Prebiotics vs. probiotics what is the difference threshold,probiotic foods vegan quiche,how do probiotics make you poop,probiotic for stomach upset 49ers - Step 2

Science journalism is an essential medium for keeping the general public well informed about ground breaking and exciting science. Over the past decade, research into the microbial organisms that live in and on human beings has exploded dramatically.
Figure 1~ A quick search for “Microbiome” in scienctific journals online demonstrates how significantly this field of research has been growing over the past ten years [2]. While microbial communities are present in all areas of they human body, the highly complex intestinal microbiome has become one of the core areas of research. Recently our understanding of the scope of this microbial involvement has taken a surprising turn.
This microbiome-gut-brain connection has stirred up public interest as well as scientific curiosity. In reality, while there is strong preliminary evidence (primarily in rodents) that alterations to or the entire absence of gut microbiota correlates with changes in mood and behavior, there has also been a significant amount of misleading journalism about what scientists really know. Much of the hype surrounding the human microbiome and how it may influence mental health stems from a long standing belief that manipulating the gut microbiota confers positive health benefits to the host. Last December, researchers at Oxford University conducted a trial that tested for emotional and physiological effects of prebiotics on a small group of human volunteers. The researchers gave a group of 45 healthy volunteers (22 male and 23 female) a fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Bimuno®-galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS), or a placebo (maltodextrin) every day for 3 weeks. In addition, when attention to negative versus positive words was measured, B-GOS supplementation correlated to increased focus on positive stimuli (Figure 3). From this data, the researchers conclude that the B-GOS supplement has similar effects as some anti-depressant and anti-anxiety pharmaceuticals, and that prebiotic usage has behavior effects in humans[5].
Perhaps what is most worrisome about this research is that there is a glaring conflict of interest, as a major source of funding came from Clasado Ltd.
To test how the consumption of this probiotic cocktail impacted neurological function, the researchers used a combination of fMRI, which scans and monitors brain activity, and a face-matching attention task. What they found was that the group given the probiotic supplement had a lower amount of activity in several areas of the brain during the experimental task. While the data is very preliminary and provides no direct evidence of a bacterial dependent mechanism for these changes, it is interesting to see in humans what has for sometime been observed in rodents: that the presence or absence of certain bacterial strains in the gut appear to affect the brain. It is, however, important to note that this study on probiotics shares the same controversy in terms of conflict of interest as the previously-discussed Oxford paper on the effect of prebiotics: it was funded by the Groupe Danone, the makers of Dannon Yogurt.
Setting aside a discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of these papers or their possible conflicts of interest, it is most interesting to look at how this research has been reported in the media. For instance, the prebiotics paper has been picked up by multiple news outlets around the world, in one form or another reporting that “some people feeling stressed, anxious or depressed could receive relief by downing probiotics and prebiotics,” or that “[prebiotics] may have an anti-anxiety effect”[4,8]. Of course, the critical viewpoint presented in this piece by no means renders the field meritless.
A lot is being written these days about the importance of probiotics for maintaining or restoring good health. Medical researchers are finding that one of the keys to good health could be tied directly to the good bacteria living in our guts – specifically, in the world of microbes that live in our digestive tracts.
Historically, until about 2001, probiotics were considered only within the realm of complementary and alternative medicine. Huffnagle’s research documents the key role of good bacteria probiotics and prebiotics in restoring healthy balance to our bodies, improving immune system functioning, and curbing inflammation.
He advocates the use of probiotic foods and supplements to prevent and relieve allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, yeast infections, and the negative side effects of antibiotic use. He presents new evidence that probiotics may help fight asthma, cardiovascular disease, breast and colon cancer, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, gout, etc), chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia—and even obesity (a factor in joint pain and overall health). Since probiotic microbes do not cause disease, there’s no such thing as having too much of them. PREbiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that promote the growth of beneficial micro-organisms in the intestines. It presents the important relationship between our digestive system and our immune system in an informative, easy to understand way. The Autoimmune Solution: Prevent and Reverse the Full Spectrum of Inflammatory Symptoms and Diseases.
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Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Milk and Dairy Products: Vectors to Create Probiotic ProductsGabriel-Danut Mocanu1 and Elisabeta Botez1[1] Department of Food Science, Food Engineering and Applied Biotechnology, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, „Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania1. Aerococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae).Seven of the twelve genera of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, and Tetragenococcus, are used directly in food fermentations. The probiotic bacteria used in commercial productstoday are largely members of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. To understand why probiotics are important, we first need to understand how valuable beneficial bacteria are to our health, and how prevalent they are in our bodies. In our gut, good bacteria can displace bad bacteria and influence our overall health, metabolism, digestion, and body composition. Gut bacteria are involved in immunity and help to ensure our immune system doesn’t have an itchy trigger finger (think food sensitivities). Adequate consumption of probiotics can help to eliminate abdominal pain, gas, bloating, reflux, allergies, nausea, food poisoning and vomiting.
While our intestinal bacteria are pretty tough little critters, their health can be compromised. And speaking of diet, if you eat animal foods, the gut health of the animal is important too.
Probiotics are found in yogurt, buttermilk, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi, and bacterially cultured cheese.
As with all products containing living bacteria,probiotic products must be cooled during storage.
Probiotics seem to improve overall health, metabolism, immunity, digestion, and body composition. If you are healthy, aim for 1-2 servings of probiotic rich foods each day (use the food source list above). If you are healthy, aim for 2-3 servings of prebiotic rich foods each day (use the food source list above). Take note: You may actually feel worse before you feel better since bacteria release toxins. In it you’ll learn the best eating, exercise, and lifestyle strategies — unique and personal — for you.
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Gastrointestinal Disorders, Appetite Suppressors consider Dirlotapide (SlentrolA®), Canine parvo virus consider Isolation, Probiotics consider Helicobacter pylori infections, Canine parvo virus involves -Aggressive fluid therapy - add Glucose to fluids to treat hypoglycemia -Antbiotics (ampicillin) -Anti-emetic -Anti-helminthics -plasma administration (for hypo-proteinemia), Pain Control includes Analgesics, Antisialogues uses -Drugs that decrease salivary flow -Used to limit the flow of excess saliva, which often occurs secondary to anesthetic drug use, Vaccination entails Vaccine failure, Canine parvo virus consider Decontamination, Vomiting Aetiology Gastro and Extra-Gastro, Symptomatic includes Dietary, Absorbants and Protectors examples Bismuth subsalicylate (bismuth + aspirin-like product), Equine Colic Principles of the medial Treatment of Colic Fluids, Constipation treatment involves 1. Probiotics are defined as bacteria and yeasts that are alive and function symbiotically with other microorganisms to keep your body healthy and active. Though people commonly believe that bacteria cause ailments and infections, this isn’t true for all of them. Our digestive tracts contain over 1000 kinds of intestinal flora, which help us break down what we eat and increase the absorption of nutrients.
Multiple species of these beneficial microorganisms help with a number of different functions including the processing of fiber that collects in the colon, turning it into short chain fatty acids like butyrate and acetate. Probiotics also help maintain the population of good bacteria in the body, playing an active role in fighting and lowering bad bacteria, primarily by creating a hostile environment where pathogens cannot thrive. Maintaining a healthy balance of bacteria in the digestive system aids in the functional filtering of toxins and wastes, and helps cells better absorb necessary nutrients, which helps the body receive more nutrition from the food that passes through it.
There are many universal benefits of probiotics, which makes them important for everyone, with no age or gender limits to their consumption.
Probiotic bacteria are believed to cure a wide range of health problems, ranging from constipation and diarrhea to preventing and fighting off a cold.
The trouble is a lot of those “unwanted house guests” who live in our gut and other parts of our bodies, are actually really good for us – they help our system run well and efficienty!
By now, most health-conscious folks know that it’s a good idea to take a peek at their groceries’ nutrition facts before hitting the checkout line. Enter the new Food Scores tool, released this week by the Environmental Working Group (EWG).
Spend five minutes with this tool and we’re sure you’ll discover some disturbing facts about items that may be lurking in your pantry.
These snacks pack a nasty punch when it comes to added sugar — the EWG found that 92 percent of granola and trail mix bars contained the sweet stuff.
As Turkey Day approaches, you might want to plan on making homemade stuffing, and nixing boxed-up store mixes altogether.
While Applegate’s Organic Smoked Turkey breast ranks at a respectable 3.5 due to its organic label and antibiotic-free production, Buddig’s Honey Roasted Turkey clocks in at a 9.
Another surprise: Ghiradelli Dark Chocolate Squares with assorted fillings clock in at a 10 on the Food Scores scale.
Even more shockingly, it turns out not even frozen yogurt is a safe bet when it comes to sweets. Don’t worry, the database will never encourage you to give up your favorite snacks entirely.
That said, nutrition experts advise that eating clean is the best way to stay healthy, in the long run. A health, fitness and lifestyle site brought to you by Daily Burn, in partnership with Verywell. But in the process of translating complex research into attractive material for general consumption important details and subtleties are often lost.
Collectively termed the human microbiota, it is estimated that there are perhaps 10x more microbial than human cells cohabiting our bodies[1].
Scientists have already demonstrated that the gut microbiome is importantly involved in the development of the human immune system, and that abnormalities in microbial diversity are correlated with several inflammatory diseases, as well as colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity [1]. The past few years has seen a significant increase in scientific publications that examine if and how the microbiome may also influence our mood and behavior. The suggestion that our intestinal bacteria are involved in behavior and mood has been particularly marketable, as it is an appealingly simple explanation for depression, anxiety, eating behavior, and even memory. There are two primary ways of altering the intestinal microbiota, either with probiotics, which are live microorganisms, or prebiotics which are essentially bacterial food sources that cannot be metabolized by the host organism.
Looking at two very recent studies that report a link between human intestinal microbiota and the brain we can start to get an idea. The amount of time it took participants to complete that task gave researchers an idea of how much attention volunteers paid to the different types of stimuli.


In general, we experience a significant increase in cortisol levels within the first hour of getting up in the morning, theorized to be a physiological means of preparing for anticipated stress during the day [6]. The majority of other emotional tests showed no significant difference in response between the test groups.
These are bold claims, and while they openly acknowledge that their findings are preliminary, the suggestion that prebiotic consumption will effect human behavior is simply not conclusive from the correlations they observe. Brain activity was monitored during a resting state and while subjects performed tasks that had them identify certain emotions in human faces [7]. In particular they note there were noticeable changes in the periaqueductal gray region of the midbrain, a region of the midbrain that is involved in pain regulation[7]. Dannon both funded part of this research as well as provided the probiotic milk product that this trial tested. Though popular articles may describe some of the particulars and vagaries of the research, they seriously misrepresent the correlations and data by presenting preliminary evidence as something close to proven fact.
There is promising evidence that the microbiome is intimately involved in human health, including brain function and behavior. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. Probiotics are micro-organisms, mostly friendly bacteria and some yeasts, that we consume to create a healthy and balanced gut microbiome. Remember to take probiotic supplements just before each meal (15 minutes or less before eating). Exposure to heat kills them so they won’t be able to provide you with their full benefit if you cook them.
As our understanding of the immune system and how it works has expanded, so has the understanding of the importance of probiotics and probiotic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract in regulating the immune system. He has published more than 90 articles about microbes and the immune system in peer-reviewed scientific journals, academic reviews and textbooks. Foods that are high in soluable fiber will provide good prebiotics in your gut, allowing your probiotics to thrive so you can avoid illness and enjoy good health.
Huffnagle is Professor of Internal Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan Medical School and a leading authority on the role of the gut microbiome on inflammatory processes (Huffnagle, 2008). Improvement of benefical effect of probiotic dairy products through the use of bioactive compounds from plants5.1. The relationship between SOD activity and iron content of products obtained with ABY 3 cultureTable 7. Technological flowchart for manufacturing the new product – Probiotic yoghurt with added medicinal plant extractsTable 12.
IntroductionThe most important function of alimentation is represented by the assurance of human metabolic needs as well as wellbeing and satisfaction induced by sensorial characteristics of food.
If you extracted all of the microbes that live in your body, you’d have over a quart of sludge.
Scientists estimate that we have over 50 genera of bacteria that provide over 500 different species!
Probiotics may even alleviate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and dermatitis. When good bacteria flourish, bad bacteria and other micro-organisms such as yeasts and fungi are pushed out. Traditional methods of meat preservation (such as the curing of salami) also use fermentation of Lactobacilli to preserve the food, although arguably industrially produced cured meats no longer have health benefits.
Fermentation intensifies the stimulant properties of the leaves and produces black and oolong varieties. We don’t digest prebiotics, which come mainly from oligosaccharides (complex starches), but probiotics love them. If you’re hoping to prevent or alleviate a medical problem, you may need to increase the dose. Digestive enzymes are like chemical grinders that chew up substances and break them down for us so we can absorb them. Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets.
The role of diet- and host-related factors in nutrient bioavailability and thus in nutrient-based dietary requirement estimates. Probiotic modulation of symbiotic gut microbial-host metabolic interactions in a humanized microbiome mouse model. Probiotic food supplement reduces stress-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review.
Probiotic-induced changes in the intestinal epithelium: implications in gastrointestinal disease. Probiotic safety in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces spp.
For a microbe to be considered probiotic, it needs to be alive when ingested, documented to have health benefits and consumed in levels that actually transfer these health benefits to the host.
It’s been well established that there are some species of probiotic bacteria that are actually beneficial for the body.
Probiotics are the helpful kind of bacteria that work effectively in helping you sustain a healthy gut.
The wall of the intestines survives on these fatty acids and executes numerous metabolic functions.
They also work synergistically with other beneficial microbes to crowd out harmful microorganisms that cause disease and infection. In addition to all this, probiotic bacteria also trigger immune responses from the body, leading to better immunity. In fact, probiotics even play a significant role in the health and wellness of pets and farm animals. Unfortunately, we’ve gotten so used to the idea of all bacteria being bad that somewhere along the way, we started working on getting rid of everything that we consider foreign to our system. While this gives you one metric regarding nutrients, it doesn’t tell you much about the wholesomeness of your food,” says Bethany Doerfler, RD, LDN, and a clinical research dietician at Northwestern Medicine in Chicago. The easy-to-use food calculator gives shoppers insight into how healthy grub is, based on scores derived from nutrition content, processing and artificial ingredients. Only 18 percent of the products in the database received a score of 1 to 3.5, placing them in the “green” zone, indicating that they are healthy choices.
Thirty-two percent of cereals in the database contain ingredients of “high concern,” due to the presence of preservatives, additives or contaminants.
Thirty-nine percent of packaged stuffing contains ingredients of high concern, such as pesticides, food additives, antibiotics or contaminants linked to health problems. What’s more, 52 percent of meat products also contain highly worrisome ingredients, including nitrites, a suspected carcinogen. The less-savory choice contains four ingredients of concern: sodium nitrite, sodium phosphates, natural flavors and carrageenan. Despite having only 90 calories per bar, these beloved marshmallow bites are deceptively bad for you. Though the packaging is fancy, and the chocolate is dark, these rich bites contain partially hydrogenated vegetable oils — a source of trans fats. Unfortunately these losses can result in misleading representations of science, communicating preliminary and correlative data as nearly proven fact. Scientists have become increasingly interested in studying the human microbiota because these organisms contribute a huge amount of genetic material to the overall human genome.
The idea being that the microbial cultures in our guts are interacting with our nervous systems through the molecules and proteins they secrete. If there is a link between the intestinal microbiota and the brain then pre and probiotics present exciting avenues for psychological therapies. By examining their methods, conclusions, the various interest groups involved, and the accompanying media coverage we can get a sense of both what is known, where the research is headed, and the aspects that have been skewed in the media. Immediately after waking on the mornings of the first and final days of the trial, participants self-collected samples of saliva. For example, if patients were able to count the number of stars in the same location as the positive stimulus more quickly that those in the location of the neutral stimulus, this indicated that they were more attentive to positive stimuli.
This correlation between prebiotic consumption and lower cortisol levels may demonstrate a connection between the gut microbiome and the human nervous system. Such a situation is common across industry-funded research, and underlines the persistent tension between financial and academic interests threatening scientific objectivity. Kristen Tillisch an associate professor of medicine at UCLA in 2013, the study involved 36 women given either a milk product supplemented with probiotics, milk without probiotics, or no intervention over the course of 4 weeks. Forbes magazine wrote that this research showed how “brains of people ingesting a probiotic for four weeks had less activity in brain areas associated with excessive anxiety”[9].
But there is equally clear evidence that media coverage walks far ahead of the scientific work it intends to report, too often condensing preliminary, correlative and complex data into pat headlines. Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers.
Depression, anxiety come from the gut: Surprising new research suggests ‘prebiotics’ can help. Probiotics are essential to our health – an unbalanced gut microbiome produces chronic inflammation in the gut and in other parts of the body, leading to all sorts of autoimmune diseases and other serious health problems. He is the co-author of The Probiotics Revolution: The Definitive Guide to Safe, Natural Health Solutions Using Probiotic and Prebiotic Foods and Supplements. They make sure an extended shelf life for the different probiotic supplements, and they do not require refrigeration at all. In the same time, by modulating some target functions of the body, the food components might have benefic psychological and physiological effects, beside the nutritional ones, already accepted. This could be increased to 10 billion if you are hoping to alleviate a specific health concern. They are especially important when it comes to the digestive system, where they do most of the heavy lifting. These beneficial bacteria stimulate the juices and enzymes that cause our digestive organs to function well. The only thing you need to consider is the dosage and strain that is appropriate, based on factors like age, weight and, existing medical conditions. The database of over 80,000 foods, which took three years to develop, ranks each item on a scale of 1 (good) to 10 (bad). And, the EWG’s research reveals that a whopping 100 percent of stuffing mixes contain added sugars. Each serving contains the equivalent of two whole teaspoons of added sugar, making the squares 36 percent added sugar by weight.


With 37 percent of your daily saturated fat and five teaspoons of added and natural sugars in each three-square serving, we’re going to say this sweet treat might not be worth it. It has six teaspoons of added and natural sugars per serving, and high levels of saturated fats.
The genomes of our microbiota, and the way they interact with the human host, are collectively termed the microbiome. Altogether, the accumulating body of scientific literature has provided early glimpses at potential links between our gut bacteria and conditions such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and autism [3].
Subjects were then given a series of emotional processing tasks in which attention to positive versus negative stimuli was measured. Researchers observed that those given prebiotics tended to be less attentive to negative stimuli [5]. The researchers suggest that this correlation may point to prebiotics having an anti-anxiety affect that is similar to existing pharmaceuticals. Fecal samples from the volunteers were analyzed for Bifidobacterium lactis, which was the active probiotic in the supplement, such that potential control subjects were screened to be B. While the general idea is accurate, making the connection to anxiety is still a stretch and grossly oversimplifies the research.
If your gut microbiome is lacking in probiotics, pathogenic bacteria can move in opportunistically and take over. In fact, their presence is often undesirable, in part, because they are sometimes used as indicators of fecal contamination and also because some strains may harbor mobile antibioticresistance genes.Importantly, some strains of Enterococcus are capable of causing infections in humans. Fermentation organisms produce alcohol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, preservatives that retain nutrients and prevent spoilage. Retching, Diarrhea types Exudative, Absorbants and Protectors examples Activated charcoal (toxiban, liqui-char), Diarrhea stepwise approach for Diarrhoea 4.
There are many examples of media distorting or overselling science, but right now there is probably no better example than much of the coverage of research on the human microbiome and how its manipulation might impact human mental health. The fundamental hypothesis that is driving, and increasingly validated by, human microbiome research is that all of this microbial activity adds up to a significant impact on human physiology.  More and more we are developing an understanding of what kinds of microbes are living where, and how they are intimately involved in human health and disease. The likely end result is the degradation of public trust in the integrity and validity of scientific research. We are situated at a new frontier of nutrition, in which the foods are evaluated by their biological potential and by their ability to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases. Likewise, Carnobacterium are also undesirable, mainly because they are considered as spoilage organisms in fermented meat products. We can talk today about the fact that food for health represent an expanding field: probiotic functional food. In essence, probiotic functional food are products that, by their biological active compounds and consumed in current diets, contribute to optimal human physical and psihycal health.The appearance and development of functional probiotic food are the response of production field to the results of cellular and molecular biology field research, which demonstrates the implication of food components in proper functioning cellules and subcelular structures.
Probiotics as functional foodsIn the last decades consumer demands in the field of food production has changed considerably.
The importance of these studies is essential in contemporaneous context in which the environment assaults by many ways the human body, fully stressing it’s protection, adaption and equilibrium maintenance systems. By their specific action, the food components might contribute to the maintain the normal parameters of cellular edificium and of the human body equilibrium. Nowadays we are assisting to an intensification of research in food – alimentation – health relationship field. The increasing demand on such foods can be explained by the increasing cost of healthcare, the steady increase in life expectancy, and the desire of older people for improved quality of their later years [19, 15, 20].The term ‘‘functional food’’ itself was first used in Japan, in the 1980s, for food products fortified with special constituents that possess advantageous physiological effects [21, 22].
Unlike the last years, the customers from many countries become more and more interested in health beneficial determined by alimentation, including probiotic functional food.
The amount of intake and form of the functional food should be as it is normally expected for dietary purposes. Therefore, it could not be in the form of pill or capsule just as normal food form’’ [23].European legislation however, does not consider functional foods as specific food categories, but rather a concept [22, 24].
The history of probiotics began with the history of man; cheese and fermented milk were well known to the Greeks and Romans, who recommended their consumption, especially for children and convalescents. Probiotics are defined as the living microorganisms administered in a sufficient number to survive in the intestinal ecosystem. From a product point of view, the functional property can be included in numerous different ways as it can be seen in table 2.
The term „probiotic“ was first used by [2] in 1965 to describe the „substances secreted by one microorganism that stimulate the growth of another“. A powerful evolution of this definition was coined by [3] in 1974, who proposed that probiotics are „organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance“ [4]. According to alternative classification, some functional products are (1) ‘‘add good to your life’’, e.g.
In more modern definitions, the concept of an action on the gut microflora, and even that of live microorganisms disappeared [5] in 1998 defined probiotics as the „food which contains live bacteria beneficial to health“, whereas [6] in 2001 defined them as „microbial cell preparations or components of microbial cells that have a beneficial effect on the health and well-being“.Some modern definitions include more precisely a preventive or therapeutic action of probiotics.
It is difficult, however to find good biomarkers for cognitive, behavioural and psychological, functions. Finally, since probiotics have been found to be effective in the treatment of some gastrointestinal diseases [6], they can be considered to be therapeutic agents. Other group (2) of functional food is designed for reducing an existing health risk problem such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure. Despite these numerous theoretical definitions, however, the practical question arises whether a given microorganism can be considered to be a probiotic or not. Health benefits of probioticsSince Metchnikoff’s era, a number of health benefits have been contributed to products containing probiotic organisms. While some of these benefits have been well documented and established, others have shown a promising potential in animal models, with human studies required to substantiate these claims. The probiotics in use today have not been selected on the basis of all these criteria, but the most commonly used probiotics are the strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus (S. More importantly, health benefits imparted by probiotic bacteria are very strain specific; therefore, there is no universal strain that would provide all proposed benefits, not even strains of the same species. Moreover, not all the strains of the same species are effective against defined health conditions. Probiotic dairy productsFoods that affect specific functions or systems in the human body, providing health benefits beyond energy and nutrients—functional foods—have experienced rapid market growth in recent years. According to current taxonomy, the lactic acid bacteria group consists of twelve genera (table 1).
This growth is fueled by technological innovations, development of new products, and the increasing number of health-conscious consumers interested in products that improve life quality.
Since the global market of functional foods is increasing annually, food product development is a key research priority and a challenge for both the industry and science sectors. Probiotics show considerable promise for the expansion of the dairy industry, especially in such specific sectors as yogurts, cheeses, beverages, ice creams, and other desserts. This book chapter presents an overview of functional foods and strategies for their development, with particular attention to probiotic dairy products.
Types of probiotic dairy productThe most common probiotic dairy products worldwide are various types of yogurt, other fermented dairy product, various lactic acid bacteria drinks and mixture of probiotic (fermented) milks and fruit juice.
In table 3 are listed some dairy functional food products that have been developed recently in Faculty of Food Science and Engineering. The incubation of obtained fermented dairy drink was made at 37°C for 5 hours.The addition of carrot juice (at a percentage of 10%) had a positive effect on physical – chemical and microbiological parameters of fermented dairy drink. Combining goat milk with carrot juice can get some food with potential therapeutic role.As a result of the lactose fermentation, the titratable acidity increased fast during the incubation period.
At the end of the storage period (after 5 days), the highest value of titratable acidity was 61 ?T. The pH of the obtained new product decreased during incubation period, and will stabilize during storage period, pH = 5.1 after 5 days of storage. The evolution of the number of microorganisms was analyzed for each sample during incubation and storage period.
It was observed that the fermented dairy drink with added carrot juice product had been preserving its functional properties during storage (over 108 cfu mL-1 probiotic bacteria).The products were analyzed in terms of fluid flow thus establishing their rheological behavior. The literature shows that the rheological properties of fermented dairy products depend on the development of lactic bacteria as a consequence of metabolic changes leading physicochemical substrate in milk.In figure 2 is presented the variation of shearing stress (?, Pa) according to the shearing rate (??, s-1). There was determined that samples have a rheological behavior similar with the one of the non-Newtonian fluids, time independent, therefore a pseudoplastic behavior. Pasteurization of milk is achieved by maintaining standardized milk at 95 °C for 5 minutes. In this storage period, coagulum is more compact, the flavor and taste become more pleasant.
CheesesPerhaps no other fermented food starts with such a simple raw material and ends up with products having such an incredible diversity of color, flavor, texture, and appearance as does cheese. It is even more remarkable that milk, pale in color and bland in flavor, can be transformed into literally hundreds of different types of flavorful, colorful cheeses by manipulating just a few critical steps.Just what happened to cause the milk to become transformed into a product with such a decidedly different appearance, texture, and flavor? To answer that question, it is first necessary to compare the composition of the starting material, milk, to that of the product, the finished cheese (figure 4).In an attempt to diversify the range of probiotic dairy products, there has been made a series of research on the introduction of probiotic bacteria in cheese.
According to [33], cheese is an interesting way of supplying probiotic bacteria due to the chemical composition of the raw milk that encourages their growth, metabolism and viability and also due to their relatively low acidity compared to other food products. In 2009, [34] used probiotic fresh cheese and peach pulp in order to obtain a dessert, according to figure 5. Probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, was introduced in the fresh cheese as an agent of milk maturation, during coagulation stage. This influenced the sensorial properties of the product, which achieved a creamy texture including in its structure the minced peach pulp and fat globules from the cream. The research of the above mentioned authors continued, in the attempt to obtain a similar product using goat milk [35].
Although there was expected a reserved attitude of the consumer because of the unpleasant flavour of goat milk, this was not observed.In 2010 a new probiotic product based on fresh cheese was obtained, by mixing fresh cheese with caraway, cream and salt. The probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium lactis BB 12) were introduced in cheese at milk maturation stage.
Telemea is a cheese variety originated in Romania, from where its manufacture spread to other Balkan countries and Turkey [38]. Evolution of probiotic bacteria during different stages of manufacturing process is presented in table 4. Conclusion of the study is that Telemea cheese can be considered a probiotic product, even if the high salt concentration disadvantages probiotic bacteria growth, as long as the number of viable cells remains above 107 cfu g-1.



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Comments to “Prebiotics vs. probiotics what is the difference threshold”

  1. A_M_I_Q_O:
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World effects observed, they.
  2. SINGLEBOY:
    ASD and/or ADHD may be influenced by the absorption of gut-derived.