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The pancreas is an elongated, somewhat flattened organ that is posterior to the stomach and behind the parietal peritoneum. The primary focus of the Islets of Langerhan is really in the beta cells, which secrete insulin. NOTE 1: If the pancreatic juice cannot be released because of blockage, it creates a painful disease called acute pancreatitis.
NOTE 2: Cystic fibrosis is a disease where toxins cause water to be drawn into the cells from the surrounding tissues.
People have been taught that fat is more fattening than sugar, and, although fat contains nine calories per gram and sugar only contains four, excess sugar is converted to glycogen and stored in the muscles as fat. Indulge in the sweetness of life (jokes and laughter); the things that make happiness, good memories and dreams. In ecology, autotrophic organisms are called producers because they synthesize the organic material consumed by the other living organisms of an ecosystem.An ecosystem cannot exist without producers. The energy flow along a food chain is always unidirectional, from the producers to the decomposers. Primary consumers are living organisms that eat autotrophic organisms; or rather, they eat the producers. The three types of trophic pyramids studied in ecology are the numeric pyramid, the biomass pyramid and the energy pyramid.Generally, the variable dimension of the pyramid is the width, and the height is always the same for each represented strata of living organisms.
In a numeric pyramid, the base corresponds to the first trophic level, or rather, to producers. Since the numeric pyramid represents the quantity of individuals in each trophic level of the food chain, inferior trophic levels with less individuals than the superior trophic levels may exist. If an intermediate level of a numeric pyramid has its variable dimension decreased, or rather, if the number of individuals of that level is reduced, the number of individuals on the level below it will increase and the number of individuals on the level above it will be reduced.
The gross primary production of an ecosystem, or GPP, is the quantity of organic material found in a given area at a given period.Since only autotrophs produce organic material and photosynthesis is the main production process, GPP is a result of photosynthesis. Mainly water and light, but also mineral salts, temperature and carbon dioxide are factors that interfere with gross primary productivity.
Part of the organic material synthesized by producers is consumed as an energy source for the metabolism of producers.
Net primary production is the gross primary productivity minus the organic material consumed as an energy source in the metabolism of producers: NPP = GPP a€“ (organic material spent in aerobic respiration).
Glycolysis was one of the first metabolic pathways studied and is one of the best understood, in terms of the enzymes involved, their mechanisms of action, and the regulation of the pathway to meet the needs of the organism and the cell.
Insulin is a peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increases in blood sugar, usually following a meal.
After a meal, the amount of insulin secreted into the blood increases as blood sugar rises. If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into muscle cells, then the muscles grow and body fat is managed. Without enough insulin, you lose all of the anabolic effects, since there is not enough insulin to transport or store energy or nutrients. Continual elevation of insulin leads to large amounts of fat gain and risk for cardiovascular disease.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by obesity (particularly central deposition adiposity, or fat around the middle and deep in the abdominal cavity), cardiovascular disease, systemic inflammation, and the poor ability of muscles to store nutrients, which leads to muscle wasting and fat storage as well as nutrients circulating in the blood. Insulin resistance, and its associated metabolic syndrome, is a step along the road to type 2 diabetes.
Due to the anabolic power of insulin, many over-fat individuals want to avoid insulin release.
You need insulin, but the trick is to learn how to balance the anabolic effects in muscle tissue against the fat storage effects. Aim for a moderate carbohydrate consumption (~40% of diet) with an emphasis on fibrous carbohydrates like vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains. Investigate chromium and alpha lipoic acid, and make sure intake is adequate (but not excessive). While the glycemic and insulin indices of many foods are similar, some foods cause unexpected responses. The purpose of nutrient timing is to maximize insulin’s anabolic effects while minimizing its other problematic side effects. Some epidemiologic studies have found that breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk for developing insulin-dependent diabetes.
Supplementing infant diets with gluten-containing foods before 3 months of age may encourage pancreatic dysfunction. Asian and African populations who are physically active and follow diets low in fat and high in fibrous carbohydrates have lower incidence of diabetes than those living the “Western” lifestyle. The American Academy of Pediatrics stated that avoiding early exposure to cow’s milk may reduce the risk of developing antibodies to cow’s milk protein and type 1 diabetes. Alpha lipoic acid may increase glucose uptake in the cell by recruiting glucose transporters.
Some people who are not obese by traditional measures are still at risk for insulin resistance anyway, particularly individuals with one or more close relatives who are diabetic, as well as many people of South Asian ethnic origin. Many bodybuilders have experimented with injecting insulin in an attempt to maximize insulin’s anabolic effects.
To learn more about making important improvements to your nutrition and exercise program, check out the following 5-day video courses. They’re probably better than 90% of the seminars we’ve ever attended on the subjects of exercise and nutrition (and probably better than a few we’ve given ourselves, too). Made with our exclusive Tri-Sorb™ protein blend and prebiotic fiber, this shake is enriched with healthy vitamins and minerals to support an active lifestyle. Tri-Sorb™ is a proprietary blend of 3 high-quality proteins, along with digestive enzymes for maximum absorption to support lean muscle.
Fibersol™ — a clinically tested and patented prebiotic fiber blend that keeps you feeling full without the gas that is a by-product of other types of fiber. Vi-Shape Nutritional Shake Mix does what a good meal replacement shake should: it mixes easily with non-fat milk or soy milk to provide a tasty meal loaded with 20–22 grams of protein—the perfect blend to support lean muscle to help your body burn fat. For bonus flavor and nutrition (as well as variety), blend with fresh or frozen fruit to create your own smoothies, or add the patent-pending Shape-Up™ Health Flavor Mix-ins for added variety. Did You Know?Cells have special internal highways and cargo-carriers made from proteins, for transporting cellular components within the cell. Although most organelles are common to both plant and animal cells, certain organelles like cell wall and chloroplast are present only in plant cells; whereas lysosomes and centrioles are predominantly present in animal cells. Function: The cell membrane provides structure and shape to the cell, and is responsible for holding the organelles together. Function: The nucleus is often referred to as the 'brain' of the cell, as it controls all the activities that are carried on within the cell. Function: The rough ER is the site for protein synthesis from the attached ribosomes, and is responsible for the transport of these proteins and other molecules along with the smooth ER. Function: It is the molecular machine that reads information on mRNA obtained from nucleus, and synthesizes polypeptide chains for the cell. Function: The Golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying the polypeptide chains synthesized in the ER by ribosomes to get the final, effective protein molecules. Function: Lysosomes serve as the waste disposal system of the cell, and the lytic enzymes present inside them are capable of digesting any type of macromolecule including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Function: Mitochondria are the powerhouses of a cell, and are responsible for the breakdown of sugar molecules to release ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is used to transport energy within the cell for metabolism.
Function: Centrioles are the centers for microtubule nucleation during cell division, and form an important structural component of the mitotic spindle. Function: Vacuoles function as the storehouse of a cell and store food and water, as well as waste material before it is transported outside the cell.
Function: Plants differ integrally from animals in their ability to prepare food within their cells through the process of photosynthesis.
Ah man, such an awesome website, really gave me the information I needed to get started, thanks so much for the effort you put into this!


This website really helped me for an upcoming biology test about cells, their organelles, and their functions.
Please write also the rough endoplasmic and smooth endoplasmic function as well because written just endoplasmic reticulum will confusing to people. Prolessa Duo burns fat and produces a feeling of satiation, and can easily be added to Herbalife’s Formula one meal replacement shake.
Prolessa duo acts on the ileum in the digestive tract, where enzymes break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Any statements made regarding Herbalife have *have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
It is attached to the first section of the small intestine (duodenum) by a duct, which transports its digestive juice into the intestine. When the small intestine detects proteins and fats in the chyme, the mucous cells of the small intestine release cholecystokinin into the blood.
It helps regulate the secretion of glucagons and insulin so glucose metabolism stays at optimum levels.
Fat is not what you need to avoid; sugar is, and, technically, if you eat sugar in the form of complex carbohydrates, the food contains the minerals needed to burn them up by increasing the metabolic rate. The sun plays the important role of keeping the planet warm and is the source of the light energy used in photosynthesis. Which autotrophic group is responsible for the production of the majority of the molecular oxygen on earth? Primary consumers always belong to the second trophic level of a chain.A food chain cannot have consumers of superior orders without having consumers of inferior orders.
In reality, in an ecosystem, organisms are part of several interconnected food chains, forming a food web. In the short term, what will happen to the levels above and below a population of secondary consumers of a numeric pyramid if a large number of individuals from this population dies? That happens because the individuals on the level below it will face less predators and the individuals of the level above it will have less available food. Can the amount of available energy on a given trophic level be larger than the available energy on lower trophic levels? This is because on each trophic level, only a fraction of the organic material of the level below is incorporated into the consumers (into their bodies). What factors have an effect on gross primary productivity due to their effect on photosynthesis?
The other part is incorporated (into its body) and becomes available to heterotrophic organisms in the ecosystem. It represents the organic material available on the first trophic level.The base of energy pyramids must show NPP and not GPP, since the idea of these pyramids is to show the available energy on each trophic level of the food chain. If these nutrients are shuttled primarily into fat cells, then muscle mass is unchanged and body fat is increased.
Since glucose is then poorly stored, people end up with both high circulating blood insulin and high circulating glucose. This can be done by increasing insulin sensitivity in the muscle while decreasing insulin sensitivity in the fat cells. In theory, it may help manage blood sugar, but trials using chromium have shown mixed results.
Caffeinated coffee consumption impairs blood glucose homeostasis in response to high and low glycemic index meals in healthy men.
Dynamic strength training improves insulin sensitivity without altering plasma levels and gene expression of adipokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese men.
Association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease: a study based on serologic markers. Six months of gluten-free diet do not influence autoantibody titers, but improve insulin secretion in subjects at high risk for type 1 diabetes. Dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in relation to glucose metabolism in subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the Botnia Dietary Study. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population. Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects.
Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Exercise training and the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women.
Dietary fats, fatty acids and insulin resistance: short review of a multifaceted connection.
A low-fat, vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The effects of epigallocateghin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study.
Effects of 3-week consumption of green tea extracts on whole-body metabolism during cycling exercise in endurance-trained men.
The nutritional powerhouse of every Body by Vi Challenge Kit, Vi-Shape offers a filling and balanced meal designed to help you lose weight and support lean muscle and healthy energy. If you tried other meal replacement shakes before, you’ll see that there is nothing like Vi-Shape Nutritional Shake Mix. It is made up of pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose microfibrils, and proteins organized into two layers - primary cell wall and middle lamella. Even these highways are not devoid of traffic jams!Cells are the basic structural and functional units of an organism. It regulates the entry and exit of molecules and ions from the cell, and plays a vital role in cell eating (phagocytosis) and cell drinking (pinocytosis).
It carries the information code in the form of DNA, and hence is also known as the information storage organelle.
This process is called translation, and also involves the participation of tRNA molecules which serve as the carriers for amino acids that need to be assembled to form a protein. These modifications include the addition of sugar molecules, lipid moieties, functional groups etc. They can digest unwanted molecules, aged or damaged organelles as well as foreign bodies like bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. The outer membrane contains specialized proteins that allow molecular transport across mitochondria. Here solar energy is harnessed by converting it into chemical energy in the form of ATP, which is then used for starch synthesis. They also play an important role in seed germination by helping carbohydrate formation from the lipid stores of cells.
It may not be an organelle, (since it isn't membrane-bound) but it has important functions other than just holding the organelles. Herbalife’s Prolessa Duo, when used with the Formula One meal replacement shake, satiates hunger or controls appetite, and burns fat.
A noticeable body fat reduction has been seen in customers using Prolessa Duo within one month, with up to a 10 percent decrease in body fat within 3 months. Insulin instructs the liver to convert glucose to glycogen and inhibit conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose. Blockage can result from alcoholism, physical trauma to the area, gallstones, certain infections and as the resulting side effect of some drugs. If you eat sugar in the form of refined sugar as found in cakes, cookies, candy, pie and most prepared foods (high fructose corn syrup), you are eating sugar with no mineral content, and it is simply stored as fat. Without decomposers, organic material would accumulate, causing environmental degradation and later the death of living organisms. However, a consumer can participate in several different chains while not always belonging to the same consumer order in each of them.


On each following trophic level, part of the organic material is used in the metabolism of the individuals on the level, the other part is eliminated as waste and only a fraction is incorporated and becomes available as food for the following level. Once insulin is in the blood, it shuttles glucose (carbohydrates), amino acids, and blood fats into the cells of the body.
Mixed in water, it is a great snack on the go or for use after a workout to support your body’s recovery process. In many plant cells, a third layer called secondary cell wall, made up of lignin, is present between the primary cell wall and the cell membrane, and provides support, protection and rigidity to plant cells. Organelles are specialized membrane-bound structures present inside a eukaryotic cell, and have specific and precise roles in various cellular processes.
It comprises two layers of phospholipids arranged in such a way that their hydrophobic tails are on the inner side and the hydrophilic heads form the outer side. Although ribosome is not a membrane-bound structure it is considered to be an organelle owing to its size as well as functional importance. It is also the site for breakdown of proteins to get functionally active forms of the protein. The inner membrane contains numerous enzymes, and is the site for electron transport chain and ATP synthesis. It has no particular shape or size, and reduces or enlarges according to its contents and cellular needs. Dispersed into the stroma, a specialized network of membranes called thylakoids are organized into stacks called grana. This process of photosynthesis occurs through a set of light-dependent reactions that take place in the grana, and a set of dark (light-independent) reactions that occur in the stroma.
They are also a site for some of the reactions of photorespiration.A cell of a higher organism contains a thousand different substances, arranged in a complex system. Pancreatic amylase is used for digesting carbohydrates, and pancreatic lipase is used to digest fat. In other words, glucagon stimulates the body to release more sugar into the blood, and insulin stimulates it to stop the release of sugar into the blood. To use dry mass instead of fresh mass is useful because, among living organisms, there are differences related to the proportion of water within their body and such differences can distort the quantitative analysis of incorporated organic material.
Therefore, it is never possible to have energy pyramids with an inverted shape, that is, with the tip on the bottom and the base on the top.
Keep in mind that a low glycemic diet can result in better fasted insulin and glucose, but results have been mixed. It has our unique Tri-Sorb™ protein blend of highly absorbable proteins, fiber, calcium, vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes and more.
Prokaryotic organisms like bacteria and archaea lack a nucleus and the genetic matter floats freely within the cells.
Inside the nuclear envelope is present chromatin and nucleolus, which is composed of nucleic acids and certain proteins. The membranes that are arranged in the form of tubes are collectively termed smooth ER; whereas the ones arranged into flattened disc-like structures with ribosomes attached onto the surface are collectively called rough ER.
It is composed of two subunits which collectively form distinct binding and functional sites for tRNA molecules.
These are divided into four structural and functional components called cis-Golgi, medial-Golgi, endo-Golgi and trans-Golgi. These organelles are also known to harbor a set of proteins which when released into the cytoplasm lead to activation of the self-destructive processes of a cell. This great organized system was not discovered by chemical or physical methods; they are inadequate to its refinement and delicacy and complexity. Studies show that increased exposure of the ileum to nutrients produces weight loss and improved glycemic control, with improved appetite-reduction over time, suggesting that ileal break activation may achieve sustainable decreases in food consumption. Pancreatic juice also contains trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase, which are used to split proteins into amino acids. Thus insulin decreases the concentration of blood glucose (sugar) and it promotes transport of amino acids into cells (needed for tissue-building and repair). It is also not possible to have upper trophic levels with a variable dimension larger than inferior ones. This pathway can be thought of as comprising of three stages: 1) the conversion of glucose into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 2) the cleavage of the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into two three-carbon fragments and 3) the oxidation of the three-carbon fragments to pyruvate (with an ATP and NADH harvest).
The nuclear envelope has tiny pores called nuclear pores which allow the transport of molecules, especially regulatory macromolecules and gene products, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and vice versa. Lysosomes are polymorphic and exist as primary, secondary, autophagic and secretory lysosomes. Much new research is available on how ileal brake stimulation affects food intake, satiety, glycaemic control and weight loss.
Trypsin is secreted in an inactive form by the pancreas so digestion will not begin until the secretions have entered the small intestine, so enterokinase is released by the mucous cells in the small intestine to activate trypsin.
It also converts non-carbohydrates, such as amino acids, into glucose if too much protein is supplied or not enough sugar is supplied in the diet. They are not antagonist to each other, though; they work together to keep the glucose levels constant rather than allowing spikes, which could cause coma. In every energy pyramid, from the base to the top, the size of the variable dimension decreases. The activity of the pathway is regulated at key steps to ensure that glucose consumption and energy production match the needs of the cell.
Centrioles are cylinder-shaped structures made up of microtubules, and are arranged orthogonal to each other. The central crystalline core consists of a variety of enzymes that are essential for several metabolic activities of the cell.
The steps along the pathway each involve a change in the free energy of the products and reactants, and as long as the overall change in free energy is negative, the reaction continues forward, like water flowing down hill to its lowest energy point. Alpha cells will become overstimulated if the blood sugar gets too low because they are stimulated to release extra glucagon so the liver will produce glucose (sugar). Remember that all carbohydrates are sugar, so you do not have to eat sugar to initiate insulin release, but sugar-containing products like candy will surely initiate release as well. The key steps in the regulation of glycolysis, or any pathway, are those that catalyze the rate-limiting, irreversible steps along the pathway. It is not good to have high sugar concentrations in the blood (hyperglycemia), so insulin is released so the liver will convert the glucose to glycogen, the storable form of sugar. In glycolysis in mammals, the key regulatory enzyme is phosphofructokinase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting committed step. Phosphofructokinase is activated by AMP and inhibited by ATP, among other regulatory mechanisms. Thus, when ATP is low (and AMP is high), phosphofructokinase will be activated and generate more ATP.
As insulin levels decrease, the liver does not convert the glucose into glycogen for storage, and this leaves more glucose (sugar) available for nerve cells.
Similarly, when ATP is abundant, phosphofructokinase will be inhibited to prevent wasting glucose on making energy when it is not needed. BioVision has over 40 highly sensitive kits (both colorimetric and fluorometric) to analyze each of the byproducts of this very central pathway. This is why low blood sugar can cause you to become shaky and lose mental capabilities temporarily, or constantly if you don’t correct it. These assays are rapid and simple, high throughput adaptable, compatible with numerous sample types and can be used for diverse purposes like cancer research, cell signaling and carbohydrate metabolism research, enzymatic reactions and the study of the study of the Glyoxalase system. Thus weak beta cells would tend to indicate a high blood sugar level (not metabolizing, probably due to amylase deficiency or liver weakness, or you just eat too much sugar).



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