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Study and review Health Science Topics (Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry & Microbiology) with a collection of searched online visual media web tools.
Amylase enzymes find use in bread making and to break down complex sugars such as starch (found in flour) into simple sugars. When used as a food additive Amylase has E number E1100, and may be derived from swine pancreas or mould mushroom. Bacilliary amylase is also used in clothing and dishwasher detergents to dissolve starches from fabrics and dishes. Workers in factories that work with amylase for any of the above uses are at increased risk of occupational asthma.
In molecular biology, the presence of amylase can serve as an additional method of selecting for successful integration of a reporter construct in addition to antibiotic resistance. Trypsin is secreted into the duodenum, where it acts to hydrolyse peptides into their smaller building-blocks, namely amino acids (these peptides are the result of the enzyme pepsin's breaking down the proteins in the stomach). A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester chemical bonds in water-insoluble lipid substrates.[1] Lipases are a subclass of the esterases. Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3)(small intestine). Several other types of lipase activities exist in nature, such as phospholipases[5] and sphingomyelinases[6], however these are usually treated separately from "conventional" lipases. Protein Digestion by TrypsinTrypsin, an enzyme produced by the pancreas, hydrolyzes proteins to small fragments (proteoses, peptones, and peptides).
The dispersion of food fat into micelles thus provide a largely increased surface area for the action of the enzyme pancreatic lipase, which actually digests the triglycerides, and is able to reach the fatty core through gaps between the bile salts. Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the fat-soluble substances, such as the vitamins D, E, K and A. Besides its digestive function, bile serves also as the route of excretion for bilirubin, a byproduct of red blood cells recycled by the liver.
The alkaline bile also has the function of neutralizing any excess stomach acid before it enters the ileum, the final section of the small intestine. Very near the end of the small intestine, at the entrance to the caecum, begins the exit to the colon. These various organs are shown in Figure 2, which also presents data on the size and features of their contents.
The alimentary canal, which develops rapidly in the young rabbit, is nearly full size in an animal of 2.5 kg, when it has reached only 60 to 70 percent of adult weight. Generally speaking, the length of the small intestine (3 to 3.5 m) and its relatively small capacity contrast with that of the storage area (the stomach and caecum), which hold 70 to 80 percent of the total dry matter content of the digestive tract. After enzymatic action from these last two secretions the elements that can easily be broken down are freed and pass through the intestinal wall to be carried by the blood to the cells. So far, the functioning of the rabbit's digestive tract is virtually the same as that of other monogastric animals. Successive waves of contractions in alternating directions begin to act; the first to evacuate the contents normally and the second to push them back into the caecum. The hard pellets are expelled, but the soft pellets are recovered by the rabbit directly upon being expelled from the anus.
The soft pellets consist half of imperfectly broken-down food residues and what is left of the gastric secretions and half of bacteria. The composition of the soft pellets and the quantity expelled daily are relatively independent of the type of feed ingested, since the bacteria remain constant. It is thus advisable to include a minimum of roughage in the feed, enabling the rabbit's digestive process to be completed fairly rapidly.
Caecotrophy regulation depends on the integrity of the digestive flora and is governed by intake rate. Feeding behaviour studies have basically involved rabbits receiving balanced concentrates or fed ad lib on dry feed (cereals, straw, dry forage).
From the third week of life the young rabbits begin to move about, taking a few grams of mother's milk and a little drinking water if available. Table 17 gives an example of changing feeding behaviour in New Zealand White rabbits, aged from six to 18 weeks. The consumption of solid and liquid intake fluctuates over a 24-hour period, as shown in Figure 3.
The intake of feed and water depends on the kind of feed and also on the type of rabbit and its age and stage of production. A closer analysis of feeding behaviour shows that as temperature rises the number of solid and liquid meals eaten in 24 hours drops.
If drinking water is not provided and the only feed available is dry with a moisture content of less than 14 percent, dry matter intake drops to nil within 24 hours.
Rabbits with access to drinking water but no solid feed can survive for three or four weeks.
The growth performance of rabbits is significantly reduced if they are given salted drinking water with a sodium content higher than 1 percent.
Work in Egypt by Ayyat, Habeeb and Bassuny (1991) showed a 12 to 16 percent slowing of growth speed at sodium contents of over 1.5 percent (Table 20). Feeding rabbits forage plus supplementary concentrate feed raises problems when the forage is not very palatable.
The situation changes if the rabbit is faced with two high-energy foods, as in Gidenne's (1986) trial with ad lib feeding of balanced pelleted feed and green banana. Growing rabbits receiving a pelleted feed lacking in sulphur amino acids or lysine, with access to pure water as well as those missing amino acids in solution, choose the amino acid solution over pure water. Various research experiments carried out in many countries (especially France) in the last 20 years or so have resulted in reliable recommendations for the manufacture of rabbit feeds for meat and milk production in temperate European conditions. The experimental technique consists of manufacturing feeds in exact but varied mixes, feeding them to rabbits and assessing production by weight gain or number and weight of young in a litter. These standards have been established for environmental conditions in Europe and are also based on the relative costs of nutrients in European countries. Table 22 details the chemical composition of theoretically ideal feeds for each rabbit category. Studies on the quantities needed have been virtually confined to arginine, lysine and the sulphur amino acids (methionine and cystine).
The recommended amounts of other essential amino acids have been estimated simply on the basis of regular satisfactory diets. Amino acid balance can easily be achieved with plant protein alone as in almost all balanced European feeds. The optimum dose of crude protein for the breeding doe seems to be roughly 17 to 18 percent. Lastly, various attempts to replace true proteins by non-protein nitrogen (urea and ammonium salts) have almost all been economic failures, because these sources of nitrogen either degrade or are absorbed too early for the micro-organisms in the caecum to take them up. The growing rabbit, like the breeding doe, adjusts its feed intake according to the energy concentration of the feeds offered to it where the proteins and other dietary components are balanced.
Because of this, concentrated energy feed must also contain all the other required nutrients in concentrated form so that a smaller volume of feed will supply the rabbit's needs. Energy intake regulation functions well in temperate climates so long as variations in energy content are linked to the presence of fairly digestible carbohydrates (e.g. The rabbit is known to have a specific need for essential fatty acids (linoleic acid), but a conventional diet containing 3 to 4 percent fats generally supplies this. In European feed rations, the poor digestibility of the fibrous parts of raw materials such as alfalfa and straw (digestibility 10 to 30 percent) makes them secondary to starch, for example, in covering energy needs. Any sodium, potassium or chlorine imbalance in the diet can cause nephritis and birth accidents. Some authors mention improved growth performance with excess intake of copper sulphate: 200 ppm copper.
Even so, the importance of copper sulphate as a growth factor is not universally conceded and some authors have noted negative consequences (higher mortality) with supplements of about 150 to 200 ppm.
Rabbits require water-soluble (B group and C) as well as fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K). For fat-soluble vitamins, research has focused more on deficit or excess than on the exact determination of requirements. Feeds formulated in accordance with the standards given in Table 22 are satisfactory for intensive production. Some research indicates that rabbits need a certain minimum of fibre for regular digestion: 9 to 10 percent of indigestible crude fibre.
Finally, as indicated above, excessive fibre intake usually alters the digestible energy content of the feed below the intake regulation threshold.
While an intake of more than 16 percent of fibrous parts is linked to a reduction in digestible proteins, entailing a static or reduced ratio of digestible protein to digestible energy, no harmful effect on the viability of fattening rabbits is observed (Figure 5, curve B). Where a high intake of fibrous parts places the feed exactly at the minimum threshold for energy regulation (2 250 to 2 300 kcal DE), and protein intake is excessive, there is a very high risk of blockage from constipation in growing rabbits. As for minerals, where calcium and phosphorus in the diet are insufficient, lactating does draw on their bodily reserves, principally those stored in the bones, but the total store is small compared with the amount exported. In Europe, rabbits are fed dry raw materials which complement one another to make a balanced feed. The ideal diameter for ordinary feeds is 3 to 4 mm, 5 mm being the maximum diameter to avoid waste (Table 25). In Europe, depending on local conditions and the size of the production unit, feed is usually delivered in 25 to 50 kg bags or in bulk. 1 On the same line, two values having the same index letter do not differ from one another at the threshold P = 0.05. For bulk delivery, feed is stored in silos that are filled from the top and emptied from the bottom.
Transport costs and, especially, a desirably fast turnover of feed stocks make mixed feed (see Table 22) appropriate for rabbitries with fewer than 200 breeding does. The traditional European diet for rabbits used to be cereals, bran and forage (green in summer and dried in winter).
In modern production systems, which account for most of the output, the animals are given balanced pelleted feeds conforming to the standards already described. Heavy metal chelation is another function of dietary chlorophyll as is the reduction of bad breath. Chlorophyll alone can not counteract an unhealthy diet or lifestyle, but it can be an important, even crucial, part of a healthful, wholesome life. I view my big mug of hot matcha tea in the morning as warm liquid love that feeds my body & soul.
Carla Golden is a vegan nutritionist and a massage therapist in private practice specializing in therapeutic essential oils. This article is so helpful and informative, the physical foods and herbs, the spiritual chakras , its lovely. If you add extra ingredients to enrich the minerals, vitamins and enzyme intake, than you’ve already reached the next level to naturally detox and feel energized! There are many ingredients that you can add in your water to boost the taste and help you flush the toxins out. Kiwi, lemons, lime, grapefruit, pineapple, apples – they’re all packed with enzymes and antioxidants to kick-start your body natural detox function, but also to nourish your cells with vitamins (especially vitamin C, which is a powerful antioxidant and anti-age ally). Apple cider acts like a general toner for your body and especially for the digestive system.
Maybe you didn’t think before about adding cinnamon in other drink than tea or eggnog, but you can actually consider it for your detox waters. Can you ground cinnamon instead of the cinnamon sticks for the apple honey & cinnamon for the infused water? Try adding cucumber and mint to lessen the flavor of lemon – The lemon might be too tart for you. Is it ok to let the fruit infuse in a small portion size that is fit for one person overnight instead a large pitcher?


Hi how often are u meant to drink the detox water for is it everyday or do u just drink it for one whole day? Most of the above I prefer taking Citrus Mint Detox Water, because it helps to get rid of indecision as well as heartburn problems. The fruits that we use for Preparing Detoxifying water overnight, can this be eaten in the morning or can it be used in making Smoothie. After reading your post last month, I decided to try one of detox water recipe which is listed by you. I have tried lemon with mint detox water to reduce belly fat but it can’t work for me. Yeast then feeds on these simple sugars and converts it into the waste products of alcohol and CO2.
As reporter genes are flanked by homologous regions of the structural gene for amylase, successful integration will disrupt the amylase gene and prevent starch degradation, which is easily detectable through iodine staining.
Trypsin cleaves peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine, except when either is followed by proline. This enables the uptake of protein in the food because peptides (though smaller than proteins) are too big to be absorbed through the lining of the ileum.
When the pancreas is stimulated by cholecystokinin, it is then secreted into the small intestine. For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL),[4] which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. In particular, Candida albicans has a large number of different lipases, possibly reflecting broad lipolytic activity, which may contribute to the persistence and virulence of C.
BAPNA is a synthetic (man-made) protein substrate consisting of a dye covalently bound to an amino acid. Bile salt anions have a hydrophilic side and a hydrophobic side, and therefore tend to aggregate around droplets of fat (triglycerides and phospholipids) to form micelles, with the hydrophobic sides towards the fat and hydrophilic towards the outside. A triglyceride is broken down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which are absorbed by the villi on the intestine walls.
Bile salts also act as bactericides, destroying many of the microbes that may be present in the food. After a short oesophagus there is a simple stomach which stores about 90 to 100 g of a rather pasty mixture of feedstuffs.
The caecum thus appears to be a blind pouch branching off from the small intestine-colon axis (Figure 2). Bile from the liver contains bile salts and many organic substances which aid digestion, but has no enzymes. The water content can vary markedly from one segment to the next owing to bodily secretions and water absorption. The particles that are not broken down after a total stay of about one and a half hours in the small intestine enter the caecum. Approximately half consists of both large and small food particles not already broken down, while the other half consists of bacteria that have developed in the caecum, fed on matter from the small intestine. Under the varying pressure and rhythm of these contractions the contents are squeezed like a sponge. To do this the rabbit twists itself round, sucks in the soft faeces as they emerge from the anus, then swallows without chewing them.
Considering the fact that some parts of the intake may be recycled once, twice and even three or four times, and depending on the type of feed, the rabbit's digestive process lasts from 18 to 30 hours in all, averaging 20 hours. The latter contain an appreciable amount of high-value proteins and water-soluble vitamins. In particular, the amount of dry matter recycled daily through caecotrophy is independent of the fibre content of the feed (Table 7-15).
In theory, roughage is provided by the crude-fibre content of the feed, as this is normally rather hard to digest. Experiments have shown that caecotrophy starts eight to 12 hours after the feeding of rationed animals, or after the intake peak of animals fed ad lib. A doe feeds her young only once every 24 hours (although some does will nurse their young twice). As the rabbit grows older the nocturnal nature of its feeding habits becomes more pronounced. Taking as a reference animal an adult fed ad lib (140 to 150 g of dry matter per day, for example, for a 4 kg New Zealand White): at four weeks a young rabbit eats a quarter of the amount an adult eats but its live weight is only 14 percent of the adult's. The authors propose that these ratios, the easiest to measure locally, be used to identify thermal stress in rabbits. With no water at all, depending on temperature and humidity, an adult rabbit can survive from four to eight days without any irreversible damage, although its weight may drop 20 to 30 percent in less than a week. Solid granulated feed ingestion remained unchanged by water salinity whereas water intake increased slightly with salinity: 14 to 16 percent in the trial by Ayyat and colleagues. When dehydrated alfalfa and dry grain maize are offered the ratio chosen is 65 percent alfalfa to 35 percent maize. The experimental findings in Table 21 demonstrate that in ad lib feeding of both high-bulk (straw, in this trial) and high-energy pelleted feeds rabbits are unable to adjust intake for maximum growth.
In this example, the ad lib trial rabbits grew as much as the control group and their digestible energy intake was identical. The best feeds are thus established and the best mixes selected, allowing nutrition experts to draw up recommendations for several categories.
They are reference standards, but can be varied slightly for better economic performance according to locally available cheap feed resources.
They produce a milk three times richer than cow's milk, at the rate of 100 to 300 g per day, and have few reserves in relation to the demand made on them. The rabbit's response to the quality of the proteins in its diet, long a controversial issue, has now been established beyond doubt.
Where these essential amino acids are supplied by protein in the diet, 15 to 16 percent crude proteins should be enough for fattening rabbits. Proteins of animal origin can be used by rabbits but are absolutely unnecessary: all that counts is the amino acid intake, not the substratum.
An increase of protein content to 21 percent leads to higher milk production but slightly reduces the number of young rabbits weaned in a given period. For a highly nitrogen-deficient ration (30-50 percent below requirements), however, or for a non-protein source which breaks down at average speeds in the intestine (such as biuret), there is a certain amount of uptake.
The energy needed for organic synthesizing is usually supplied by carbohydrates and to a lesser extent by fats. For a growing New Zealand White or Californian rabbit the daily intake is around 220 to 240 kcal of digestible energy (DE) per kg of metabolic weight (W0.75). The only reason for including more fat in the diet would be to raise the energy concentration, as fats provide approximately twice as much energy as carbohydrates for the same weight. However, the fibrous components from tender, usually young, plants are much more digestible (30 to 60 percent). Content is generally evaluated on the basis of crude fibre, although this analytical technique is far from perfect. Studies on the calcium and phosphorus requirements of growing rabbits have shown they need much less than lactating does. The risk is particularly high when plants used in the feed have been fertilized with high rates of potassium. Micro-organisms in the digestive flora synthesize sizeable quantities of water-soluble vitamins which are utilized by the rabbit through caecotrophy. Rabbits can also be reared on feeds only approximating these standards, but the absolute performance level will be lower, although not necessarily uneconomical.
It is not possible to establish a reliable relationship between the intake of fibrous parts and mortality in fattening rabbits at rates of 12 to 16 percent of crude fibre. Direct experiment for on-site measurement of the actual consequences of the proposed feed are recommended in this case.
Once the best proportions have been established, the raw materials are weighed and put in a blender. What must be avoided at all costs is a very fine meal which would disturb the normal functioning of the rabbit's upper respiratory tract which, although a good filter for dust, clogs quickly. Bags are stored in a shed providing shelter from high temperatures and rain, and located near the rabbits but out of their reach. Deliveries should actually be made monthly, so feed can be used within one and a half months of manufacture. A single feed type is generally used for all categories, corresponding to the mixed feed listed in Table 22. It helps eliminate the odors of the mouth & throat, but more importantly of the digestive tract where bad breath originates. The center atom of chlorophyll is magnesium (green) while the center atom of hemoglobin is iron (red). Caroline Myss says “the fourth (middle) chakra is the central powerhouse of the human energy system.
The ritual with the bamboo scoop, the sifter and the whisk rivals that of any coffee lover’s accouterments. With a Bachelor of Science degree in Holistic Health & Healing, she enjoys helping others discover the benefits and liberation inherent in a whole food, plant-based diet.
I was researching more on the benefits of parsley and one click after another and I ended up on your page ?? I’m 22 years of age and after physical and emotional tolls, I am turning towards a spiritual reformation of myself through healthy eats and practicing more of my yoga.
Whether you’re trying to lose a few pounds or you just want to flush the toxins out of your body, hydration is the key to making this successful. Although these are only added for taste and nutrients, you can eat them after you consume the infused water. It soothes the digestive issues, has antibiotic effects, prevents indigestion and aids in weight loss. Cinnamon improves the insulin secretion, stabilizes the blood sugar levels and increase the glucose metabolism – all these are key effects for losing weight. You just need to use pure or tap water, your favorite fat-burn ingredients and large pitchers to let the water infuse.
She is inspired by whole, healthy ingredients that she uses in her clean eating recipes and her photography captures their vibrant splendor using natural light. Foods that contain much starch but little sugar, such as rice and potato, taste slightly sweet as they are chewed because amylase turns some of their starch into sugar in the mouth. Once in the small intestine, the enzyme enteropeptidase activates it into trypsin by proteolytic cleavage.
Trypsin hydrolysis of BAPNA cleaves the dye molecule from the amino acid, causing the solution to change from colorless to bright yellow.
The hydrophilic sides are positively charged due to the lecithin and other phospholipids that compose bile, and this charge prevents fat droplets coated with bile from re-aggregating into larger fat particles. After being transferred across the intestinal membrane, fatty acids are reformed into triglycerides, then absorbed into the lymphatic system through lacteals. Physiological studies show that this blind pouch-reservoir forms part of the digestive tract: the contents circulate from the base to the tip passing through the centre of the caecum, then return towards the base, along the wall. The reverse is true of pancreatic juice which contains a sizeable quantity of digestive enzymes allowing the breakdown of proteins (trypsin, chymo-trypsin), starch (amylase) and fats (lipase). It remains in the stomach for a few hours (three to six), undergoing little chemical change.
There they have to stay for a certain time, from two to 12 hours, while they are attacked by bacterial enzymes. If the caecum contents enter the colon in the early part of the morning they undergo few biochemical changes. Most of the liquid part, containing soluble products and small particles of less than 0.1 mm, is forced back into the caecum.
This would appear to increase the risk of undesirable bacteria developing in this impoverished environment, some of which might be harmful.
However, certain fibre sources (beetroot pulp, fruit pulp in general) are highly digestible (digestibility of crude fibre varies from 60 to 80 percent).


In the latter case, the intake rate and hence the function of caecotrophy are governed by the light regime to which the animals are subjected.
Cortisone injections of animals without adrenals causes the resumption of normal behaviour.
At eight weeks the relative proportions are 62 and 42 percent; at 16 weeks they are 100 to 110 and 87 percent. Sodium chloride in the water (0.45 percent) reduces this high intake, but potassium chloride has no effect (sodium loss through urination). A breeder faced by such a situation should limit the daily dose of concentrate feed or, generally speaking, the proportion of the more palatable feed. However, between weaning at five weeks and the close of the 12-week trial, the banana intake dropped from 40 percent to 28 percent of the daily dry matter intake. The most common feed categories in intensive European rabbitries are for breeding females (lactating does, pregnant or not), young rabbits of weaning age (post-weaning or peri-weaning feeds, the latter also consumed by the mother) and rabbits for fattening. The upper and lower limits (which should not be exceeded) are listed at the end of this chapter. The next category is growing rabbits (far more research work has been done on this than any other category). Researchers have found that growing rabbits need feed that contains certain amounts of ten of the 21 amino acids that made up the proteins. The lysine intake of breeding does should be considerably higher under intensive milk production to feed nine to 12 young.
Rabbits will always eat more of a balanced feed containing essential amino acids than the same feed without amino acids. In any case, it is highly recommended that rabbits receive their nitrogen ration in the form of true proteins with balanced amino acids.
Depending on the kind of basic diet (basic energy level, protein content and quality), such an input of fats might or might not be nutritionally useful. To get enough bulk for growing rabbits a 13 to 14 percent crude-fibre content seems satisfactory. Does transfer large amounts of minerals into their milk: 7 to 8 g a day in full lactation, of which about one quarter is calcium. This intake is sufficient to cover maintenance requirements and for average production as far as the B group vitamins and vitamin C are concerned. As an indication, the minimum and maximum thresholds are given in Table 24 for various minerals, some vitamins and essential amino acids. The norms proposed in Table 22 can be used as a reference method of using complementarities meeting the animals' needs. The pelleting operation heats the product through friction, which improves nutritional value by some 5 to 7 percent compared with the meal mixture. This style of feeding is definitely on the way out, especially in the big producer countries such as France, Italy and Spain.
The watering system must be checked regularly to ensure the animals do not suffer from lack of water because of defective apparatus. It mediates between the body (3 lower chakras) and spirit (3 upper chakras) and determines their health & strength.
The Vegan Key™ is her newest online nutrition program based on tried and true methods which foster performance, vitality, and purpose.
I wasn’t expecting to begin reading your perspective on the chakras whatsoever so it was a beautiful surprise!
McDougall is one such doctor who has helped many people regain their health on a whole food, plant-based diet.
Start every morning by drinking two large glasses of pure water to kickstart your metabolism and help your body perform at its best.
The acetic acid suppresses the appetite, reduces water retention and interferes with the ingested starches, reducing the number of calories that will enter into your bloodstream.
The longer you infuse it, the strongest the flavor and more nutrients leaked into the water.
With over 195 detox recipes and 28 day meal plan, it is the only detox book you will ever need. Smoothies, juices, salads, soups or wraps – eating should help our bodies detox naturally and heal all the diseases associated with toxin burden. The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. The resulting trypsins themselves activate more trypsinogens (autocatalysis), so only a small amount of enteropeptidase is necessary to start the reaction.
Since the covalent bond between the dye molecule and the amino acid is the same as the peptide bonds that link amino acids together, the appearance of a yellow color indicates the presence and activity of an enzyme that is capable of peptide bond hydrolysis.
Without bile salts, most of the lipids in the food would be passed out in feces, undigested. Elements which can be broken down by this new attack (mainly volatile fatty acids) are freed and in turn pass through the wall of the digestive tract and into the bloodstream. The colon wall secretes a mucus which gradually envelops the pellets formed by the wall contractions. The solid part, containing mainly large particles over 0.3 mm long, forms hard pellets which are then expelled. By the end of the morning there are large numbers of these pellets inside the stomach, where they may comprise three quarters of the total contents. Recommendations now made on quantities of indigestible crude fibre to be fed are therefore given below. The digestive process of the rabbit appears to be highly dependent on adrenalin secretions. If there is not enough milk the young try to feed every time the doe enters the nestbox, but she will hold back her milk. At any age, feed containing over 70 percent water, such as green forage, will provide rabbits with ample water at temperatures below 20°C.
The feeding habits of wild rabbits are even more nocturnal than those of domesticated rabbits.
The rabbit is therefore very resistant to hunger and relatively resistant to thirst; but any reduction in the water supply, in terms of water requirements, causes a proportional reduction in dry matter intake, with a consequent drop in performance. But if the maize grains are rather moist, say with a 14 to 15 percent moisture content which could cause storage problems, the proportion of maize rises to 45 to 50 percent.
Also included in the range supplied by livestock feed manufacturers is a mixed feed that can acceptably cover the nutritional needs of all rabbit categories providing the breeder's objective is not maximum productivity. However, fast-growing animals respond favourably to the addition of 1 to 2 ppm of vitamins B1 and B6, 6 ppm of vitamin B2, and 30 to 60 ppm of nicotinic acid (vitamin PP) in the diet.
Reducing the protein intake of lactating does to 12 to 13 percent of the diet will not affect prolificacy but will cause a regular reduction of milk production and a parallel drop in the weight of the young at weaning. It should be stressed that the optimum feed rate for some animals is close to the maximum tolerable rate.
If the mixture were intended for feeding chickens or pigs it could be given to the animals at this stage, but the rabbit has a very low tolerance for the dust inevitably present in meal. Under less intensive regimes, does receive the same feed ration from the weaning of one litter to the birth of the next. Some of my favorite combinations include kiwi-mint-cucumber, carrot-cucumber-lemon or pineapple-lemon-coconut water – they are all detoxing and energizing. This activation mechanism is common for most serine proteases, and serves to prevent autodigestion of the pancreas. Because the color change from clear to yellow is direct evidence of hydrolysis, additional tests are not required when determining trypsin activity using BAPNA. As the contents enter the small intestine they are diluted by the flow of bile, the first intestinal secretions and finally the pancreatic juice. These pellets gather in elongated clusters and are called soft or night pellets (more scientifically, caecotrophes). In fact, as a result of this dual action, the colon produces two types of excrement: hard and soft.
Table 16 gives the chemical composition of various raw materials which can be fed to rabbits. Hypersecretion associated with stress slows down digestive activity and entails a high risk of digestive ailments. When rabbits are offered rations containing dehydrated alfalfa with a variable saponin content, which gives the feeds varying degrees of bitterness, they choose the relatively bitter feeds.
The proportion of indigestible fibre serves to provide the slight congestion essential for the proper functioning of the digestive tract.
With two additional amino acids which can partially replace two of the essential amino acids, this is the full list for rabbits: arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine plus tyrosine, methionine plus cystine, threonine, tryptophane and valine. The toxicity thresholds of lysine and arginine are well above the recommended intake levels. A young rabbit less than 40 days old, however, digests starch poorly as the digestive apparatus has not yet attained functional maturity. The more digestible the fibrous parts the higher the total input needed to supply at least 10 percent indigestible crude fibre.
The addition of vitamin C will not influence growth, even at 1 percent of diet, for better or for worse, under temperate conditions.
This is true of vitamin D and phosphorus in breeding does and for sulphur amino acids in growing rabbits. A healthy detox means restoring the natural cells environment, enabling them to replenish with oxigen and nutrients from fresh, organic foods. As diastase, amylase was the first enzyme to be discovered and isolated (by Anselme Payen in 1833).[1] Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters.
It contains 100 to 120 g of a uniform pasty mix with a dry matter content of about 22 percent.
If the caecal contents enter the colon at another time of day the reaction of the proximal colon is entirely different. Such feeds are ignored by rats and pigs, as shown by Cheeke, Kinzell and Pedersen's (1977) tests in the United States.
The corresponding proportion of fibre can also be estimated by the acid detergent fibre (ADF) content as per Van Soest or, preferably, indigestible ADF. For the sulphur amino acids, however, there is a slender margin between the amount the rabbit needs and an excess dose that would diminish its performance. For this reason, post- and particularly peri-weaning feeds used for 20- to 40-day rabbits should not contain over 12 to 13 percent starch to avoid digestive problems. Where too much is supplied performance may drop, to the breeder's surprise, and the risk is particularly high if he or she uses supplements that are added to the feed or drinking-water.
Feeding tests on mash (60 percent meal, 40 percent water) show it is feasible provided the feeding racks are kept scrupulously clean (Table 26). A doe that is both pregnant and lactating will eat the same amount as a doe that is lactating only. Energy is needed to regulate body temperature as well as for the general functioning of the body.
Minerals and vitamins are building blocks for certain parts of the animal (skeleton, etc.) and for the enzymes which use energy to build and rebuild the body proteins continually. Table 22 also includes a column showing the chemical composition of a mixed feed suitable for all animals in a production unit.
Its composition represents a compromise between the requirements of growing rabbits and those of lactating does. The other categories can, in fact, eat a richer feed without suffering any major drawbacks. Further on in the text it will be explained under what circumstances it is desirable to use mixed or more specialized feeds.



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