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During a period of last ten years, SBW group has been working with over 100 organizations, ranging from academic groups to virtual biotechs and up to global pharmaceutical companies in over 20 countries.
Greece is among a number of European countries who are challenging drugs companies by slashing prices as Europe's drugs bill has risen by 50% in real terms (inflation stripped out) in a decade.
Greece has imposed price cuts of 25% on drugs and last weekend, Denmark's Novo Nordisk said it would refuse to lower the price on its most expensive forms of insulin, effectively making them unavailable to Greek patients.
Germany's health ministry has also proposed to allow drug makers to set their own prices for the first year of a new product, after which state health insurers would negotiate discounts based on data showing whether the new drug was more effective than older treatments. The FT reports that Noel Renaudin, an official in France’s health ministry, has a tough message for the pharmaceutical companies with which he regularly negotiates: “We have to stop the infinite growth in prices for drugs. Europe’s drug bill was €535bn in 2007, according to the most recent OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) data, up 50% in real terms in a decade. Sweden has agreed with the industry to save €200m over three years; the UK's new government has said it plans to "move to a system of value-based pricing" for drugs, which analysts say could mean basing a drug's price on the benefits it offers. Novo Nordisk, the world’s biggest insulin producer, will no longer sell its next-generation diabetes treatments in Greece. LEO Pharma, the dermatology and critical care drugmaker, said it's withdrawing some of its more expensive medicines from the Greek market. So that factor and a cartel type operation run by pharmacists has resulted in the high prices.
A 40% drop in the price of up to 300 commonly prescribed drugs coming off-patent, came into effect in Ireland on February 01, 2010 and is expected to save the State up to €94m in a full year.
However, some generic drugs are now 50% more expensive than their branded equivalents - - a situation "unique in Europe," the Clinical Director of the National Centre for Pharmacoeconomics has told Irish Medical Times.
Describing this as "an extraordinary situation," Dr Michael Barry stated that while GPs were prescribing generic medicines, the patient would pay a premium for the generic product.
Minister for Health Mary Harney told the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Health on February 09, 2009 that as a result of the new agreement reached with pharmaceutical producers, some generic products would now be more expensive than the products that come off patent. Generic drugs had traditionally been priced, on average, between 5-10% below their branded equivalents. The Irish Pharmaceutical Healthcare Association (IPHA), which represents the big manufacturers agreed to cut off-patent drugs prices after Minister Harney agreed that the State wouldn't interfere with the cost of their proprietary or branded drugs for another 18 months. A 2006 Irish agreement provides that the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the average wholesale prices in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Finland, Austria and the UK. In 2009, the Government introduced cuts of up to €133m in payments to pharmacists over a 12-month period by reducing from 50% to 20% the retail mark-up payable under the community drugs schemes.
Researchers from several top schools of public health, including those at Harvard, Johns Hopkins and Yale, analysed all new drugs approved by the US drugs regulator, the FDA, between 1992 and 2004, and the home countries where the products were developed. The US accounts for around 40% of world prescription drug spending, and has a GDP that accounts for about 40% of total GDP among the countries considered, and develops about 40% of all new drugs. Other innovator countries include the UK, Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, Belgium Israel and Denmark, are all responsible for proportionally more drug innovations than their wealth or drug spending would suggest while Canada, Japan, Italy, Korea and Australia, develop fewer new drug innovations than their wealth or spending would suggest. Have you ever been in situations involving difficult co-workers, tight deadlines or inadequate resources? Puerto Rico (Spanish for "rich port") comprises an archipelago that includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller islands, the largest of which are Vieques, Culebra, and Mona. Originally populated for centuries by indigenous aboriginal peoples known as Tainos, the island was claimed by Christopher Columbus for Spain during his second voyage to the Americas on November 19, 1493.
The relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States has its origins dating back to the Spanish-American War, in which Spain, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, ceded the island to the United States.
Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, from Boriken, its indigenous Taino name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord".[13][14][15] The terms boricua and borincano derive from Boriken and Borinquen respectively, and are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The ancient history of the archipelago known today as "Puerto Rico" before the arrival of Christopher Columbus is not well known. The first settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen. Between the 7th and 11th centuries the Taino culture developed on the island, and by approximately 1000 CE had become dominant. The importation of Sub-Saharan African slaves was introduced to provide the new manual work force for the Spanish colonists and merchants. In 1607, Puerto Rico served as a port provisioning the English ships Godspeed, Susan Constant and Discovery, which were on their way to establish Jamestown, Virginia, the first successful English settlement in the New World.
During the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Spanish colonial emphasis continued to be focussed on the more prosperous mainland North, Central, and South American colonies.
In 1779, citizens of the still-Spanish colony of Puerto Rico fought in the American Revolutionary War under the command of Bernardo de Galvez, named Field Marshal of the Spanish colonial army in North America.
In 1809, in a further move to secure its political bond with the island and in the midst of the European Peninsular War, the Supreme Central Junta based in Cadiz recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain with the right to send representatives to the recently convened Spanish parliament with equal representation to Mainland Iberian, Mediterranean (Balearic Islands) and Atlantic maritime Spanish provinces (Canary Islands).
In the early 19th century, Puerto Rico had an Independence movement which, due to the harsh persecution by the Spanish authorities, met in the island of St. With the increasingly rapid growth of independent former Spanish colonies in the South and Central American states in the first part of the century, Puerto Rico and Cuba continued to grow in strategic importance to the Spanish Crown. In 1858, Samuel Morse introduced wired communication to Latin America when he established a telegraph system in Puerto Rico.
As an incentive to immigrate and colonize, free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the two islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.[34] It was very successful and European immigration continued even after 1898.
Poverty and political estrangement with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in 1868 known as "Grito de Lares." It began in the rural town of Lares, but was subdued when rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebastian.
Leaders of "El Grito de Lares", who were in exile in New York City, joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee, founded on December 8, 1895, and continued their quest for Puerto Rican independence.
In 1897, Luis Munoz Rivera and others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to Charters of Autonomy for Cuba and Puerto Rico. Having therefore no foreign establishments either colonial or military, the ships of war of the United States, in war will be like land birds, unable to fly far from their own shores. Since 1894, the Naval War College had been formulating contingency plans for a war with Spain. On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico was invaded by the United States with a landing at Guanica. Natural disasters, including a major earthquake, a tsunami and several hurricanes, and the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades under U.S. The internal governance changed during the latter years of the Roosevelt–Truman administrations, as a form of compromise led by Luis Munoz Marin and others. On October 30, 1950, Pedro Albizu Campos and other nationalists led a 3-day revolt against the United States in various cities and towns of Puerto Rico.
The Constitution of Puerto Rico was approved by a Constitutional Convention on February 6, 1952, ratified by the U.S.
During the 1950s Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, due in large part to Operacion Manos a la Obra ("Operation Bootstrap"), an offshoot of FDR's New Deal, which aimed to transform Puerto Rico's economy from agriculture-based to manufacturing-based. The government of Puerto Rico, based on the formal republican system, is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Puerto Rico is represented in the United States Congress by a nonvoting delegate, formally called a Resident Commissioner (currently Pedro Pierluisi).


From 1952 to 2007, Puerto Rico had three political parties which stood for three distinct future political scenarios. On February 4, 1952, the convention approved Resolution 22 which chose in English the word Commonwealth, meaning a "politically organized community" or "state", which is simultaneously connected by a compact or treaty to another political system. In 1967, Puerto Rico's Legislative Assembly polled the political preferences of the Puerto Rican electorate by passing a plebiscite act that provided for a vote on the status of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is an "unincorporated territory" of the United States which according to the U.S. The Pharmaceutical Executive magazine published its annual ranking of the Top 50 Pharma Companies Worldwide based on sales earlier this month.
Among the top 10, five are European pharma companies including Novartis, Sanofi (SNY), Roche (RHHBY), GlaxoSmithkline(GSK), and Astrazeneca (AZN). Elsewhere, Spain has announced price cuts for patent-protected and generic drugs by 7.5% and 25%, respectively. That represents compound annual growth of 4.1% - - well above inflation - - as companies introduced higher-priced new products and increased sales of existing ones. 50,000 people in Greece use the new generation products that the company will pull from the market, while another 40,000 use standard human insulin. It is ridiculous: there is no other country in Europe where the original proprietary drugs are cheaper than the generic equivalents,”Dr Barry told Irish Medical Times. However, the 40% price cut on off-patent medicines has meant many generics are now considerably more expensive than the brand products.
The new deal takes the IPHA up to March 2012, replacing the one due to expire this September. If the US's free market was an engine for innovation, it would be expected that 40% of spending result in more than 40% of all new drug innovations. Due care and diligence has been taken while editing and publishing neither the authors, publishers hold any responsibility for any mistake that may have crept inadvertently.
Under Spanish rule, the island was colonized and the indigenous population was forced into slavery and nearly wiped out due to, among other things, European infectious diseases. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, which means "the island of enchantment" in English. Unlike other larger more advanced indigenous communities in the New World (Aztec, Inca) which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, the indigenous population of Puerto Rico left scant records. At the time of Columbus' arrival, an estimated 30 to 60 thousand Taino Amerindians, led by cacique (chief) Agueybana, inhabited the island. This continued distraction on the part of the Spanish Crown left the island of Puerto Rico virtually unexplored, undeveloped, and (excepting coastal outposts) largely unsettled before the nineteenth century.
Puerto Ricans participated in the capture of Pensacola, the capital of the British colony of West Florida, and the cities of Baton Rouge, St. The first Spanish parliamentary representative from the island of Puerto Rico, Ramon Power y Giralt, died after serving a three-year term in the Cortes. In a very deliberate move to increase its hold on its last two new world colonies, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815.
Morse's oldest daughter Susan Walker Morse (1821-1885), would often visit her uncle Charles Pickering Walker who owned the Hacienda Concordia in the town of Guayama.
Leaders of this independence movement included Ramon Emeterio Betances, considered the "father" of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figures such as Segundo Ruiz Belvis. In 1897, Antonio Mattei Lluberas and the local leaders of the independence movement of the town of Yauco organized another uprising, which became known as the "Intentona de Yauco".
In 1898, Puerto Rico's first, but short-lived, autonomous government was organized as an 'overseas province' of Spain.
Seward, the former Secretary of State under the administrations of various presidents, among them Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses Grant, had stressed that a canal be built either in Honduras, Nicaragua or Panama and that the United States annex the Dominican Republic and purchase Puerto Rico and Cuba.
By 1896, the Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan which included military operations in Puerto Rican waters. As an outcome of the war, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, along with the Philippines and Guam, that were under Spanish sovereignty, to the U.S. It culminated with the appointment by President Truman in 1946 of the first Puerto Rican-born governor, Jesus T. Presently, Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination, as well as a global center for pharmaceutical manufacturing.[61] Yet it still struggles to define its political status.
It is host, however, to consulates from 41 countries, mainly from the Americas and Europe.[67] Most consulates are located in San Juan.
Congress granted Puerto Ricans the right to organize a constitutional convention via a referendum that gave them the option of voting their preference, "yes" or "no", on a proposed U.S. Puerto Rico officially designates itself with the term "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" in its constitution, as a translation into English of the term to "Estado Libre Asociado" (ELA). This constituted the first plebiscite by the Legislature for a choice among three status options (commonwealth, statehood, and independence). Supreme Court's Insular Cases is "a territory appurtenant and belonging to the United States, but not a part of the United States."[81] However, President Obama's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status issued a report on March 11, 2011,[82] which suggests that the task force already considers Puerto Rico a part of the United States, notwithstanding the 111 year-old Downes case.
New York -based Pfizer(PFE) was topped the list with a sales of over $47.4 billion in 2012. Teva’s growth so far has been astonishing and is now within striking distance of taking the 10th rank from Eli Lilly(LLY). Oil ?1959 Ferrari 250 GTA Closer Look at the Federal Reserve’s Securities Lending ProgramPodcast with Paul Volcker10 Thursday AM ReadsBloomberg’s Ritholtz Reads in Your Inbox!
Germany's health ministry has proposed slashing drug prices by 10% and banning any drug-price increases through 2013.
The tender system for purchases of generics follows similar action by Germany, where tendering has led to reduced prices; France plans to cut its drugs bill by €100m this year. It cost the taxpayer an exorbitant €640m to get €1bn of drugs from factory gate to patients in the community in 2008. The publisher, the content, typesetting, design vendor will be free from any liability for damages and losses of any nature arising from or related to the content. However, it ranks third in population amongst that group of four islands, which also include Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Jamaica. What is known today about them comes from scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish scholarly accounts.
The Arcaicos and Igneri co-existed on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries, and perhaps clashed. They called it Boriken, "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord".[18] The natives lived in small villages led by a cacique and subsisted on hunting, fishing and gathering of indigenous cassava root and fruit.
But as independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies grew successful, Spain began to pay attention to Puerto Rico as one of its last remaining maritime colonies. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms, which were in force from 1810 to 1814 and again from 1820 to 1823, were reversed twice afterwards when the traditional monarchy was restored by Ferdinand VII. The movement was largely inspired by the ideals of Simon Bolivar of establishing a United Provinces of New Granada which included Puerto Rico and Cuba. Morse, who often spent his winters at the Hacienda with his daughter and son-in-law, who lived and owned the Habienda Henriqueta, set a two-mile telegraph line connecting his son-in-law's hacienda to their house in Arroyo.


This was the first time that the current Puerto Rican flag was unfurled on Puerto Rican soil. This bilaterally agreed-upon charter maintained a governor appointed by Spain, which held the power to annul any legislative decision, and a partially elected parliamentary structure.
On March 21, 1937, a march was organized in the southern city of Ponce by the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.
Luis Munoz Marin was elected during the 1948 general elections, becoming the first popularly elected governor of Puerto Rico.
In the Jayuya revolt, known as the Jayuya Uprising, the United States declared martial law and attacked Jayuya with infantry, artillery and bombers. Three plebiscites have been held in recent decades to resolve the political status, but no changes have been attained. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral Legislative Assembly made up of a Senate upper chamber and a House of Representatives lower chamber. As an unincorporated territory of the United States, Puerto Rico does not have any first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. The municipality of San Juan (previously called "town"), was founded first, in 1521, San German in 1570, Coamo in 1579, Arecibo in 1614, Aguada in 1692 and Ponce in 1692. President, as a federal law, marked a historic change in the civil government for the islands, neither it nor the public laws approved by Congress in 1950 and 1952 revoked statutory provisions concerning the legal relationship of Puerto Rico to the United States. Claiming "foul play" and dubbing the process as illegitimate and contrary to norms of international law regarding decolonization procedures, the plebiscite was boycotted by the major pro-statehood and pro-independence parties of the time, the Republican Party of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rican Independence Party, respectively. This materials are for educational purpose for updating, developing knowledge base of own, not for any commercial usage. Due to its location, Puerto Rico enjoys a tropical climate and also experiences the Atlantic hurricane season. Spain possessed Puerto Rico for over 400 years, despite attempts at capture of the island by France, the Netherlands, and England. Today, there are few and rare cave drawings, rock carvings and ancient recreational activity sites that have been identified with some degree of speculation as to who left them behind. This lasted until Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493.[19][20] However, Puerto Rican culture today exhibits many Taino influences within its music and vocabulary. Puerto Rico soon became an important stronghold and a significant port for Spanish Main colonial expansion. Nineteenth century immigration and commercial trade reforms further augmented the island's European population and economy, and expanded Spanish cultural and social imprint on the local character of the island.
Among the influential members of this movement was Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabe, a Puerto Rican military leader known in Latin America as the "Liberator from Puerto Rico" who fought alongside Bolivar and Maria de las Mercedes Barbudo, a businesswoman also known as the "first Puerto Rican female freedom fighter".
Its primary intent was to attract Europeans of non-Spanish origin, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity and strength with increase of new loyalist settlers with strong sympathies to Spain. The local conservative political factions, which believed that such an attempt would be a threat to their struggle for (colonial) autonomy, opposed such an action.
In February, Governor-General Manuel Macias inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter.
The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Rico a certain amount of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives, also a judicial system following the American legal system that includes both state courts and federal courts establishing a Puerto Rico Supreme Court and a United State District Court; and a non-voting member of Congress, by the title of "Resident Commissioner".
On June 11, 1948, Pinero signed the "Ley de la Mordaza" (Gag Law) or Law 53 as it was officially known, passed by the Puerto Rican legislature which made it illegal to display the Puerto Rican Flag, sing patriotic songs, talk of independence and to fight for the liberation of the island. Support for the pro-statehood party, Partido Nuevo Progresista (PNP), and the pro-commonwealth party, Partido Popular Democratico (PPD), remains about equal.
The Senate is headed by the President of the Senate, while the House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker of the House. Members of the Judicial branch are appointed by the governor with the "advice and consent" of the Senate. An increase of settlement saw the founding of 30 municipalities in the 18th century and 34 in the 19th. Puerto Rico's electorate expressed its support for this measure in 1951 with a second referendum to ratify the constitution.
The Commonwealth option, represented by the PDP, won with a majority of 60.4% of the votes. If continuing to be part of the United States were chosen in the first plebiscite, a second vote would be taken between Statehood and Commonwealth." The Report language suggests that the Obama Administration believes that Puerto Rico is a part of the United States and that a vote for Commonwealth would allow Puerto Rico to "continue" in that relationship. Various forts and walls, such as La Fortaleza, El Castillo San Felipe del Morro and El Castillo de San Cristobal, were built to protect the strategic port of San Juan from numerous European invasion attempts. In 1786, the first comprehensive history of Puerto Rico—Historia Geografica, Civil y Politica de Puerto Rico by Fray Inigo Abbad y Lasierra—was published in Madrid, documenting the history of Puerto Rico from the time of Columbus' landing in 1493 until 1783.[28] The book also presents a first hand account of Puerto Rican identity, including music, clothing, personality and nationality. On November 1, 1950, Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate President Harry S Truman. After the plebiscite, efforts in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s to enact legislation to address the status issue died in U.S.
San Juan served as an important port-of-call for ships of all European nations for purposes of taking on water, food and other commercial provisions and mercantile exchange.
Nineteen were killed and over 200 were badly wounded,[50] many in their backs while running away.[50][51] An American Civil Liberties Union report declared it a massacre[50] and it has since been known as the Ponce Massacre.
81-600) which allowed for a democratic referendum in Puerto Rico to determine whether Puerto Ricans desired to draft their own local constitution.[53] This act was meant to be adopted in the "nature of a compact". The island's current political status, including the possibility of statehood or independence, is widely debated in Puerto Rico.
It required congressional approval of the Puerto Rico Constitution before it could go into effect and repealed certain sections of the Organic Act of 1917. The PPR claims that it seeks to address the islands' problems from a status-neutral platform. In subsequent plebiscites organized by Puerto Rico held in 1993 and 1998 (without any formal commitment on the part of the U.S. Senator Millard Tydings introduced a bill in Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico.
Don Pedro Albizu Campos also served many years in a federal prison in Atlanta, Georgia, for seditious conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. It ceased to remain a registered political party when it failed to obtain the requisite number of votes in the 2008 general election to remain so. Non-registered parties include the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, the Socialist Workers Movement, the Hostosian National Independence Movement, and others. The same Act also provided for a popularly elected Senate to complete a bicameral Legislative Assembly, a bill of rights and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a four-year term.



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