Enzymes that digest lipids are called xenografts,best time to take probiotics tablets benefits,nature's bounty advanced probiotic 10 capsules 60 count review,what are the three major end products of protein digestion in the small intestine - Reviews

Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve (1955) accidentally discovered Lysosomes from rat liver cells for which he was awarded Nobel prize in 1974.
Lysosomes are single membrane bounded digestive vesicles that are budded off from TGN (Trans-Golgi network). The lysosomal membranes contain proton pumps (H+– AT Pases) that concentrate protons from cytosol to maintain their acidic internal pH. The lysosomes change the nature of their enzyme contents at different times in the same cell.
These are fused in two steps- first an unwanted organelle enclosed in a membranous vacuole derived from SER which then fuses with a lysosome, and its contents are digested. 15 Number of Cells Although ALL living things are made of cells, organisms may be: Unicellular – composed of one cell Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize into tissues, etc. 28 Cell Size Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? Stomach ? Function: ? Parietal cells secrete HCL acid and intrinsic factor, which absorbs B 12, without it, what anemia can occur? Large Intestine Ileocecal valve to the anus, 5-6’, lined with columnar epithelium tha thas absorptive and mucous cells.


Nursing Assessment Family history- GI disorders, cancer Personal history- what kinds of things? Physical Assessment Abdomen: – Inspection- skin, symmetry, rashes, lesions, scars – Auscultation- all four quadrants, normally heard in 5- 15 seconds, normal, hypoactive or hyperactive, listen 1 full minute. GERD Refluxed material has a pH of 1.5-2, whereas the esophagus normally has a pH of 6-8 ? erosive esophagitis, once inflammed, the mucosa can’t eliminate the material as quickly.
GERD Physical Manifestations – Dysphagia and Odynophagia- difficulty swallowing, esophagus may be narrowed by inflammation or tumor, odynophagia- means what?
The acid dependence of lysosomal enzymes protects the digestion of cytoplasmic contents even if the leakage occurs. This process of self destruction is called autophagy or auto-digestion, which is important for disposal of unwanted organelles and diseased cells, starvation management and remodeling of tissues during differentiation.
Pernicious anemia… makes you weak & tired… red beefy tounge, B12 injections & pill… pill not as effective… water soluble vitamin ? Chief cells secrete Pepsinogen ? pepsin (breakdown enzyme) ? Cephalic phase- sight, smell and taste of food, regulated by vagus, begin secretory and contractile activity ? Gastric phase- G cells in the antrum secrete gastrin, which causes HCL and pepsinogen to be released. However, meristematic cells, root tip cells of maize, neurospora (fungi) contain lysosomes. Lysosomes contain about 50 different hydrolytic enzymes that can digest proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, DNA and RNA.


The CBD (common bile duct) and pancreatic duct join to form the ampulla of Vater and empty into the duodenum at the duodenal papilla. Generally in plant cells lysosomal activities are carried out by vacuoles, spherosomes and aleurone grains which together known as plant lysosomes. Mucous and Bicarb (prostoglandins) are secreted to protect the stomach wall (from the acid produced) ? Intestinal phase- chyme produced empties into the duodenum and causes distention, this produces secretin, which stops the acid production and gastric motility ! This surrounded by a muscle, called the Sphincter of Oddi – Jejunum- middle 8 ft portion – Ileum- last 8-12 ft. Also give an antacid (malox, gaviscon… seep in stomach, bicab based & coat stomach & bring up pH level) Reglan can help to empty stomach (prokinetic med) What type of teaching would be done for prevention? Can lead to Barrett’s epithelium- thicker, but can be cancerous, can also cause hemorrhage, aspiration pneumonia, asthma, laryngitis and dental deterioration. The ileocecal valve separates the ileum form the cecum of the large intestine – Inner lining is made up of intestinal villi and folds of mucosa and submucosa for digestion.




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