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La bile s'ecoule dans un petit tuyau (qui peut se boucher) et se verse dans le debut de l'intestin qu'on appelle le duodenum. Foodstuffs flowing into the small intestine consist mostly of large macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides and triglyceride) that must be digested into small molecules (amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids) in order to be absorbed.
The most potent stimuli for secretion of cholecystokinin are the presence of partially-digested fats and proteins in the lumen of the duodenum (a particularly potent stimulus is pictured above). Pancreatic enzymes and bile flow through ducts into the duodenum, leading to digestion and absorption of the very molecules that stimulate cholecystokinin secretion.
Injection of cholecystokinin into the ventricles of the brain induces satiety (lack of hunger) in laboratory animals. In addition to its synthesis in small intestinal epithelial cells, cholecystokinin has been clearly demonstrated in neurons within the wall of the intestine and in many areas of the brain. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of a hollow muscular tube starting from the oral cavity, where food enters the mouth, continuing through the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestines to the rectum and anus, where food is expelled. The primary purpose of the gastrointestinal tract is to break food down into nutrients, which can be absorbed into the body to provide energy. In the case of gastrointestinal disease or disorders, these functions of the gastrointestinal tract are not achieved successfully. The gastrointestinal tract is a muscular tube lined by a special layer of cells, called epithelium. The innermost layer of the digestive tract has specialised epithelial cells supported by an underlying connective tissue layer called the lamina propria. Areas such as the mouth and oesophagus are covered by a stratified squamous (flat) epithelium so they can survive the wear and tear of passing food. The submucosa surrounds the muscularis mucosa and consists of fat, fibrous connective tissue and larger vessels and nerves.
This smooth muscle layer has inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle fibres separated by the myenteric plexus or Auerbach plexus. The outer layer of the GIT is formed by fat and another layer of epithelial cells called mesothelium. Insalivation refers to the mixing of the oral cavity contents with salivary gland secretions. The parotid glands are large, irregular shaped glands located under the skin on the side of the face.
The sublinguals are the smallest salivary glands, covered by a thin layer of tissue at the floor of the mouth.
The stomach is a J shaped expanded bag, located just left of the midline between the oesophagus and small intestine. Most of these functions are achieved by the secretion of stomach juices by gastric glands in the body and fundus. The lining of the small intestine is made up of numerous permanent folds called plicae circulares.
The large intestine is horse-shoe shaped and extends around the small intestine like a frame. The caecum is the expanded pouch that receives material from the ileum and starts to compress food products into faecal material. The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ situated in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
The gallbladder is a hollow, pear shaped organ that sits in a depression on the posterior surface of the liver’s right lobe.
It is made up of numerous acini (small glands) that secrete contents into ducts which eventually lead to the duodenum. For information on nutrition, including information on types and composition of food, nutrition and people, conditions related to nutrition, and diets and recipes, as well as some useful videos and tools, see Nutrition. For more information on stomach cancer, including different types of cancer affecting the stomach, see Stomach Cancer. About myVMCVirtual Medical Centre is Australia’s leading source for trustworthy medical information written by health professionals based on Australian guidelines. Please be aware that we do not give advice on your individual medical condition, if you want advice please see your treating physician.
Noter les nombreux acinus (exocrines) A  gauche et un ilot de Langerhans (endocrine) A  droite. 13 Nerves Enteric nervous system: the guts own Visceral plexuses within gut wall controlling the muscles, glands and having sensory info Myenteric: in muscularis Submucosal 100 million neurons!
Salt therapy works well as a preventative, we are constantly breathing in pollutants and allergens which can irritate the lungs with Cystic Fibrosis.
The best salt therapy results for CF is to include as part of your lung maintenance program. Check out our prices   If you’re new to salt therapy and just want to try it out our introductory offer is a great way to experience the wonderful world of salt therapy. Salt therapy is a non medical, complementary treatment which has no side effects when used with your normal medication. We’ve got you covered with our salt therapy at home salt therapy products and salt lamps that bring salt therapy to you.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, genetically acquired chronic disease that predominately affects the lungs and digestive system.   Babies are born with CF and complications increase with age. Cystic fibrosis affects tissues that produce mucus secretions including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts of the liver and the male urogenital tract.


I was suffering with chronic sinusitis I went to the Salt Spot and within a couple of days could feel the improvement in my breathing and clearing of my head.
I was having sleepless nights, breathing difficulties and generally a feeling of unwell I had been feeling like this for about 8 weeks. Within a couple of visits to the Salt Spot my head and sinuses had cleared and I now have a feeling of well being and calmness. I look forward to my visits, as I always feel like I have been on a holiday or to the beach. I was under a lot of stress in my life and my time at the salt spot has reduced my anxiety greatly. A Flue-free Winter By nature I am a sceptic and am very careful what I do, I have found the Salt Spot, energising and uplifting and without hesitation if I was unwell with the flu or a virus I would do another 12 weeks course at the Salt Spot.
I have for the first time I can remember had a flu free winter, and I attribute this to the Salt Spot. I would like to say that since I have been going to Salt Therapy (about 7 months) my health issues have done a 180 degree turn-around.
There are various accessory organs that assist the tract by secreting enzymes to help break down food into its component nutrients. Patients may develop symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, malabsorption, constipation or obstruction.
The contents of the tube are considered external to the body and are in continuity with the outside world at the mouth and the anus.
The lamina propria contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphoid tissue and glands that support the mucosa. Simple columnar (tall) or glandular epithelium lines the stomach and intestines to aid secretion and absorption.
At its outer margin there is a specialized nerve plexus called the submucosal plexus or Meissner plexus.
Neural innervations control the contraction of these muscles and hence the mechanical breakdown and peristalsis of the food within the lumen.
It is lined by a stratified squamous oral mucosa with keratin covering those areas subject to significant abrasion, such as the tongue, hard palate and roof of the mouth. They are found in the floor of the mouth, in a groove along the inner surface of the mandible. They produce approximately 5% of the saliva and their secretions are very sticky due to the large concentration of mucin.
It extends from the pharynx to the stomach after passing through an opening in the diaphragm. It is divided into four main regions and has two borders called the greater and lesser curvatures. Some cells are responsible for secreting acid and others secrete enzymes to break down proteins.
It averages approximately 6m in length, extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the ileo-caecal valve separating the ileum from the caecum. The duodenum serves a mixing function as it combines digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver with the contents expelled from the stomach. Partly digested food from the stomach is further broken down by enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the liver and gallbladder. Each plica has numerous villi (folds of mucosa) and each villus is covered by epithelium with projecting microvilli (brush border).
It consists of the appendix, caecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. It is surrounded by a strong capsule and divided into four lobes namely the right, left, caudate and quadrate lobes.
2 The GI tract (gastrointestinal tract) The muscular alimentary canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine. The natural anti-bacterial and anti fungal properties  help remove any pollutants or allergens that we are constantly breathing in from our environment, which can cause irritation in the lungs and a persistent cough. It impacts the body’s epithelial cells lining the lungs, pancreas, liver, digestive tract and reproductive system. While mucus usually protects tissues from harm, this abnormally thick mucus obstructs the ducts and airways causing damage to the tissues. After our 3rd visit, we stopped using the ventolin as his breathing improved dramatically (very noticeable at night when he is sleeping). Thus the salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder have important functions in the digestive system. Secondly, digestion occurs mainly in the stomach and small intestine where proteins, fats and carbohydrates are chemically broken down into their basic building blocks. Gastrointestinal problems are very common and most people will have experienced some of the above symptoms several times throughout their lives. Although each section of the tract has specialised functions, the entire tract has a similar basic structure with regional variations.
Depending on its function, the epithelium may be simple (a single layer) or stratified (multiple layers). The inner lining is constantly shed and replaced, making it one of the most rapidly dividing areas of the body!
Mastication refers to the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing and chopping actions of the teeth.


They are situated below the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) and cover part of the mandible (lower jaw bone). These glands produce a more viscid (thick) secretion, rich in mucin and with a smaller amount of protein.
The wall of the oesophagus is made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle that are supplied by the oesophageal nerve plexus. The first section is the cardia which surrounds the cardial orifice where the oesophagus enters the stomach. The small intestine is compressed into numerous folds and occupies a large proportion of the abdominal cavity.
The wall of the colon is made up of several pouches (haustra) that are held under tension by three thick bands of muscle (taenia coli). Numerous goblet cells line the glands that secrete mucous to lubricate faecal matter as it solidifies. The organ is approximately 15cm in length with a long, slender body connecting the head and tail segments. Le biochimiste canadien James Bertram Collip la purifia pour ensuite A?tre en mesure de l'injecter A  l'A?tre humain. This year we have been able to treat the symptoms more effectively through salt therapy at The Salt Spot.
Food is propelled along the length of the GIT by peristaltic movements of the muscular walls.
Smaller molecules are then absorbed across the epithelium of the small intestine and subsequently enter the circulation. The tongue, a strong muscular organ, manipulates the food bolus to come in contact with the teeth. The enzyme serum amylase, a component of saliva, starts the process of digestion of complex carbohydrates. The fundus is the superior, dilated portion of the stomach that has contact with the left dome of the diaphragm. The inner surface of the stomach is contracted into numerous longitudinal folds called rugae.
After further digestion, food constituents such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are broken down to small building blocks and absorbed into the body’s blood stream. Pancreatic enzymes include carbohydrases, lipases, nucleases and proteolytic enzymes that can break down different components of food.
In the lungs the thick mucus clogs the respiratory system and allows bacteria and viral infections to grow. This comprises layers of smooth muscle which can contract to change the shape of the lumen.
It is also the sensing organ of the mouth for touch, temperature and taste using its specialised sensors known as papillae. The final function of the oral cavity is absorption of small molecules such as glucose and water, across the mucosa.
The final portion, the ileum, is the longest segment and empties into the caecum at the ileocaecal junction. Some are responsible for absorption, whilst others secrete digestive enzymes and mucous to protect the intestinal lining from digestive actions.
Finally, undigested material and secreted waste products are excreted from the body via defecation (passing of faeces).
From the mouth, food passes through the pharynx and oesophagus via the action of swallowing.
This occurs due to nerve signals that tell the salivary glands to secrete saliva to prepare and moisten the mouth.
Immunoglobins are secreted help to fight microorganisms and a-amylase proteins start to break down complex carbohydrates. In addition, the liver has synthetic functions, producing albumin and blood clotting factors. The Islets produce insulin, glucagon and other substances and these are the areas damaged in diabetes mellitus. Thank you Penny for bringing this into my life and for being such a warm knowledgeable lady. However, its main roles in digestion are in the production of bile and metabolism of nutrients. Bile is released from the gall bladder by contraction of its muscular walls in response to hormone signals from the duodenum in the presence of food. The exocrine (secretrory) portion makes up 80-85% of the pancreas and is the area relevant to the gastrointestinal tract. All nutrients absorbed by the intestines pass through the liver and are processed before traveling to the rest of the body. Here, bile salts break down lipids into smaller particles so there is a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to act.



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