were expressed as micrograms per gram of feces (fresh weight) for IgA and calprotectin, and nanograms per gram for I?-defensin.Statistical analysesMicrobial counts were log-transformed prior to statistical analysis. In this study, we assessed whether the probiotic cheese consumption and the observed systemic immune benefits were associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota and selected fecal immune markers.The main outcome of this study was the observation that probiotic cheese consumption resulted in modifications of specific components of the intestinal microbiota, but did not significantly affect the major bacterial groups, suggesting that the changes in the microbiota induced by the probiotics are specific to certain groups of intestinal bacteria. Our results demonstrate that probiotics administered in cheese survive the gastrointestinal transit.
This result supports our earlier study, in which, using the same probiotic cheese, we demonstrated the survival of these probiotics during simulated upper gastrointestinal digestion followed by simulated colon fermentation in a semi-continuous human colon simulator (MA¤kelA¤inen et al. Moreover, elderly subjects living in hospitals and nursing homes are susceptible to increased pathogen challenges.
Changes in the immune parameters were assessed by two-sided one-sample t test by comparing the changes between the time points to the test value of 0.ResultsFecal microbiota by quantitative PCRL. For example, frequent use of antibiotics may increase the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among elderly subjects. The result is in line with many earlier reports demonstrating the transient nature of the colonization of ingested probiotics, including L.
Commonly, alterations in intestinal bifidobacteria have been associated with aging (Biagi et al. But, during the intervention, the average level of NCFM increased by roughly three log units, suggesting that NCFM survived during the gastrointestinal transit.
A recent study comparing young adults, 70-year-old seniors, and 100-year-old centenarians showed that gut microbiota at 70A years is still quite similar with healthy adults, with statistically significant differences only in certain bacterial groups such as Collinsella et rel., but significant changes occur as age increases (Biagi et al.
Specifically, very old age was associated with enrichment of facultative anaerobes belonging to Proteobacteria and bacilli as well as an increased Clostridium leptum group and Eubacterium limosum, accompanied with decreased levels of Clostridium cluster XIVa, genus Bifidobacterium and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii group. Earlier studies have shown the survival of NCFM in the human gastrointestinal tract (Gilliland et al. Overall, different studies assessing the gut microbiota of the elderly and comparing it to that of younger subjects have yielded varying results.
The discrepancies between different studies may be partly explained by differences between the study populations such as genetic background, diet, living environment, and volunteer age and health condition. On the other hand, a major source of variation between the trials is also likely to originate from the differences between the methodologies applied. 2002), but previously the colonization of NCFM has not been reported to last beyond 2A weeks after cessation of probiotic consumption (Sui et al. Alterations in the gut microbiota composition related to aging have provided rationale for therapies aiming at restoration or maintenance of gut microbiota composition associated with healthy adulthood. In fact, the total levels of the group Lactobacillusa€“Enterococcus decreased during the intervention, although the magnitude of this change was only 0.19 log units (cellsA ga?’1) and therefore the biological significance of this observation remains questionable, and it is not clear whether this decrease was related to Lactobacillus or Enterococcus. 2004).Immunosenescence, the deterioration of the immune system function with age, has been widely studied both in animals and humans, but the causes and the consequences of this complex phenomenon are still incompletely understood (Panda et al. Deterioration of immune functions is associated with increased susceptibility to infections and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Imbalance in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions in aging may result in low-grade chronic inflammation, termed inflammaging, characterized by elevated basal levels of pro-inflammatory immune mediators (Franceschi et al. Alterations in the mucosal immunity associated with aging have also been identified, including reduction in intestinal antigen-specific IgA antibody responses (Fujihashi and Kiyono 2009). Improvement of innate and mucosal immune functions in the elderly therefore has great potential for improving the health status in the elderly. The emerging health problems associated with aging and the potential for probiotics to improve immune and gut function make the elderly a particularly important target group for probiotic therapies. At run-in, all of the volunteers were free of acute gastrointestinal infections, suggesting that C. For example, probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp.
Moreover, we have recently demonstrated that the innate immune functions such as phagocytic activity and the natural killer cell activity of elderly subjects can be improved in healthy elderly volunteers by the consumption of a probiotic cheese containing L. 2010).Here, we report on the effects of the consumption of this probiotic cheese containing L.
Fecal microbiota composition was measured with flow cytometry combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization and with quantitative PCR in order to assess whether the beneficial effects on innate immunity are linked with changes in the fecal microbiota.
Elderly subjects, particularly those living in nursing homes, are susceptible to recurrent infections and are commonly prescribed antibiotics. The design of this placebo-controlled cross-over trial and the characteristics of the study population have been described in detail elsewhere (Ibrahim et al. Considering the fact that the study population (elderly) is particularly prone to antibiotic use, the reduction of C. The control and probiotic products had similar taste and appearance, and were blinded to the volunteers. Both the control cheese and the probiotic cheese were manufactured by Mills DA (Oslo, Norway) using proprietary starter strains (Choozit 712a„?, Danisco, Paris); in addition, the probiotic cheese contained approximately 109 CFU of each of the probiotic strains L. This result is in line with the fact that the quantity of the administered probiotic bacteria represents only a tiny fraction of the total microbial cell numbers in the intestine, and therefore, it is perhaps unlikely that such administration will change the balance of the major bacterial groups.
However, since the administered probiotic strains adhere strongly to human mucus and epithelial cells (Buck et al.
2001), administration of these strains may result in changes in the mucosa-adherent microbiota of the intestine.
The mucosa-adherent microbiota is different from the luminal and fecal microbiota (Eckburg et al.
2005), and while mucosal microbiota represents only a minor fraction of the total intestinal microbiota, this fraction is likely to have a critically important role in hosta€“microbe interactions including the interactions with the host immune cells, since the microbes adherent to mucus have close proximity to and longer duration of exposure with the host cells than the microbes in the intestinal lumen. Assessment of the potential changes in the mucosal microbiota would have required the analysis of intestinal biopsies instead of fecal samples, which in this study was unfortunately not possible.Despite the clear effects of the probiotic cheese administration on markers of innate immunity in the study population (Ibrahim et al.
2008) and Akkermansia muciniphila-like bacteria [MUC-1437 (5a€?-CCTTGCGGTTGGCTTCAGAT-3a€?] (Derrien et al. 2010), the probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the measured fecal immune markers: total IgA, calprotectin, and I?-defensin. The result suggests that the beneficial effects on the immunity in the elderly subjects caused by the probiotic administration may be mainly systemic as none of the measured intestinal immune mediators, which are more related to local mucosal immune responses than systemic responses, were altered by the probiotic administration. Furthermore, the lack of effect of the probiotic treatment on the total levels of fecal IgA does not exclude the possibility for probiotic effects on the secretion of antigen-specific IgA. 2008) labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to identify bacterial cells from potential other particles present in the samples. Indeed, the current evidence suggests that aging does not markedly affect the levels of total IgA synthesis in mucosa or serum; instead, the quality of secreted IgA in intestinal mucosa may be altered, as a result of alterations in the gut microbiota associated with aging (Fujihashi and Kiyono 2009).
Specific cell enumeration was performed by combining each of the group-specific Cy3 probes with the EUB 338-FICT probe. Elevated fecal calprotectin and I?-defensin concentrations have been associated with local inflammatory diseases (Gaya and Mackenzie 2002; Kapel et al. The hybridized cells were collected after washing by centrifugation (22,000A—g for 5A min) and resuspended in PBS. Also, aging has been associated with chronic low increase in fecal calprotectin concentrations (Amati et al. No measurable changes in calprotectin levels were detected in this study indicating that the probiotic treatment did not trigger inflammation in the intestine. Results were expressed as the numbers of cells hybridizing with the specific group-Cy3 probe and total bacteria EUB 338-FITC probe.Quantitative PCRDNA was extracted with the use of the QIAamp DNA stool Mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) from the PBS homogenates of the samples (see above) following the manufacturera€™s instructions. While an increase in the systemic immune functions such as increased activity of circulating natural killer cells in elderly subjects suffering from immunosenescence is a desirable effect of probiotics, increase in the intestinal immune parameters such as calprotectin levels may not be desirable since such effect could indicate increased intestinal inflammation.In conclusion, administration of probiotic cheese to elderly volunteers resulted in changes in specific populations of fecal microbiota, but did not alter the major bacterial groups in the gut. The amplification and detection of DNA were performed with the ABI-PRISM sequencing detection system (Applied Biosystems). Lastly, we did not observe changes in intestinal immune markers during the study, suggesting that the beneficial effects of the probiotic cheese administration are mainly on the systemic innate immunity (Ibrahim et al.
For determination of DNA, triplicate samples were used, and the mean quantity per gram wet weight was calculated. Suvi Rovio (Turku City Hospital) and Fandi Ibrahim (Functional Foods Forum) are thanked for collection and logistics of the fecal samples.ReferencesAmati L, Passeri ME, Selicato F, Mastronardi ML, Penna A, Jirillo E, Covelli V (2006) New insights into the biological and clinical significance of fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease.

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