Flowchart of digestive system with enzymes,end products of fat digestion lab,probiotic cream for hair dye,digestive enzymes amylase function keys - 2016 Feature

Enteroendocrine cells include G-cells, which produce gastrin, enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs), which produce histamine, and others that produce somatostatin and serotonin.
Mucous neck cells produce a thin, watery, acidic mucus, the purpose of which is an ongoing area of investigation. The plicae circulares are circular folds of mucosa and submucosa that impart a spiral movement to chyme, allowing more mixing with intestinal secretions and greater absorption.
Microvilli (the brush border) are projections from the apical surface of each epithelial cell which further increase the surface area for absorption and also contain enzymes (brush border enzymes) that complete digestion of nutrients. The submucosa contains Peyer's patches, aggregated lymph nodules (MALT), which increase in number along the length of the small intestine (there are more in the large intestine). The submucosa also contains duodenal glands (Brunner's glands), which secrete alkaline mucus to raise the pH and protect the wall of the duodenum. There are no modifications for absorption like in the small intestine and no cells that produce digestive enzymes.
Haustral contractions are slow contractions that occur about every 30 minutes and last approximately 1 minute. Mass movements are long, slow moving, powerful contractions that move over the colon 3 or 4 times per day, typically after meals. In addition to these movements some segmentation occurs in the descending and sigmoid colon to increase water absorption before mass movements propel the feces into the rectum.
If you become interested in neuroscience you’ll soon run into discussions concerned with genes and the cellular machinery that depends on genes.
Gazzinga studied under Roger Sperry and this book [25] is a worthy addition to your reference library. Afferent or sensory neurons, efferent or motor neurons, and interneurons which connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord.
The biggest difference between chimp and human brains is that we have three times as many neurons. Absolute brain volume has actually decreased by about 10% over the evolutionary history of H.
Perhaps larger mammals with their, in many cases, larger but simpler and likely computationally-less-efficient brains are able to justify the metabolic demands in terms of some social-related advantages. According to which “development is not a unidirectional maturational process, but rather a set of complex, dynamic and back-propagated interactions between genetics, brain, body and environment. The material I found on the web was not as specific as I had hoped for — or rather it was either too general or too technical and too low-level to provide useful insight. While at times I speak of simulating a universal Turing machine using a neural circuit and an external (tape) memory, the crucial factor as Fernando Pereira points out is the depth of the combinatorial circuit you can build out of cortical structures. In a recent conversation, Fernando mentioned Nick Pippenger in relation to Leslie Valiant’s neural modeling work.
As the ratio of brain size to body size grows, particular allometric changes occur, defining differences between bigger and smaller brain designs. Output pathways from striatal complex change relative size: the recurrent pathway back to cortex via thalamus increases relative to the descending motor pathway.
Descending output from anterior cortex to brainstem motor systems (pyramidal tract) grows large. These changes grow disproportionately with increased brain-body ratio, becoming notably outsized in humans. The modeling described herein leads to a specific hypothesis: that human language arises in the brain as a function of the number of thalamo-cortico-striatal (TCS) loops.
Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of separate innate structures which have established evolutionarily developed functional purposes. Plays a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate, as well as rational cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy and emotion.
Reflexive withdrawal reflex causes toes to fan out and curl up in more primitive organisms, but is inhibited by the pyramidal tracts in mammals resulting in tendency to curl inward as if grasping a branch. Carroll uses the analogy of dark matter in astrophysics to explain non-coding regions of the human genome consisting of regulatory switches. There is an interesting idea circulating in the popular-science press that Homo economicus has subverted natural selection and substituted an alternative fitness function that favors those traits of value to culture and civilization and discounts many of the traits that were crucial in much of our most recent evolutionary history. Nicolelis [51] presents evidence for dynamic, distributed neural representations, contrasting with primarily static, local representations that he disparagingly associates with Franz Gall and phrenology and that he claims dominated neuroscience for much of its history. Stare at a waterfall for 30 seconds then look away at some rocks; the rocks appear to be rising. Changes in the quantity of grey matter (neurons, neuropil — dendrites and unmyelinated axons, glial cells) and white matter (myelinated axons) in the period from 6 to 25 years of age. Although the number of neurons increases, they cannot increase the absolute number of connections each one makes. Several scientists have suggested that the supragranular layers, and the networks of connections they form between the cortical locations, participate heavily in higher cognitive functions. I’m in complete agreement with Gal and the more I get into this area the more confusion and disagreement I encounter. Research on the representation information from the rat whisker pad in the primary somatosensory cortex showed that topographic map formation is highly plastic; the lesson being that the machinery for building representations in primary sensory cortex is adaptively keyed to environmental changes. You can think of the above lessons as the use cases which I try to keep in mind when I attempt to reverse engineer the brain. Even so, none of this precludes the possibility that all of these component areas are running the same algorithm — they may have different implementations and the unifying algorithm may be applied to different data, but these differences are not algorithmic. The variations that distinguish components may be necessary to orchestrate their simultaneous application to different data thereby allowing parallelism. The cortical coprocessor model — Suppose that there are no or very few cortical areas that are present in humans but not in our closest primate relatives and that each area is histologically and cytoarchitecturally homogeneous. This is analogous to how semiconductor designers take advantage of new fabrication technologies to improve products without making significant changes to the design. It would be interesting to find a study comparing the maturation of mammalian brains relative to the normalized volume of both white and grey matter. Structural (morphological) modularity at the genomic level enables computational scaling just as modular circuit designs enable computational scaling in modern computer architectures. The level of granularity due to algorithmic parsimony if such a principle can be said to apply to the cortex is probably more than a logic gate but how much more so is open to debate.
Additional stages of prenatal neurogenesis could plausibly increase the depth of combinatorial neural circuits thus facilitating longer chains of inference and deeper recursive embedding.
Moreover, even if we dispense with the requirement of structural locality, the idea of a circumscribed cognitive faculty seems at odds with what we know about functional areas in cortex for all but the most narrow of capacities [57]. Even if high-level cognition is not modular, the neural substrate on which it depends does appear to be highly modular in its construction — in the engineering sense of the structure of the brain being divided into parts that can be developed and operated independently. The argument appealing to cytological variation among Brodmann’s areas speaks to variability in the neural implementation and not to algorithmic diversity.
Connections from cortical areas implicated in decision making, language, speech, movement execution and planning to motor and sequence machinery in thalamic nuclei and the cerebellar cortex call for a more complicated set of algorithmic principals than I expect Hinton, DiCarlo and Lewicki had in mind. As a species we are biased to think that our cognitive capacities are well beyond the apes we see in the wild or in zoos — as opposed to those few raised in captivity in a rich environment interacting almost constantly with humans.
We tend to exaggerate or overemphasize our innate individual capacities and downplay the benefit we derive from civilization including written and spoken language, various affordances for augmenting our finite short and long term memory, and the readily available sources of knowledge available through books, libraries and now the Internet. Virtually every cell, tissue, organ, and system in the body is impacted by the circulatory system. Interaction of the Circulatory System with Other Body Systems As you learn about the vessels of the systemic and pulmonary circuits, notice that many arteries and veins share the same names, parallel one another throughout the body, and are very similar on the right and left sides of the body.
As you read about circular pathways, notice that there is an occasional, very large artery referred to as a trunk, a term indicating that the vessel gives rise to several smaller arteries. Recall that blood returning from the systemic circuit enters the right atrium ([link]) via the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus, which drains the blood supply of the heart muscle.
Once gas exchange is completed, oxygenated blood flows from the pulmonary capillaries into a series of pulmonary venules that eventually lead to a series of larger pulmonary veins.
Pulmonary Circuit Blood exiting from the right ventricle flows into the pulmonary trunk, which bifurcates into the two pulmonary arteries. Blood relatively high in oxygen concentration is returned from the pulmonary circuit to the left atrium via the four pulmonary veins. Systemic Arteries The major systemic arteries shown here deliver oxygenated blood throughout the body. Aorta The aorta has distinct regions, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and the descending aorta, which includes the thoracic and abdominal regions. The first vessels that branch from the ascending aorta are the paired coronary arteries (see [link]), which arise from two of the three sinuses in the ascending aorta just superior to the aortic semilunar valve. The coronary arteries encircle the heart, forming a ring-like structure that divides into the next level of branches that supplies blood to the heart tissues. The brachiocephalic artery is located only on the right side of the body; there is no corresponding artery on the left. Each subclavian artery supplies blood to the arms, chest, shoulders, back, and central nervous system. The internal carotid arteries along with the vertebral arteries are the two primary suppliers of blood to the human brain. The internal carotid artery continues through the carotid canal of the temporal bone and enters the base of the brain through the carotid foramen where it gives rise to several branches ([link] and [link]). The right and left anterior cerebral arteries join together to form an anastomosis called the anterior communicating artery. Arteries Supplying the Head and Neck The common carotid artery gives rise to the external and internal carotid arteries. Arteries Serving the Brain This inferior view shows the network of arteries serving the brain. Thoracic Aorta and Major BranchesThe thoracic aorta begins at the level of vertebra T5 and continues through to the diaphragm at the level of T12, initially traveling within the mediastinum to the left of the vertebral column. Arteries of the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions The thoracic aorta gives rise to the arteries of the visceral and parietal branches. Abdominal Aorta and Major BranchesAfter crossing through the diaphragm at the aortic hiatus, the thoracic aorta is called the abdominal aorta (see [link]).
In addition to these single branches, the abdominal aorta gives rise to several significant paired arteries along the way.
The aorta divides at approximately the level of vertebra L4 into a left and a right common iliac artery but continues as a small vessel, the median sacral artery, into the sacrum. Major Branches of the Aorta The flow chart summarizes the distribution of the major branches of the aorta into the thoracic and abdominal regions. Major Branches of the Iliac Arteries The flow chart summarizes the distribution of the major branches of the common iliac arteries into the pelvis and lower limbs.
Arteries Serving the Upper LimbsAs the subclavian artery exits the thorax into the axillary region, it is renamed the axillary artery. Major Arteries Serving the Thorax and Upper Limb The arteries that supply blood to the arms and hands are extensions of the subclavian arteries. Major Arteries of the Upper Limb The flow chart summarizes the distribution of the major arteries from the heart into the upper limb. Arteries Serving the Lower LimbsThe external iliac artery exits the body cavity and enters the femoral region of the lower leg ([link]).
The anterior tibial artery is located between the tibia and fibula, and supplies blood to the muscles and integument of the anterior tibial region. Major Arteries Serving the Lower Limb Major arteries serving the lower limb are shown in anterior and posterior views.
Systemic Arteries of the Lower Limb The flow chart summarizes the distribution of the systemic arteries from the external iliac artery into the lower limb.
In both the neck and limb regions, there are often both superficial and deeper levels of veins. Major Systemic Veins of the Body The major systemic veins of the body are shown here in an anterior view.The right atrium receives all of the systemic venous return. The Superior Vena CavaThe superior vena cava drains most of the body superior to the diaphragm ([link]).
The azygos vein passes through the diaphragm from the thoracic cavity on the right side of the vertebral column and begins in the lumbar region of the thoracic cavity. Veins of the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions Veins of the thoracic and abdominal regions drain blood from the area above the diaphragm, returning it to the right atrium via the superior vena cava. Veins of the Head and NeckBlood from the brain and the superficial facial vein flow into each internal jugular vein ([link]).
Venous Drainage of the BrainCirculation to the brain is both critical and complex (see [link]). Most of the veins on the superior surface of the cerebrum flow into the largest of the sinuses, the superior sagittal sinus. Veins of the Head and Neck This left lateral view shows the veins of the head and neck, including the intercranial sinuses.
Veins Draining the Upper LimbsThe digital veins in the fingers come together in the hand to form the palmar venous arches ([link]). The median antebrachial vein parallels the ulnar vein, is more medial in location, and joins the basilic vein in the forearm. The cephalic vein begins in the antebrachium and drains blood from the superficial surface of the arm into the axillary vein. The subscapular vein drains blood from the subscapular region and joins the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein. Many of the larger veins of the thoracic and abdominal region and upper limb are further represented in the flow chart in [link]. Veins Flowing into the Superior Vena Cava The flow chart summarizes the distribution of the veins flowing into the superior vena cava.
The Inferior Vena CavaOther than the small amount of blood drained by the azygos and hemiazygos veins, most of the blood inferior to the diaphragm drains into the inferior vena cava before it is returned to the heart (see [link]).
Blood supply from the kidneys flows into each renal vein, normally the largest veins entering the inferior vena cava. From the male reproductive organs, each testicular vein flows from the scrotum, forming a portion of the spermatic cord. Each side of the diaphragm drains into a phrenic vein; the right phrenic vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava, whereas the left phrenic vein empties into the left renal vein. Venous Flow into Inferior Vena Cava The flow chart summarizes veins that deliver blood to the inferior vena cava. Veins Draining the Lower LimbsThe superior surface of the foot drains into the digital veins, and the inferior surface drains into the plantar veins, which flow into a complex series of anastomoses in the feet and ankles, including the dorsal venous arch and the plantar venous arch ([link]). Close to the body wall, the great saphenous vein, the deep femoral vein, and the femoral circumflex vein drain into the femoral vein.
As the femoral vein penetrates the body wall from the femoral portion of the upper limb, it becomes the external iliac vein, a large vein that drains blood from the leg to the common iliac vein. Major Veins Serving the Lower Limbs Anterior and posterior views show the major veins that drain the lower limb into the inferior vena cava.
The hepatic portal system consists of the hepatic portal vein and the veins that drain into it. Because of the hepatic portal system, the liver receives its blood supply from two different sources: from normal systemic circulation via the hepatic artery and from the hepatic portal vein. Hepatic Portal System The liver receives blood from the normal systemic circulation via the hepatic artery. The right ventricle pumps oxygen-depleted blood into the pulmonary trunk and right and left pulmonary arteries, which carry it to the right and left lungs for gas exchange. Science projects, posters and presentations can get easier with the help of these intestinal diagram pictures. Contact us with a description of the clipart you are searching for and we'll help you find it. The villi have capillaries and lacteals in the lamina propria for nutrient absorption (most dietary fat is absorbed by the lacteals, specialized lymphatic capillaries). Paneth cells deep in the crypts secrete lysozyme, an enzyme that degrades bacterial cell walls.


Distension or irritation of the mucosa by hypotonic or acidic chyme stimulates the release of intestinal juice, around 1 - 2 liters per day.
Bacteria also produce biotin and vitamin K, which are absorbed through the intestinal wall.
This gastrocolic reflex accompanies the gastroileal reflex stimulated by gastrin release when the stomach recieves food. I found the paper intriguing but inadequate for my purposes as it failed to characterize how the rewired A1 compared to V1 for which it was being substituted. We are postulating that the additional stages of prenatal neurogenesis increased the depth of the combinatorial circuits you could build out of H. The first paper, summarizing work on algorithmic-driven analysis of cortical mechanism and function, provided some new ideas concerning how deeper combinatorial circuits might be enabled by larger brains and additional stages of neurogenesis. As in parallel computers, connections among components are among the most expensive attributes, strongly constraining design. The mammalian jaw is a single bone, the mandible, while reptiles have three bones that form complex multi-hinged jaws enabling them to swallow prey whole. Reptiles that lie low to the ground rest their lower jaw on the ground, so that sound transmitted through the ground is conveyed by bone conduction to the brain. As they evolved into high-metabolic-rate mammals, raised off the ground and able to hunt prey on the run, they needed frequent, smaller meals to sustain their bodies and the two bones closest to the brain were re-purposed for hearing airborne sounds and the remaining bone served as hingeless, rigid jaw well adapted for tearing and chewing. In each evolutionary step, the bones served an important function, and each change resulted from natural selection exploiting serendipitously convenient structures.
What tends to happen is that, as absolute brain size increases, the proportional connectivity decreases. It has been found that they have nine or more premotor areas, whereas non-primates have only two to four. As you probably know, the first large scale data on human transcriptome in brain development was just published three weeks ago, but I am not aware of similar developmental data in monkeys. Also suppose that the intra-areal and extra-cortico connections in humans are also realized in our closest relatives in kind if not in quantity. As it becomes feasible to print more transistors on a single die, you can increase the number of processing cores, SIMD lanes, cache sizes, etc., with only modest changes to the overall design. Informational encapsulation in which specific competences do not have to appeal to other cognitive modules seem rare. They are contained within the middle ear space and serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea). The bones that comprise the intermediate links in the hinge are believed to have evolved into the small bones that are part of the mammalian auditory system. They also allow signals to be obtained along the length of the shank, rather than just at the ends of the shanks. This includes the generalized and more specialized functions of transport of materials, capillary exchange, maintaining health by transporting white blood cells and various immunoglobulins (antibodies), hemostasis, regulation of body temperature, and helping to maintain acid-base balance. For example, the celiac trunk gives rise to the left gastric, common hepatic, and splenic arteries. You might envision being inside a miniature boat, exploring the various branches of the circulatory system. At the base of the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve, which prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole. Four pulmonary veins, two on the left and two on the right, return blood to the left atrium.
These vessels branch to supply blood to the pulmonary capillaries, where gas exchange occurs within the lung alveoli. From the left atrium, blood moves into the left ventricle, which pumps blood into the aorta.
It arises from the left ventricle and eventually descends to the abdominal region, where it bifurcates at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra into the two common iliac arteries. These sinuses contain the aortic baroreceptors and chemoreceptors critical to maintain cardiac function. As you would expect based upon proximity to the heart, each of these vessels is classified as an elastic artery.
The brachiocephalic artery branches into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. It then gives rise to three major branches: the internal thoracic artery, the vertebral artery, and the thyrocervical artery. The right common carotid artery arises from the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. Given the central role and vital importance of the brain to life, it is critical that blood supply to this organ remains uninterrupted.
One of these branches is the anterior cerebral artery that supplies blood to the frontal lobe of the cerebrum. The initial segments of the anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery form the anterior portion of the arterial circle.
The external carotid artery remains superficial and gives rise to many arteries of the head. As it passes through the thoracic region, the thoracic aorta gives rise to several branches, which are collectively referred to as visceral branches and parietal branches ([link]). This vessel remains to the left of the vertebral column and is embedded in adipose tissue behind the peritoneal cavity.
These include the inferior phrenic arteries, the adrenal arteries, the renal arteries, the gonadal arteries, and the lumbar arteries.
The common iliac arteries provide blood to the pelvic region and ultimately to the lower limbs.
Although it does branch and supply blood to the region near the head of the humerus (via the humeral circumflex arteries), the majority of the vessel continues into the upper arm, or brachium, and becomes the brachial artery ([link]).
Upon reaching the tarsal region, it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery, which branches repeatedly and provides blood to the tarsal and dorsal regions of the foot. Since the blood has already passed through the systemic capillaries, it will be relatively low in oxygen concentration. It is like following a river with many tributaries and channels, several of which interconnect. On both the left and right sides, the subclavian vein forms when the axillary vein passes through the body wall from the axillary region.
Each intercostal vein drains muscles of the thoracic wall, each esophageal vein delivers blood from the inferior portions of the esophagus, each bronchial vein drains the systemic circulation from the lungs, and several smaller veins drain the mediastinal region.
It flows into the superior vena cava at approximately the level of T2, making a significant contribution to the flow of blood. Blood from the more superficial portions of the head, scalp, and cranial regions, including the temporal vein and maxillary vein, flow into each external jugular vein. Many smaller veins of the brain stem and the superficial veins of the cerebrum lead to larger vessels referred to as intracranial sinuses.
It is located midsagittally between the meningeal and periosteal layers of the dura mater within the falx cerebri and, at first glance in images or models, can be mistaken for the subarachnoid space. From here, the veins come together to form the radial vein, the ulnar vein, and the median antebrachial vein.
As the basilic vein reaches the antecubital region, it gives off a branch called the median cubital vein that crosses at an angle to join the cephalic vein. It is extremely superficial and easily seen along the surface of the biceps brachii muscle in individuals with good muscle tone and in those without excessive subcutaneous adipose tissue in the arms.
As it passes through the body wall and enters the thorax, the axillary vein becomes the subclavian vein. Lying just beneath the parietal peritoneum in the abdominal cavity, the inferior vena cava parallels the abdominal aorta, where it can receive blood from abdominal veins.
Blood supply from the liver drains into each hepatic vein and directly into the inferior vena cava. From the dorsal venous arch, blood supply drains into the anterior and posterior tibial veins.
The great saphenous vein is a prominent surface vessel located on the medial surface of the leg and thigh that collects blood from the superficial portions of these areas. The pelvic organs and integument drain into the internal iliac vein, which forms from several smaller veins in the region, including the umbilical veins that run on either side of the bladder. The hepatic portal vein itself is relatively short, beginning at the level of L2 with the confluence of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins. The liver processes the blood from the portal system to remove certain wastes and excess nutrients, which are stored for later use. It also receives and processes blood from other organs, delivered via the veins of the hepatic portal system. The anal epithelium hangs in long folds (anal columns) in the superior portion of the anus. Electrical activity generated within the developing brain may be sufficient for the establishment of thalamocortical connections, as suggested by the existence of retinal waves of spontaneous activity and the presence of ocular dominance columns before eye opening.
As the brain grows, those structures and connection pathways that grow disproportionately large are highly likely to be the most indispensable machinery, as well as developing into the key components of human brain that may set human intelligence apart from that of other mammals.
These areas receive sensory inputs from high-order sensory systems, interpret them in the light of similar past experiences, and function in reasoning, judgement, emotions, verbalizing ideas, and storing memory. So although we know which genes are different between monkeys and humans, we still need to map where and when they are expressed in the brain. In this case it would be relatively simple for additional rounds of cell division during fetal brain development to exploit local chemical gradients and cell-differentiation signals to proportionally expand the cortex.
In contrast to Michigan arrays, Utah arrays are 3-D, consisting of 100 conductive silicon needles.
Elegans; its nervous system consists of 302 non-spiking neurons each one a highly specialized analog computer. In addition to these shared functions, many systems enjoy a unique relationship with the circulatory system. Where differences occur in branching patterns or when vessels are singular, this will be indicated. This simple approach has proven effective for many students in mastering these major circulatory patterns. This blood is relatively low in oxygen and relatively high in carbon dioxide, since much of the oxygen has been extracted for use by the tissues and the waste gas carbon dioxide was picked up to be transported to the lungs for elimination. As the pulmonary trunk reaches the superior surface of the heart, it curves posteriorly and rapidly bifurcates (divides) into two branches, a left and a right pulmonary artery. The aorta consists of the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta, which passes through the diaphragm and a landmark that divides into the superior thoracic and inferior abdominal components.
The left subclavian and left common carotid arteries arise independently from the aortic arch but otherwise follow a similar pattern and distribution to the corresponding arteries on the right side (see [link]). The internal thoracic artery, or mammary artery, supplies blood to the thymus, the pericardium of the heart, and the anterior chest wall. The external carotid artery supplies blood to numerous structures within the face, lower jaw, neck, esophagus, and larynx.
Recall that blood flow to the brain is remarkably constant, with approximately 20 percent of blood flow directed to this organ at any given time. Another branch, the middle cerebral artery, supplies blood to the temporal and parietal lobes, which are the most common sites of CVAs.
The posterior portion of the arterial circle is formed by a left and a right posterior communicating artery that branches from the posterior cerebral artery, which arises from the basilar artery.
The internal carotid artery first forms the carotid sinus and then reaches the brain via the carotid canal and carotid foramen, emerging into the cranium via the foramen lacerum.
Those branches that supply blood primarily to visceral organs are known as the visceral branches and include the bronchial arteries, pericardial arteries, esophageal arteries, and the mediastinal arteries, each named after the tissues it supplies.
It formally ends at approximately the level of vertebra L4, where it bifurcates to form the common iliac arteries. Each inferior phrenic artery is a counterpart of a superior phrenic artery and supplies blood to the inferior surface of the diaphragm. They split into external and internal iliac arteries approximately at the level of the lumbar-sacral articulation. The brachial artery supplies blood to much of the brachial region and divides at the elbow into several smaller branches, including the deep brachial arteries, which provide blood to the posterior surface of the arm, and the ulnar collateral arteries, which supply blood to the region of the elbow. It gives off several smaller branches as well as the lateral deep femoral artery that in turn gives rise to a lateral circumflex artery.
The posterior tibial artery provides blood to the muscles and integument on the posterior surface of the tibial region. In many cases, there will be veins draining organs and regions of the body with the same name as the arteries that supplied these regions and the two often parallel one another.
The superficial veins do not normally have direct arterial counterparts, but in addition to returning blood, they also make contributions to the maintenance of body temperature.
Tracing blood flow through arteries follows the current in the direction of blood flow, so that we move from the heart through the large arteries and into the smaller arteries to the capillaries. If you draw an imaginary line at the level of the diaphragm, systemic venous circulation from above that line will generally flow into the superior vena cava; this includes blood from the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs.
It fuses with the external and internal jugular veins from the head and neck to form the brachiocephalic vein. Bronchial veins carry approximately 13 percent of the blood that flows into the bronchial arteries; the remainder intermingles with the pulmonary circulation and returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins. It combines with the two large left and right brachiocephalic veins to form the superior vena cava. Although the external and internal jugular veins are separate vessels, there are anastomoses between them close to the thoracic region.
These include the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses, straight sinus, cavernous sinuses, left and right sinuses, the petrosal sinuses, and the occipital sinuses.
Most reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid occurs via the chorionic villi (arachnoid granulations) into the superior sagittal sinus.
The radial vein and the ulnar vein parallel the bones of the forearm and join together at the antebrachium to form the brachial vein, a deep vein that flows into the axillary vein in the brachium. The lumbar portions of the abdominal wall and spinal cord are drained by a series of lumbar veins, usually four on each side. Each adrenal vein drains the adrenal or suprarenal glands located immediately superior to the kidneys.
Since the inferior vena cava lies primarily to the right of the vertebral column and aorta, the left renal vein is longer, as are the left phrenic, adrenal, and gonadal veins.
The anterior tibial vein drains the area near the tibialis anterior muscle and combines with the posterior tibial vein and the fibular vein to form the popliteal vein. The deep femoral vein, as the name suggests, drains blood from the deeper portions of the thigh. The external and internal iliac veins combine near the inferior portion of the sacroiliac joint to form the common iliac vein. Instead of entering the circulation directly, absorbed nutrients and certain wastes (for example, materials produced by the spleen) travel to the liver for processing. It also receives branches from the inferior mesenteric vein, plus the splenic veins and all their tributaries.
This processed blood, as well as the systemic blood that came from the hepatic artery, exits the liver via the right, left, and middle hepatic veins, and flows into the inferior vena cava. All blood exits the liver via the hepatic vein, which delivers the blood to the inferior vena cava.
The anal sinuses are the recesses between the anal columns; they secrete mucus when compressed by feces, which aids passage of feces out of the anus.
However, in a Utah array signals are only received from the tips of each electrode, which limits the amount of information that can be obtained at one time.
For example, you will find a pair of femoral arteries and a pair of femoral veins, with one vessel on each side of the body. Another approach that works well for many students is to create simple line drawings similar to the ones provided, labeling each of the major vessels.


From the right atrium, blood moves into the right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs for gas exchange.
To prevent confusion between these vessels, it is important to refer to the vessel exiting the heart as the pulmonary trunk, rather than also calling it a pulmonary artery. Arteries originating from the aorta ultimately distribute blood to virtually all tissues of the body. The vertebral artery passes through the vertebral foramen in the cervical vertebrae and then through the foramen magnum into the cranial cavity to supply blood to the brain and spinal cord.
These branches include the lingual, facial, occipital, maxillary, and superficial temporal arteries.
When blood flow is interrupted, even for just a few seconds, a transient ischemic attack (TIA), or mini-stroke, may occur, resulting in loss of consciousness or temporary loss of neurological function.
The vertebral artery branches from the subclavian artery and passes through the transverse foramen in the cervical vertebrae, entering the base of the skull at the vertebral foramen. Each bronchial artery (typically two on the left and one on the right) supplies systemic blood to the lungs and visceral pleura, in addition to the blood pumped to the lungs for oxygenation via the pulmonary circuit. The adrenal artery supplies blood to the adrenal (suprarenal) glands and arises near the superior mesenteric artery.
Each internal iliac artery sends branches to the urinary bladder, the walls of the pelvis, the external genitalia, and the medial portion of the femoral region.
As the brachial artery approaches the coronoid fossa, it bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which continue into the forearm, or antebrachium. These arteries supply blood to the deep muscles of the thigh as well as ventral and lateral regions of the integument.
When the ambient temperature is warm, more blood is diverted to the superficial veins where heat can be more easily dissipated to the environment. From the capillaries, we move into the smallest veins and follow the direction of blood flow into larger veins and back to the heart.
The exception to this is that most venous blood flow from the coronary veins flows directly into the coronary sinus and from there directly into the right atrium. Blood from most of the smaller vessels originating from the inferior cerebral veins flows into the great cerebral vein and into the straight sinus. The basilic vein continues through the arm medially and superficially to the axillary vein. The ascending lumbar veins drain into either the azygos vein on the right or the hemiazygos vein on the left, and return to the superior vena cava. The right adrenal vein enters the inferior vena cava directly, whereas the left adrenal vein enters the left renal vein. The right gonadal vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava, and the left gonadal vein empties into the left renal vein. The longer length of the left renal vein makes the left kidney the primary target of surgeons removing this organ for donation.
The posterior tibial vein drains the posterior surface of the tibia and joins the popliteal vein.
The femoral circumflex vein forms a loop around the femur just inferior to the trochanters and drains blood from the areas in proximity to the head and neck of the femur. In addition to blood supply from the external and internal iliac veins, the middle sacral vein drains the sacral region into the common iliac vein.
The superior mesenteric vein receives blood from the small intestine, two-thirds of the large intestine, and the stomach.
Overall systemic blood composition remains relatively stable, since the liver is able to metabolize the absorbed digestive components. Let’s start with the occipital lobe, which contains among other things, the primary visual or striate, cortex.
In contrast, some vessels closer to the midline of the body, such as the aorta, are unique. The pulmonary arteries in turn branch many times within the lung, forming a series of smaller arteries and arterioles that eventually lead to the pulmonary capillaries.
At the base of the aorta is the aortic semilunar valve that prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle while the heart is relaxing.
The paired vertebral arteries join together to form the large basilar artery at the base of the medulla oblongata. The internal carotid artery initially forms an expansion known as the carotid sinus, containing the carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors. The basilar artery is an anastomosis that begins at the junction of the two vertebral arteries and sends branches to the cerebellum and brain stem. The bronchial arteries follow the same path as the respiratory branches, beginning with the bronchi and ending with the bronchioles. A single celiac trunk (artery) emerges and divides into the left gastric artery to supply blood to the stomach and esophagus, the splenic artery to supply blood to the spleen, and the common hepatic artery, which in turn gives rise to the hepatic artery proper to supply blood to the liver, the right gastric artery to supply blood to the stomach, the cystic artery to supply blood to the gall bladder, and several branches, one to supply blood to the duodenum and another to supply blood to the pancreas.
Each renal artery branches approximately 2.5 cm inferior to the superior mesenteric arteries and supplies a kidney.
The radial artery and ulnar artery parallel their namesake bones, giving off smaller branches until they reach the wrist, or carpal region. The femoral artery also gives rise to the genicular artery, which provides blood to the region of the knee. It bifurcates and becomes the medial plantar artery and lateral plantar artery, providing blood to the plantar surfaces. However, there is a great deal more variability in the venous circulation than normally occurs in the arteries. In colder weather, there is more constriction of the superficial veins and blood is diverted deeper where the body can retain more of the heat. Beneath the diaphragm, systemic venous flow enters the inferior vena cava, that is, blood from the abdominal and pelvic regions and the lower limbs. These veins arise from the base of the brain and the cervical region of the spinal cord, and flow largely through the intervertebral foramina in the cervical vertebrae.
The hemiazygos vein does not drain directly into the superior vena cava but enters the brachiocephalic vein via the superior intercostal vein. Other cerebral veins and those from the eye socket flow into the cavernous sinus, which flows into the petrosal sinus and then into the internal jugular vein. The fibular vein drains the muscles and integument in proximity to the fibula and also joins the popliteal vein. Similar to the common iliac arteries, the common iliac veins come together at the level of L5 to form the inferior vena cava. The inferior mesenteric vein drains the distal third of the large intestine, including the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum.
For instance, the orientation domains in rewired A1 are larger and less orderly than in V1. In chimps, it constitutes 5% of the entire neocortex, whereas in humans it constitutes 2%, which is less than would be expected. The length of time and number of cell cycles spent in the early period of cell division will ultimately determine the number cortical columns that will be found in any given species, The length of time and the number of cell cycles spent in the later period may determine the number of individual neurons within a cortical column.
Moreover, some superficial veins, such as the great saphenous vein in the femoral region, have no arterial counterpart. However, we will attempt to discuss the major pathways for blood and acquaint you with the major named arteries and veins in the body. The pulmonary capillaries surround lung structures known as alveoli that are the sites of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. After exiting the heart, the ascending aorta moves in a superior direction for approximately 5 cm and ends at the sternal angle.
Like their counterparts in the aortic sinuses, the information provided by these receptors is critical to maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis (see [link]).
Loss of blood flow for longer periods, typically between 3 and 4 minutes, will likely produce irreversible brain damage or a stroke, also called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
There is considerable, but not total, intermingling of the systemic and pulmonary blood at anastomoses in the smaller branches of the lungs. The right renal artery is longer than the left since the aorta lies to the left of the vertebral column and the vessel must travel a greater distance to reach its target. At this level, they fuse to form the superficial and deep palmar arches that supply blood to the hand, as well as the digital arteries that supply blood to the digits. As the femoral artery passes posterior to the knee near the popliteal fossa, it is called the popliteal artery. There is an anastomosis with the dorsalis pedis artery, and the medial and lateral plantar arteries form two arches called the dorsal arch (also called the arcuate arch) and the plantar arch, which provide blood to the remainder of the foot and toes.
For the sake of brevity and clarity, this text will discuss only the most commonly encountered patterns. The occipital sinus, sagittal sinus, and straight sinuses all flow into the left and right transverse sinuses near the lambdoid suture. The small saphenous vein located on the lateral surface of the leg drains blood from the superficial regions of the lower leg and foot, and flows into to the popliteal vein. In this case, the initial capillaries from the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and spleen lead to the hepatic portal vein and end in specialized capillaries within the liver, the hepatic sinusoids. The splenic vein is formed from branches from the spleen, pancreas, and portions of the stomach, and the inferior mesenteric vein. However, Christof Koch lists the total number of neurons in the cerebral cortex at 20 billion in Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons, [Oxford University Press, 1999, Page 87].
A higher number of early divisions will result in a larger cortical sheet and a higher number of later divisions will resulting a higher number of neurons within an individual column.
Another phenomenon that can make the study of vessels challenging is that names of vessels can change with location. Also, please keep in mind that individual variations in circulation patterns are not uncommon. Following this ascent, it reverses direction, forming a graceful arc to the left, called the aortic arch. The subclavian artery also gives rise to the thyrocervical artery that provides blood to the thyroid, the cervical region of the neck, and the upper back and shoulder. The locations of the arteries in the brain not only provide blood flow to the brain tissue but also prevent interruption in the flow of blood. However, keep this variation in mind when you move from the classroom to clinical practice. Each internal thoracic vein, also known as an internal mammary vein, drains the anterior surface of the chest wall and flows into the brachiocephalic vein.
The transverse sinuses in turn flow into the sigmoid sinuses that pass through the jugular foramen and into the internal jugular vein. As the popliteal vein passes behind the knee in the popliteal region, it becomes the femoral vein. You saw the only other portal system with the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal vessel in the endocrine chapter. After its formation, the hepatic portal vein also receives branches from the gastric veins of the stomach and cystic veins from the gall bladder. Like a street that changes name as it passes through an intersection, an artery or vein can change names as it passes an anatomical landmark. The aortic arch descends toward the inferior portions of the body and ends at the level of the intervertebral disk between the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae.
Both the carotid and vertebral arteries branch once they enter the cranial cavity, and some of these branches form a structure known as the arterial circle (or circle of Willis), an anastomosis that is remarkably like a traffic circle that sends off branches (in this case, arterial branches to the brain).
The mixed blood drains into typical pulmonary veins, whereas the bronchial artery branches remain separate and drain into bronchial veins described later. The superior mesenteric artery arises approximately 2.5 cm after the celiac trunk and branches into several major vessels that supply blood to the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), the pancreas, and a majority of the large intestine. Each gonadal artery supplies blood to the gonads, or reproductive organs, and is also described as either an ovarian artery or a testicular artery (internal spermatic), depending upon the sex of the individual. The internal jugular vein flows parallel to the common carotid artery and is more or less its counterpart. The hepatic portal vein delivers materials from these digestive and circulatory organs directly to the liver for processing. From a developmental perspective, it is even more interesting to think about the afferent and efferent neurons and their axonal processes which comprise the peripheral nervous system. For example, the left subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery as it passes through the body wall and into the axillary region, and then becomes the brachial artery as it flows from the axillary region into the upper arm (or brachium).
Beyond this point, the descending aorta continues close to the bodies of the vertebrae and passes through an opening in the diaphragm known as the aortic hiatus. As a rule, branches to the anterior portion of the cerebrum are normally fed by the internal carotid arteries; the remainder of the brain receives blood flow from branches associated with the vertebral arteries.
Each pericardial artery supplies blood to the pericardium, the esophageal artery provides blood to the esophagus, and the mediastinal artery provides blood to the mediastinum. The inferior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the distal segment of the large intestine, including the rectum. An ovarian artery supplies blood to an ovary, uterine (Fallopian) tube, and the uterus, and is located within the suspensory ligament of the uterus.
You will also find examples of anastomoses where two blood vessels that previously branched reconnect. Superior to the diaphragm, the aorta is called the thoracic aorta, and inferior to the diaphragm, it is called the abdominal aorta. The remaining thoracic aorta branches are collectively referred to as parietal branches or somatic branches, and include the intercostal and superior phrenic arteries.
It is considerably shorter than a testicular artery, which ultimately travels outside the body cavity to the testes, forming one component of the spermatic cord.
The veins draining the cervical vertebrae and the posterior surface of the skull, including some blood from the occipital sinus, flow into the vertebral veins.
Anastomoses are especially common in veins, where they help maintain blood flow even when one vessel is blocked or narrowed, although there are some important ones in the arteries supplying the brain.
The abdominal aorta terminates when it bifurcates into the two common iliac arteries at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Each intercostal artery provides blood to the muscles of the thoracic cavity and vertebral column. The gonadal arteries arise inferior to the renal arteries and are generally retroperitoneal. These parallel the vertebral arteries and travel through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae. Area 10 is involved with memory and planning, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking, initiating appropriate behavior and inhibiting inappropriate behavior, learning rules, and picking out relevant information from what is perceived through the senses.
That is, it is possible to identify large-scale patterns of LFP–LFP phase coupling (G) that explain a significant fraction of the variation in spike rates for a large ensemble of neurons distributed across multiple brain areas. See [link] for an illustration of the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the initial segment of the descending aorta plus major branches; [link] summarizes the structures of the aorta. The ovarian artery continues to the uterus where it forms an anastomosis with the uterine artery that supplies blood to the uterus. Both the uterine arteries and vaginal arteries, which distribute blood to the vagina, are branches of the internal iliac artery. The four paired lumbar arteries are the counterparts of the intercostal arteries and supply blood to the lumbar region, the abdominal wall, and the spinal cord. Non-primate mammals have two major regions of the prefrontal cortex, and primates have three.
This new region is apparently unique to primates and is concerned mainly with the rational aspects of decision making, which are our conscious efforts to reach a decision.




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