Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes used to digest cellulose,where can i buy cp-1 probiotic,probiotics for stomach flu prevention 0845 - Downloads 2016

1 Basic Structure of a Cell 2 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of.
Describe how the functions of ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus are related. Just as a factory has a number of different departments and equipment specialized for specific jobs, a cell is similarly specialized. You read in Concept 6.1 that the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains most of the cell's DNA. Figure 6-18A cell's nucleus contains DNA—information-rich molecules that direct cell activities. Figure 6-19A ribosome is either suspended in the cytoplasm or temporarily attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Within the cytoplasm of a cell is an extensive network of membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Rough ER The rough ER gets its name from the bound ribosomes that dot the outside of the ER membrane. Figure 6-20Some proteins are made by ribosomes (the red structure) on the rough ER and packaged in vesicles.
Some products that are made in the ER travel in vesicles to the Golgi apparatus, an organelle that modifies, stores, and routes proteins and other chemical products to their next destinations. Membrane-bound sacs called lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that can break down such macromolecules as proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides (Figure 6-23). Follow the pathway of activity in Figure 6-24 to see how some of a cell's organelles function together.
The lysosomes contain enzymes that breakdown lipids, proteins and carbohydrates for the cell to use. 4 Prokaryotic Cells Features shared by all prokaryotic cells: ? All have a plasma membrane. 4 Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes, animals, plants, fungi, and protists, have a membrane-enclosed nucleus in each of their cells.
4 Organelles that Process Information The nucleus contains most of the cell’s DNA and is the site of DNA duplication to support cell reproduction. 4 Organelles that Process Information Two lipid bilayers form the nuclear envelope which is perforated with nuclear pores. 4 Organelles that Process Information The chromatin consists of diffuse or very long, thin fibers in which DNA is bound to proteins. 4 The Endomembrane System The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnecting membranes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. 4 The Endomembrane System The Golgi apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs and small membrane-enclosed vesicles. 4 The Endomembrane System Lysosomes are vesicles containing digestive enzymes that come in part from the Golgi. 4 Organelles that Process Energy The primary function of mitochondria is to convert the potential chemical energy of fuel molecules into a form that the cell can use (ATP). 4 Organelles that Process Energy Mitochondria have an outer lipid bilayer and a highly folded inner membrane. 4 Organelles that Process Energy Plastids are organelles found only in plants and some protists.
4 Organelles that Process Energy Chloroplasts are surrounded by two layers, and have an internal membrane system.


4 Organelles that Process Energy Endosymbiosis may explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
4 Other Organelles Vacuoles, found in plants and protists, are filled with an aqueous solution and are used to store wastes, food and pigments. 4 The Cytoskeleton Microfilaments are made of the protein actin, and may exist as single filaments, in bundles, or in networks. 4 The Cytoskeleton Intermediate filaments are found only in multicellular organisms, forming ropelike assemblages in cells. Though different in structure and function, the two types of ER form a continuous maze of membranes throughout a cell.
You could think of the ER as one of the main manufacturing and transportation facilities in the cell factory. These ribosomes produce proteins that are inserted right into (or through) the ER membrane. A number of different enzymes built into the smooth ER membrane enable the organelle to perform many functions.
After further processing in other parts of the cell, these proteins will eventually move to other organelles or to the plasma membrane. The membranes of the Golgi apparatus are arranged as a series of flattened sacs that might remind you of a stack of pita bread. Vesicles bud from one organelle (1) and fuse with another (2), transferring membranes as well as products.
Trace the path of a protein from the time it is produced by a ribosome on the ER until it reaches its destination.
Within the nucleus is a specialized region called the nucleolus, where ribosomes are initially assembled. Prior to cell division these condense and organize into structures recognized as chromosomes.
In eukaryotes, functional ribosomes are found free in the cytoplasm, in mitochondria, bound to the endoplasmic reticulum, and in chloroplasts. The Golgi apparatus has three roles: ? Modification ? Packaging and sorting ? Addition of carbohydrates.
Lysosomes are sites for breakdown of food and foreign material brought into the cell by phagocytosis. Folds of the inner membrane give rise to the cristae, which contain large protein molecules used in cellular respiration. According to the endosymbiosis theory, both organelles were formerly prokaryotic organisms that somehow became incorporated into a larger cell. Microfilaments are needed for cell contraction, as in muscle cells, and add structure to the plasma membrane and shape to cells.
Microtubules provide a rigid intracellular skeleton for some cells, and they function as tracks that motor proteins can move along in the cell. Ribosomes bound to the ER also produce proteins that are packaged in vesicles by the ER and later exported, or secreted, by the cell (Figure 6-20).
One type of vacuole, called a contractile vacuole, is found in some single-celled freshwater organisms. They fuse with incoming food vacuoles and expose the nutrients to enzymes that digest them, thereby nourishing the cell. The arrows show some of the pathways cell products follow on their journey through the cell (3 and 4).


The wavelength of the electron beam is far shorter than that of light, and the resulting image resolution is far greater (about 0.5 nm).
Cells that are specialized for synthesizing proteins for extracellular export have extensive ER membrane systems. Lysosomes are also the sites where digestion of spent cellular components occurs, a process called autophagy. Today, both mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA and ribosomes, and are self-duplicating organelles. The other organelles are the "departments" that carry out the instructions of the executive board. Most of the time, the chromatin looks like a tangled mess to anybody examining it with a microscope.
Ribosomes themselves are clusters of proteins and nucleic acids assembled from components made in the nucleolus. It is a maze of membranes, arranged as tubes and sacs that separate the inside of the ER from the surrounding cytoplasm (Figure 6-19).
For example, cells in the ovaries and testes that produce sex hormones contain an especially large amount of smooth ER. You may notice that the internal side of a vesicle membrane can eventually turn up as part of the outward face of the plasma membrane at the cell's surface (5). Some bacteria have pili, threadlike structures that help bacteria adhere to one another during mating or to other cells for food and protection. There are three major types of cytoskeletal components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. But you will read in Chapter 9 that chromatin becomes much more organized when cells reproduce.
Some ribosomes are bound to the outer surface of a membrane network within the cytoplasm (Figure 6-19). One side of a stack serves as a "receiving dock" for vesicles transported from the ER (Figure 6-21). Substances made in the nucleus move into the cell's cytoplasm through tiny holes, or pores, in the nuclear envelope.
These ribosomes make the proteins found in membranes, as well as other proteins that are exported by the cell.
Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus refine and modify the ER products by altering their chemical structure.
These substances include molecules that carry out the instructions from the DNA of the nucleus. From the "shipping" side of a stack, the finished products can be moved in vesicles to other locations.
In addition to the chromatin, the nucleus contains a ball-like mass of fibers and granules called the nucleolus (plural, nucleoli). Others export cellular products by fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing the products outside the cell by the process of exocytosis.



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