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Figure 1: Quantitative base-induced DNA cleavage (QBIC) is a technique that allows DNA to be cleaved at any thymine site.
Genetic engineering of plants, animals and microorganisms such as bacteria typically involves the use of restriction enzymes to 'cut and paste' DNA fragments into certain genetic sequence locations. A research team led by Hiroki Ueda and colleagues from the Laboratory for Synthetic Biology at the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center has now developed a chemical-based, non-enzymatic recombination technique that instead uses a DNA base analogue called 5-ethynyluracil to cleave DNA at any site containing the nucleotide thymine. The technique developed by Ueda and his co-workers, which is called quantitative base-induced DNA cleavage (QBIC), starts with the generation of DNA fragments containing 5-ethynyluracil in place of thyminea€”two molecules with similar structures. Another potential boon of the QBIC method is that it is less sensitive to laboratory conditions than enzyme-based techniques and can be run at room temperature.
Better tools for manipulating DNA in the laboratory may soon be possible with newly discovered deoxyribozymes (catalytic DNA) capable of cleaving single-stranded DNA, researchers at the University of Illinois say. A new, streamlined approach to genetic engineering drastically reduces the time and effort needed to insert new genes into bacteria, the workhorses of biotechnology, scientists are reporting. A new method of manufacturing short, single-stranded DNA molecules can solve many of the problems associated with current production methods. Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have engineered a bacterium whose genetic material includes an added pair of DNA "letters," or bases, not found in nature. Researchers at the Stowers Institute have established a definitive link between the makeup of the microbiome, the host immune response, and an organism's ability to heal itself.
Using maths previously applied to traffic jams and electrical grids, researchers have developed a new method to map signal propagation in proteins. Among bacteria, the spirochetes are characterized by their spiral shape and remarkable lengtha€”as much 50 times longer than most other bacteria. This process allows scientists to introduce new genes into an organism, but is constrained to specific recognition sequences, limiting the design of recombinant DNA molecules. These products are then immersed in an aqueous solution containing methylamine, a derivative of ammonia. Being a chemical method, it is also generally cheaper to perform than enzyme-based methods. In this chemical bath, all the nucleotides containing 5-ethynyluracil become cleaved, introducing gaps near the cleaved ends. One limitation of the QBIC method in its present form is that long stretches of DNA can lose their structure after treatment with the methylamine solution, which prevents the two-stranded, helical shape from being restored. The gaps in the resulting DNA fragments create protruding ends that can be inserted into circular DNA molecules known as plasmids.
Ueda's team is now refining the protocol to extend its ability to handle longer DNA fragments.
The plasmids can then be inserted into the target organism, such as a bacterial cell, to complete the genetic engineering process.

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