Enzymes in your digestive tract youtube,otc digestive enzyme supplements reviews,probiotic pentru candida bucala - Downloads 2016

Digestion begins in the mouth where chewing and saliva compact the food into a small bolus, and begin the breakdown of nutrients. In the stomach, muscle contractions mix the food with digestive enzymes and gastric acid to further breakdown the food into chyme. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled.
The primary purpose of the gastrointestinal tract is to break food down into nutrients, which can be absorbed into the body to provide energy.
In the case of gastrointestinal disease or disorders, these functions of the gastrointestinal tract are not achieved successfully. The gastrointestinal tract is a muscular tube lined by a special layer of cells, called epithelium. The innermost layer of the digestive tract has specialised epithelial cells supported by an underlying connective tissue layer called the lamina propria.
Areas such as the mouth and oesophagus are covered by a stratified squamous (flat) epithelium so they can survive the wear and tear of passing food. The submucosa surrounds the muscularis mucosa and consists of fat, fibrous connective tissue and larger vessels and nerves. This smooth muscle layer has inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle fibres separated by the myenteric plexus or Auerbach plexus. The outer layer of the GIT is formed by fat and another layer of epithelial cells called mesothelium. Insalivation refers to the mixing of the oral cavity contents with salivary gland secretions. The parotid glands are large, irregular shaped glands located under the skin on the side of the face. The sublinguals are the smallest salivary glands, covered by a thin layer of tissue at the floor of the mouth. The stomach is a J shaped expanded bag, located just left of the midline between the oesophagus and small intestine. Most of these functions are achieved by the secretion of stomach juices by gastric glands in the body and fundus. The lining of the small intestine is made up of numerous permanent folds called plicae circulares. The large intestine is horse-shoe shaped and extends around the small intestine like a frame. The caecum is the expanded pouch that receives material from the ileum and starts to compress food products into faecal material.
The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ situated in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The gallbladder is a hollow, pear shaped organ that sits in a depression on the posterior surface of the liver’s right lobe. It is made up of numerous acini (small glands) that secrete contents into ducts which eventually lead to the duodenum.
For information on nutrition, including information on types and composition of food, nutrition and people, conditions related to nutrition, and diets and recipes, as well as some useful videos and tools, see Nutrition.
For more information on stomach cancer, including different types of cancer affecting the stomach, see Stomach Cancer. About myVMCVirtual Medical Centre is Australia’s leading source for trustworthy medical information written by health professionals based on Australian guidelines. Please be aware that we do not give advice on your individual medical condition, if you want advice please see your treating physician.
13 Nerves Enteric nervous system: the guts own Visceral plexuses within gut wall controlling the muscles, glands and having sensory info Myenteric: in muscularis Submucosal 100 million neurons! This article looks at the digestive system anatomy so that you can better understand the process of the human digestive system. Once your stomach has finished processing the chyme, it slowly enters the next major organ of the digestive system anatomy, the small intestine.
The pancreas produces a wide range of enzymes that further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in your food. With the help of these digestive juices the chyme is broken down into smaller and smaller molecules and then finally absorbed into the circulatory system. The large intestine (and small intestine) is home to an amazing amount of bacteria that participate in further fermenting and breaking down your food. When researching for this article on the digestive system anatomy I ran into several references that amazingly still referred to the appendix as useless.
After the remaining nutrients and water are absorbed, the same peristalsis action that moved the food down your esophagus pipe now acts in the large intestine, moving it closer to the exit hole and creating the reflex to defecate. Diarrhea happens when the food is moved through the system too quickly and water is not properly absorbed. Although I have tried to mainly focus on the organs of the digestive system, ita€™s impossible to cut the human digestive system out of the body without at least acknowledging some other important roles. What's Your Herbal Constitution?Take my quiz to find out.It's part of my free Herbal Energetics course.Sign up on my newsletter to get started! Information found on this website is meant for educational purposes only.It is not meant to diagnose medical conditions, to treat any medical conditions or to prescribe medicine. The digestive systemThe digestive system carries out a vital role processing the food and drink we consume to fuel the body, and then it deals with the waste by-products.What is digestion? Similar to humans but unlike some other phylum, Chordates eat through ingestion rather than absorption. Your Amazing DuodenumPosted on 5 April 2014 by The Anti-Aging Guy • 0 CommentsThe duodenum is a relatively unknown part of your body that plays a critical role in the digestion process. Once the stomach has added its gastric juices and digestive enzymes, creating chyme, the contents are passed on to the duodenum.
The only real medical issue to affect the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer… a type of peptic ulcer. The food is swallowed in the throat, and then muscular waves called peristalsis move the food through the esophagus, and into the stomach.
In the duodenum, digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder are mixed with the food. The middle section of the small intestine, the jejunum, absorbs most of the nutrients from the chyme.
In the large intestine, water and salts are removed from the waste before being passed along to the rectum and anus, where the waste is expelled from the body. Extrinsic nerves controlled by the brain cause muscle contractions that push food along the digestive tract. There are various accessory organs that assist the tract by secreting enzymes to help break down food into its component nutrients. Patients may develop symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, malabsorption, constipation or obstruction. The contents of the tube are considered external to the body and are in continuity with the outside world at the mouth and the anus. The lamina propria contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphoid tissue and glands that support the mucosa.
Simple columnar (tall) or glandular epithelium lines the stomach and intestines to aid secretion and absorption. At its outer margin there is a specialized nerve plexus called the submucosal plexus or Meissner plexus.
Neural innervations control the contraction of these muscles and hence the mechanical breakdown and peristalsis of the food within the lumen. It is lined by a stratified squamous oral mucosa with keratin covering those areas subject to significant abrasion, such as the tongue, hard palate and roof of the mouth.
They are found in the floor of the mouth, in a groove along the inner surface of the mandible. They produce approximately 5% of the saliva and their secretions are very sticky due to the large concentration of mucin. It extends from the pharynx to the stomach after passing through an opening in the diaphragm. It is divided into four main regions and has two borders called the greater and lesser curvatures.
Some cells are responsible for secreting acid and others secrete enzymes to break down proteins. It averages approximately 6m in length, extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the ileo-caecal valve separating the ileum from the caecum.
The duodenum serves a mixing function as it combines digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver with the contents expelled from the stomach. Partly digested food from the stomach is further broken down by enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the liver and gallbladder. Each plica has numerous villi (folds of mucosa) and each villus is covered by epithelium with projecting microvilli (brush border).
It consists of the appendix, caecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. It is surrounded by a strong capsule and divided into four lobes namely the right, left, caudate and quadrate lobes. 2 The GI tract (gastrointestinal tract) The muscular alimentary canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine. The smells and sights of delicious food can start the digestive process by promoting salivation and other digestive enzymes.


When you start to eat, especially if there are bitter tastes in your food, the liver produces bile and the gallbladder squeezes out bile through ducts that enter into the small intestine.
As your food changes into smaller and smaller molecules with the help of these various digestive juices it becomes ready for absorption through the small intestine.
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and adipose of the body, while extra water-soluble vitamins are excreted through the urine.
As the name suggests, the ascending colon literally travels up your right side before becoming the horizontal transverse colon, and then finally the sigmoid portion which travels down and ends at the anus.
All that remains is some water, indigestible food, bacteria, products of bacterial decomposition, and inorganic salts. The nervous system, hormones, and the circulatory system administer different actions in harmony with the digestive system, leading to the stimulation of digestive juices, reflexes to keep things moving, and then carrying the digested nutrients to the various parts of the body. Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into the energy you need to survive and the nutrients you need for growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues. The small intestine is relatively uncoiled but has several short transverse loops tightly enveloped by dorsal mesentery. When a rabbit eats, the food travels from the mouth, down the oesophagus, into the stomach, and on to the small intestine.
The duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 10 – 15 inches long connecting the stomach to the jejunum, the next section of the small intestine. Once received, the duodenum signals the liver and the gallbladder to deliver bile and the pancreas to produce pancreatic enzymes. This is caused by the walls of the lining of the duodenum being eroded by the stomach acids that pass through it on a regular basis. Think about the orchestration of so many things that occur without thought in something as small as the duodenum. The digestive system is a series of tubes and organs connecting from the mouth at one end, to the anus at the other end. Thus the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder have important functions in the digestive system. Secondly, digestion occurs mainly in the stomach and small intestine where proteins, fats and carbohydrates are chemically broken down into their basic building blocks. Gastrointestinal problems are very common and most people will have experienced some of the above symptoms several times throughout their lives. Although each section of the tract has specialised functions, the entire tract has a similar basic structure with regional variations. Depending on its function, the epithelium may be simple (a single layer) or stratified (multiple layers). The inner lining is constantly shed and replaced, making it one of the most rapidly dividing areas of the body! Mastication refers to the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and chopping actions of the teeth.
They are situated below the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) and cover part of the mandible (lower jaw bone).
These glands produce a more viscid (thick) secretion, rich in mucin and with a smaller amount of protein.
The wall of the oesophagus is made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle that are supplied by the oesophageal nerve plexus. The first section is the cardia which surrounds the cardial orifice where the oesophagus enters the stomach. The small intestine is compressed into numerous folds and occupies a large proportion of the abdominal cavity. The wall of the colon is made up of several pouches (haustra) that are held under tension by three thick bands of muscle (taenia coli).
Numerous goblet cells line the glands that secrete mucous to lubricate faecal matter as it solidifies. The organ is approximately 15cm in length with a long, slender body connecting the head and tail segments. The digestive system continues with the voluntary action of the intake, chewing, and swallowing of food.
This hollow organ is an average of 22 feet long in an adult and is from 1.5 to 2 inches wide.
In view of this anatomy, it makes sitting on a toilet to defecate a very unnatural phenomenon because it forces your body to work against gravity. Herbalist Jim McDonald says therea€™s research showing it may also repopulate the bowel with healthy bacteria after it has been purged. Astringents like blackberry and raspberry leaves can be taken to tone the tissue for better absorption, although for the most part ita€™s a good idea to initially let your body expel whatever it is trying to get rid of. The digestion process also creates waste that has to be eliminated.The digestive tract (or gut) is a long twisting tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. The digestion process also creates waste that has to be eliminated.The digestive tract (or gut) is a long twisting tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is the next stage into which food digested by the stomach passes… the first of three sections of the small intestine.
Despite being the shortest part of the small intestine, it is where most of your chemical digestion takes place. The main parts of the digestive system are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon, rectum, and anus. Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids are absorbed into capillaries, while fats are absorbed into the lymph vessels. Intrinsic nerves within the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine react when their walls are stretched by food. Food is propelled along the length of the GIT by peristaltic movements of the muscular walls. Smaller molecules are then absorbed across the epithelium of the small intestine and subsequently enter the circulation.
The tongue, a strong muscular organ, manipulates the food bolus to come in contact with the teeth. The enzyme serum amylase, a component of saliva, starts the process of digestion of complex carbohydrates.
The fundus is the superior, dilated portion of the stomach that has contact with the left dome of the diaphragm. The inner surface of the stomach is contracted into numerous longitudinal folds called rugae.
After further digestion, food constituents such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are broken down to small building blocks and absorbed into the body’s blood stream.
Pancreatic enzymes include carbohydrases, lipases, nucleases and proteolytic enzymes that can break down different components of food.
Normally your salivary glands produce just enough saliva to keep your mouth moist but, even before the food hits your tongue, your salivary glands are hopefully secreting extra saliva. It stores consumed food and liquid, it mixes this with gastric juices to further break it down into a liquid and, lastly, it slowly empties the food (now called chyme) into the small intestine (which is by no means small by the way).
The small intestine is covered in a mucosal lining along with small villi that all help to absorb the nutrients that will be assimilable by the body with the help of several digestive juices from the liver, pancreas, and the small intestine. Squatting while doing your duty on the toilet arranges your large intestine in a way that facilitates defecation. It is made up of a series of muscles in its wall that coordinate the movement of food and of other cells in its lining that produce enzymes and hormones to aid in the breakdown of food. The large intestine is relatively wide and is separated from the cloaca by a distinct fold. As food travels along it, enzymes break the food down into individual nutrients that are small enough to pass through the lining of the intestine and be absorbed into the blood stream.
Instructing the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas when to secrete their juices essential to the continuation of the digestion process. The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing the nutrients, and removing the waste.
Nutrients from the digestive system help build and repair tissues, provide heat and energy, and regulate body processes.
They cause the release of substances that speed up or slow down the movement of food, and the production of juices, by the digestive organs.
This comprises layers of smooth muscle which can contract to change the shape of the lumen. It is also the sensing organ of the mouth for touch, temperature and taste using its specialised sensors known as papillae.
The final function of the oral cavity is absorption of small molecules such as glucose and water, across the mucosa. The final portion, the ileum, is the longest segment and empties into the caecum at the ileocaecal junction. Some are responsible for absorption, whilst others secrete digestive enzymes and mucous to protect the intestinal lining from digestive actions. About 1 to 3 pints of saliva a day is produced in the mouth; you can have too much or too little.
The stomach is lined with mucosa that helps to protect it from the intense acids it produces to break down food. If you look around the world, squatting is much more common than our more modern, and supposedly superior, porcelain thrones. Carminatives such as mints, fennel, chamomile, cardamom, and thyme are aromatic herbs that help to expel gas.


Constipation, on the other hand, is when the fecal matter stays in the large intestine too long. Finally, undigested material and secreted waste products are excreted from the body via defecation (passing of faeces). From the mouth, food passes through the pharynx and oesophagus via the action of swallowing. This occurs due to nerve signals that tell the salivary glands to secrete saliva to prepare and moisten the mouth. Immunoglobins are secreted help to fight microorganisms and a-amylase proteins start to break down complex carbohydrates. In addition, the liver has synthetic functions, producing albumin and blood clotting factors.
The Islets produce insulin, glucagon and other substances and these are the areas damaged in diabetes mellitus. Saliva is mostly made up of water but also includes special enzymes used to break down starches and sugars. This specialized mucosa does not allow for much absorption of nutrients although it does break down some water, some electrolytes, certain drugs (especially aspirin), and alcohol.
Most commonly, this can happen from both hyper or hypo tonic tissue, lack of fiber in the diet, dehydration, lack of exercise, or excess mucous. The smell of food triggers the salivary glands in your mouth to secrete saliva, causing your mouth to water.
However, its main roles in digestion are in the production of bile and metabolism of nutrients. Bile is released from the gall bladder by contraction of its muscular walls in response to hormone signals from the duodenum in the presence of food. The exocrine (secretrory) portion makes up 80-85% of the pancreas and is the area relevant to the gastrointestinal tract.
Addressing these issues is much more effective in the long run than laxatives, herbal or otherwise.
When you actually taste the food, the flow of saliva increases.Chewing begins the process of breaking the food down into pieces small enough to be digested, and saliva moistens the food to make it easier to swallow.
The left over indigestible fibre doesn’t contain any useable nutrients, but it is still essential to the digestive process, as it has helped carry the food through the digestive system. All nutrients absorbed by the intestines pass through the liver and are processed before traveling to the rest of the body. When inflamed due to chronic inflammatory processes (Crohna€™s disease, celiac disease or ulcers), or acute inflammation (diarrhea, heartburn), demulcent herbs such as marshmallow root and slippery elm can be used to soothe the irritated tissue. Bacteria can become easily imbalanced with the use of antibiotics, diarrhea, poor food choices such as an abundance of sugar, and extreme colon cleansing programs. David Winston recommends that optimal transit time, the time food enters your mouth to the time it leaves your body, is around 12 to 24 hours. Chewing or mastication is a very important first step in changing the food into smaller molecules.
How much time your food stays in the stomach depends a lot on the type of food that you ate.
Traditional cultures around the world ate small amounts of fermented foods with every meal. To determine your transit time eat a nice serving of cooked beets and then record the time until you notice them on the other end.
Branching off the pharynx is the oesophagus that carries food to the stomach, and the trachea (windpipe) that carries air to the lungs.The act of swallowing takes place in the pharynx partly as a reflex and partly under voluntary control.
Branching off the pharynx is the oesophagus that carries food to the stomach, and the trachea ( windpipe) that carries air to the lungs.The act of swallowing takes place in the pharynx partly as a reflex and partly under voluntary control.
The caecum can absorb some of the nutrients but most need to go back through the small intestine to be absorbed. Here, bile salts break down lipids into smaller particles so there is a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to act.
It also allows for the mixing of saliva with the food to further break down starches and sugars.
Carbohydrate digestion is really fast and carbs stay in the stomach for the least amount of time, followed by proteins, and then fats.
The tongue and soft palate -- the soft part of the roof of the mouth -- push food into the pharynx, which closes off the trachea. Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that vary in function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater. To achieve this, the fermented fibre moves back into the colon, where it is coated in protective mucus, before being excreted from the body as special droppings, called cecal droppings.
Besides saliva, your tongue, teeth, and gums all play an important role in this mastication process. Knowing how fast your body metabolizes food is part of what can help you to determine which foods work best for you. Some examples of fermented foods are kim chee, sauerkraut, miso, kefir, beet kvass and many more. The food then enters the oesophagus.The oesophagus is a muscular tube extending from the pharynx behind the trachea to the stomach. The rabbit eats these droppings (a process called cacography) so they pass through the digestive tract again. Once youa€™ve swallowed your hopefully well-chewed food (called the bolus), it enters the esophagus. For example, if your body has a fast metabolism, eating too many carbohydrates can leave you with frequent hunger and on a roller coaster of fluctuating energy. Food is pushed through the oesophagus and into the stomach by means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis.Just before the opening to the stomach is an important ring-shaped muscle called the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS).
The esophagus is lined with muscles and the involuntary muscle action of peristalsis helps to move the food down to your stomach. If, on the other hand, you have a slower metabolism, eating too much fat can leave you feeling too full and heavy long after youa€™ve eaten. This means that you could hypothetically eat while standing on your head, although such an action is not advised or endorsed by this author. At the bottom of the esophagus is the lower esophageal sphincter, which is a ring-like muscle that creates a barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. The stomach secretes acid and powerful enzymes that continue the process of breaking the food down and changing it to a consistency of liquid or paste. This sphincter relaxes when food enters the stomach, and tightens up again once the food has passed. Problems arise when this sphincter remains relaxed, allowing for the gastric juices of the stomach to rise into the esophagus, creating what you think would be called esophageal burn but, instead, somebody named it heartburn, overlooking the fact it has nothing to do with your heart.
Peristalsis is also at work here, moving food through the small intestine and mixing it up with the digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver, including bile. The duodenum is largely responsible for continuing the process of nutrient breakdown or digestion, with the jejunum and ileum being mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream.These processes are highly dependent on the activity of a large network of nerves, hormones, and muscles.
Taking antacids may alleviate the pain for the time being but it also severely hampers digestion, creating even more problems down the line.
Problems with any of these components can cause a variety of conditions.While food is in the small intestine, nutrients are absorbed through the walls and into the bloodstream. What's leftover (the waste) moves into the large intestine (large bowel or colon).Everything above the large intestine is called the upper GI tract. Everything below is the lower GI tractStop 4: The colon, rectum, and anusThe colon (large intestine) is a one and a half to two metre (five to seven foot) long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum.
It is made up of the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The large intestine is a highly specialised organ that is responsible for processing waste so that defaecation (excretion of waste) is easy and convenient.Stool, or faeces - the waste left over from the digestive process - passes through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in solid form. Stool is stored in the sigmoid (S-shaped) colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum, usually once or twice a day.It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesising various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria.
When the descending colon becomes full of stool it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination.The rectum is a 20 cm (eight inch) chamber that connects the colon to the anus. If the contents cannot be expelled, the sphincters contract and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.The anus is the last part of the digestive system. It consists of the muscles that line the pelvis (pelvic floor muscles) and two other muscles called anal sphincters (internal and external).The pelvic floor muscles create an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.
These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates.LiverThe liver has multiple functions, but two of its main functions within the digestive system are to make and secrete an important substance called bile and to process the blood coming from the small intestine containing the nutrients just absorbed. The liver purifies this blood of many impurities before it travels to the rest of the body.Gall bladderThe gall bladder is a storage sac for excess bile.
If the intestine doesn't need it, the bile travels into the gallbladder where it awaits the signal from the intestines that food is present.Bile serves two main purposes.



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