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For the first two weeks of a calf’s life it is a monogastric – or simple–stomached – animal, using only using the abomasum to digest the milk or milk replacer.
When a calf drinks milk, it passes over the rumen to the abomasum via the esophageal groove. Prior to weaning the rumen must develop to be able to absorb and metabolize volatile fatty acids (VFA). A calf is born with an esophageal groove, which consists of muscular folds from the reticulorumen that come together to by–pass the rumen, reticulum and omasum through to the abomasum when the calf drinks milk.
When a calf drinks milk or a milk replacer based from skim milk, it goes into the abomasum. All logos are trademarks of Veal Farmers of Ontario and may not be used without permission.
To begin with this topic it is important to know what a mammal is.The following link gives you a good introduction to what a mammal is.


The muscular layer is responsible for rumen contractions and gives support to the epithelial layer, which in turn provides absorption. Calves that do not eat dry feed – like milk fed veal – will not develop a functional rumen. The rumen is constantly growing and changing, as the calf becomes a ruminant, and by three to four months of age, the rumen makes up 65 per cent of capacity. Within ten minutes, the milk forms a clot in the abomasum from the coagulation of milk protein or casein, the enzymes rennin and pepsin, and the hydrochloric acid in the abomasum. By the time the calf is three to four months old, the abomasum makes up 20 per cent of the capacity, and as the animal matures, that shrinks to only 8 per cent of the stomach capacity. The end products of rumen fermentation, particularly propionate and butyrate acid, provide the stimulus needed for development of the epithelial layer.
It is the grain that develops the rumen and allows the calf to transition from a milk–based to a corn–based diet.


This weakens the clot that is formed and the calf will not digest the milk as well as it should.
Other milk components, primarily whey proteins, lactose and most minerals separate from the curd and rapidly pass into the small intestine (as much as 200 ml per hour). The lactose is digested quickly and, in contrast to casein and fat, provides immediate energy to the calf.
Respiration later down the page will go into more detail but the basic respiration idea is that cells need food, oxygen and waste removed.
Herbivores need to break down the tough cellulose cell wall of the plant to access the available energy.



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