Digestive enzymes human biology 0610,mercola probiotics for pets review questions,digestive enzyme sources,digestive enzymes chemist warehouse jobs - 2016 Feature

The diagram to the left is of the alimentary canal also known as the digestive tract and also shows other organs of the digestive system like the liver. After being swallowed, the food travels down the Oesophagus or esophagus, this is continually being damaged by the friction of food, so the epithelium is a few cells thick and secretes mucas to lubricate the food's passage.
The next place it enters is the stomach this is a temporary store, mixes the contents up and also is the site for a bit of digestion.
Enzymes are sensitive to temperature and pH, these must be at an optimum level so they work best. Below is a digram of the human gut wall, on the right are labelled the different layers that exist.
The first actual layer is the mucosa, it has a layer of epithelium, made of epithelial cells, which have projections called villi. Below this is a muscle layer, known scientifically as the muscularis externa, it is reponsible for peristalsis which moves food through the digestive tract. In the diagram you should also notice the capillaries, part of the blood network which takes absorbed food away. By the time everything reaches here, the food has been digested into small enough particles that it can pass through the alimentary tract lining and be absorbed into the blood. The food products pass into the blood stream through villi: these are small foldings of the small intestine that cover on its internal surface. The villi on their own increase the surface area, but the cells which make up the surface of the villus have their own small projections called microvilli (see diagram) these further increase the surface area which means that the digestion products can be absorbed more quickly.
The villus has a supply of blood vessels this means substances absorbed can be transported to where they are needed more directly. Triglycerides are a type of lipid; here you will learn how the body breaks down this molecule. Digestion begins in the duodenum where bile enters from the liver, bile salts make the big blobs of fat into small micelle droplets which massively increases the surface area and makes digestion much easier.
Also in the duodenum, pancreatic lipase this breaks the triglyceride into fatty acid and glycerol. These resynthesised lipids make proteins called chylomicrons, these enter the lacteals and travel through the lymphatic system, making it milky.
On our second meeting we tried to refine the ideas and come up with more possible projects. The plan was to tell children about the functions of specific sections of DNA – promoters, ribosome binding sites etc., and create a simple game which could enhance their understanding of genetics.
For the NSEW event we decided to use a poster and instructional cards to aid in our ability to help children understand the functions of different segments of DNA.
At this meeting we discussed the idea of using apoptosis as a means of drug delivery and thus using the cell as a factory for drug creation. For our next meeting we decided to do some research into whether the pump we required existed and what restrictions it would place on the drug's molecular structure. We discussed the possibility of modifying our project -"drug delivery to the gut using bacteria" to make the bacteria produce another drug or a protein which could potentially treat or cure another disease. We also considered exploring prokaryotic cell death signals because apoptosis, one of our original kill switch ideas, does not occur within prokaryotic cells. In our last meeting before summer we explored the possibility of making bacteria secrete other substances in the gut which could enhance immunity – or perhaps create a kill switch in the bacteria which could have various applications in drug delivery.
We did some research into antimicrobial peptides and decided that our project would be to create a ‘kill switch’ where we would insert a gene (protegrin-1) coding for antimicrobial peptides (AMP’s) into E. We made sure that we all knew the iGEM 2011 Judging Criteria and recorded all deadlines posted on the iGEM website on our team board. The lab team familiarized themselves with the lab where we would be carrying out our experiments over the summer and we did some simple lab chores such as autoclaving various jars and bottles, preparing Luria broth for plating and storage and learning about different lab procedures necessary for our experiments.
Max began work on the St Andrews team wiki, while Christina began creating a list of an assortment of labs and companies that we could contact for sponsorship. Charlie began work on the Project Description while Sam and Max continued work on the team wiki. Charlie and Ogaga began researching various constitutive and positive promoters, in order to complete our basic biobrick sequence. We booked the flights and taxis for the trip to Norwich and created a St Andrews iGEM Gmail, Facebook, Flickr and Twitter accounts.
The lab team re-did the gel electrophoresis which had previously shown no DNA present, with a smaller time gap between preparing the gel and running the DNA on it. Christina and Lamya continued emailing and calling sponsors while Max continued structuring the team wiki.
The team discussed and researched conjugation and drug-delivery as potential applications of our project. Later on we brainstormed ideas for our human practices project and discussed some potential questions that could be addressed. As a part of our human practices project, the team decided to explore the possibility of conducting a meta analysis on the data provided by the human practices projects of previous iGEM teams, in order to find some correlations between the projects of different universities around the world. Sam, Ogaga and Lamya collated the data for all the 2010 human practices projects and ran some basic statistical analysis tests.
We prepared and practiced the presentation we planned to give at the UK iGEM Meet-up in Norwich on Monday. The team discussed further potential ideas for the human practices component of our project, and we agreed on an innovative project to hold a debate at the World Schools Debating Championships, being held 20 minutes away in Dundee in 3 weeks time. We spent the morning discussing our time in Norwich, the lessons learnt and their possible applications in relation to our project.
The team made plans for the debate and focused on planning the experiments for our Drug Delivery Proof and checking the viability of conjugation based on our available time and team size. We brainstormed some more on our human practices project focusing the the idea of a review of past iGEM teams, rather than simply their HP projects. We got DNA that we had ordered from iGEM, as well as our sequenced Biobrick DNA from DNA 2.0. The modelling team looked through KEGG to see the pathways that are affected by arabinose in the cell. The PCR failed as the tubes opened up twice, which caused one of the tube's DNA to evaporate, however the other tube was saved.
Sam worked on a ligation experiment that involved running several ligations for different lengths of time. We ran a gel of the ligate and discovered that it had not worked due to the fact that we didn’t digest the DNA for sticky ends!
Charlie transformed the GFP biobrick (I20260), the terminator (B0015), and the backbone (J04450).
Charlie transformed the backbone J04450 again because it failed, and made overnights for the arabinose test to be re-done tomorrow, but this time with L-Arabinose.
The modelling team ran through a variety of variables to see which would be the best set to utilise in our system and have narrowed down translation and degradation for PG-1.
The modelling decided upon a translation rate and degradation rate that is suitable for our system.


We received some PSB1C3 backbone from Glasgow, as our supplies were running low and PCRing some more was becoming problematic.
We found colonies today on the plates from our transformations but went on to discover that the ligation must have failed because the colonies were pink.
Charlie ran another characterisation experiment using Baclight dye and a microplate reader.
Charlie ran another characterisation experiment today using Baclight dye and a microplate reader but with a different protocol. The large intestine moves the material that has not been digested from the small intestine and absorbs water.
Eating pineapple is good for your body– eating a few slices of fresh pineapple a day can defend your body from harmful free radicals and disease.
The enzyme Bromelain found in a pineapple helps to digest food by breaking down the protein particles within it and clean blood by removing debris and toxins from the blood stream. Increasing your daily intake of antioxidants is also great for boosting your immune system. Due to pineapple’s anti-inflammatory properties it can alleviate the oncoming signs of arthritis while at the same time improve the condition by strengthening the bones. Since pineapples are rich in vitamin C, it can fight off viruses that cause cough and colds. Eating pineapple can highly cut down your sweet cravings because of its natural sweetness, saving you from a lot of sugar-induced calories. Pineapple contains enzymes that make skin elastic, improve skin hydration, and remove damaged and dead cells.
Along with above health benefits pineapples are also beneficial for people who are suffering from acidity, removing intestinal worms, relives sore throats and bronchitis, protect against age-related eye problems, prevent muscle cramps and soreness, promotes proper kidney functioning and regulate blood sugar.
Disclaimer: This article is published for information purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other medical professionals, you can use the information shared here at your own risk. Sugarcane is a tall grass with a stout, jointed and fibrous stalk that looks similar to bamboo. Andrews annual outreach event during the NSEW (National Science and Engineering Week) between the 11th and 20th of March. We decided on using mega-blocks of different shapes to represent a promoter, a ribosome binding site, a gene and a terminator and allow the children to put the pieces together in the correct order to make a “bio-brick”. We realized, however, that the destruction of the cell's organelles and components upon apoptosis may lead to the destruction of the drug. Andrews iGEM team to familiarize ouselves with various laboratory procedures that we would use over the summer. At this point we explored the functions of antimicrobial peptides and how we could use them to create a kill switch. Anne Smith had a meeting where we discussed our project idea of creating a kill switch by using antimicrobial peptides. The results of the gel electrophoresis showed that no DNA was present in our gel so we discussed the possibility that we had let the DNA sit in the wells of the gel for too long, causing it to sink through the gel. This project however required support external event organizers, so we drew a clear human practices plan and contacted the relevant parties. At Norwich, we were able to interact with other iGEM team members and were given advice by various professors that had volunteered their time to answer our questions.
The team also agreed to collaborate with the University of Dundee’s iGEM team concerning the debate and made plans to set up a meeting to discuss the details of the debate in person.
The modelling team read papers and found a few regarding the ? 70 ribosome, which relates to transcription rates.
They met with John Urch, head of the Revealing Research Dundee, and members of the University of Dundee iGEM team, to discuss the format of the debate and the details of the proceedings. Max and Chris received modelling help from our advisors, and plowed ahead into more papers to try and find the constants required for their models. BioSilta gave us a voucher worth ?500 so we could order anything below that value from their catalogue.
We responded to Biosilta with a list of the things we may need in the lab, including more supercompetent E. They discovered that the repressor wasn't separated from the promoter, although it’s concentration does change.
We ran a gel on the ligation to see the reason why the transformation failed, and found that the ligation itself had failed.
Charlie created a plan covering the next two weeks in an attempt to keep all the lab work on schedule. Chris talked about to Lorna Sibbett about the statistics involved in our review who then suggested a couple of ideas and even loaned us a textbook.
Charlie carried out another run of the Kill Switch Proof experiment after the previous one produced unsatifactory results.
Chris looked into the stats and read up on trialing the data in basic histograms to explore any underlying correlating behaviours. Chris ran various models, such as the dependency of projected budget on the team, whether the projected budget has an effect present from the citation score and overall rank of the university. Ogaga transformed the ligation made on Friday while Sam made another ligation and ordered some more ligase.
Ogaga and Lamya carried out a transformation on supercompetent cells of the ligation made on Thursday. The team continued to focus on updating the wiki and collating all the project's data to upload.
Firstly, the food we eat is made up of many compounds made by other organisms which are not all suitable for human tissues and therefore these have to be broken down and reassembled so that our bodies can use them. Digestion can occur naturally at body temperature, however this process takes a very long time as it happens at such a slow rate. Firstly it secretes HCL which kills bacteria and other harmful organisms preventing food poisoning and it also provides the optimum conditions for the enzyme pepsin to work in (pH 1.5 - 2). Pineapples are loaded with vitamins, enzymes and minerals including calcium, potassium, copper, magnesium, manganese, vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1), vitamin B6, and dietary fiber. Pineapple is also a rich source in Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene, which helps your immune system.
Excess consumption may result in diarrhea, extreme menstrual bleeding and lead to miscarriages in pregnant women.
The idea was to then use different promoters to switch on the expression of these proteins in certain conditions. We proceeded to divide the different tasks amongst ourselves and came up with an action plan for the next few weeks. Sam re-contacted the head of the World Schools Debate Championship to confirm our place in the program.
Chris and Max reviewed modelling challenges, while Sam, Max and Charlie planned a trip to Dundee for the debate collaboration with The University of Dundee iGEM team. Also, the Arabinose+AraC complex concentration linked to the promoter ‘strength’, and by extension, the transcription rate.


No transformed colonies were detected so another transformation was done by Ogaga which will be checked tomorrow. We discovered we had been using D-arabinose instead of L-arabinose due to an ordering error, which explained why our Kill Switch Proof results had not been very successful so far. Ogaga made a miniprep, while Sam did a PCR on our GFP-HIS tag plasmid and terminator for the drug delivery proof experiment. Also the division and year variations, to see if the random effects that have been removed from the model. For the modelling, the graph depicting PG-1 concentration shows oscillations into the negative concentrations.
We decided to have a new approach (microscopy) to our experimental method as the measurement of absorbency didn’t seem to work.
A lot of work was done on our wiki in preparation for the deadline which is in a week's time.
Charlie performed a new characterisation experiment using Baclight dye and a microplate reader while Sam carried out another ligation and ran a gel on it.
Sam and David in St Andrews, ran a PCR on the backbone (J04450) and insert (AMP gene) using the iGEM primer design.
A miniprep was made of the overnights which was then eluted using a TE buffer (to be sent to MIT) and water (for further investigation). For digestion to increase in these circumstances, body temperature would have to increase as well. In addition, the stomach secretes pepsin which starts the digestion of proteins into polypeptides and amino acids. However the main function of the small intestine is the absorption of the small food particles resulting from digestion. Pineapples are actually not just one fruit but a composite of many flowers whose individual fruit lets fuse together around a central core.
Sufficient amounts of manganese in pineapple are responsible for healthy bone formation and healing wounds. Bromelain found in pineapples work to neutralize fluids to ensure that they are not too acidic. Pineapples provide an ample supply of vitamin C too, a commonly known antioxidant that protects the body from free radical damage and boosts the immune system. It is also helpful for people who are suffering from High Blood pressure which will lead you to heart attack. Vitamin C also increases the body’s ability to fight invading bacteria and other toxins that contribute to gum disease.
The enzymes in pineapples also fight free-radical damage and can reduce age spots and fine lines. The purpose of this was twofold, to make our team more efficient and have some sort of way of measuring progress. The modelling team looked at compiling the last set of equations on pBAD inducer and pBAD promoter but found extremely limited information in this area.
The modelling team looked to see the effect of having a log scale on the vertical axis, and how those graphs portrayed multiple parts of the system. David, a member of the St Andrews iGEM team 2010 came over to the lab to help with our ligation. Firstly there is a great number of them so this increases the surface area for absorption in the small intestine.
Pineapple contains about 1 mg of sodium and 195 mg of potassium which will help in heart problems.
There were discussions and the team decided to e-mail Dr Roger Griffiths, an expert on enzyme kinetics, a contact obtained from Sarah.
Sam continued to work on the presentation, adding slides, compiling data and finding sources. They also looked into if altering the concentration of arabinose outside the cell would have an effect on the output of protegrin-1.
The discussions affecting the results included the fact that the cell would use the arabinose addition as food to consume as well as being used in the activation of the promoter. A variety of methods were deployed to see if MATLAB’s code solver was taking inappropriate time steps at each iteration of the model, such as running the differential equation system in a different mathematical program.
We also ordered Baclight- a fluorescent dye used to differentiate between live and dead cells.
He took the ligation made by Sam as well as a plate with colonies and a miniprep to Dundee, which is where he is based. David, still based in Dundee, ran a digestion of the DNA 2.0 synthesis product miniprep (our AMP gene). This is because it seems to reduce the time taken to coagulate the blood – which is why it can be useful for heart patients. The team also worked on the WSDC presentation and started collating quotes and ideas for the cons of synthetic biology (as Dundee was assigned the pros of synthetic biology). After our presentations, there was an open floor discussion with questions directed towards our student panel. He performed a digestion on the ligation which yielded very faint bands at the right location on a gel and overnights made of the colonies. These microvilli have protein channels and pumps in their membranes to allow the rapid absorption of food by facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Chris went to meet Will Cresswell and had a run through of converting the data from SPSS to CSV to R, modelling the ideal model for our stats.
Also, the villi contains an epithelial layer which is only one cell layer thick so that food can pass through easily and be absorbed quickly. Returning to MATLAB, we decided to look at forcing the time-step for the model, to provide a smoother output. The blood capillaries in the villus are very closely associated with the epithelium so that the distance for the diffusion of the food molecules is small.
Although when applying a model setup in R, there is no significance between student-advisor ratio and the medals given. For human practices, we decided to provide graphs depicting the difference of the total advisors and the variation in awards. This thin layer of cells contains mitochondria to provide the ATP needed for the active transport of certain food molecules.
We also attempted to have each year side-by-side, to show the implication of the total advisors between each competition year. We also looked at different experimental methods to prove our biobrick works such methods included microscopy and staining.




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