Digestive enzymes and their substrates and products,probiotics side effects dizziness treatment,natren healthy start system probiotics help - You Shoud Know

Here you have a list of opinions about Digestive enzyme and you can also give us your opinion about it. You will see other people's opinions about Digestive enzyme and you will find out what the others say about it. Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body. In the human digestive system, the main sites of digestion are the oral cavity, the stomach, and the small intestine. In the image below, you can see a graph with the evolution of the times that people look for Digestive enzyme. Thanks to this graph, we can see the interest Digestive enzyme has and the evolution of its popularity. You can leave your opinion about Digestive enzyme here as well as read the comments and opinions from other people about the topic. Virtually all chemical reactions in biological systems are catalyzed by macromolecules called enzymes. A defined mixed culture involvesinoculation of the substrate with morethan one pure culture. Solid state fermentation as an enzyme production technique is not without difficulties that must be overcome. The preparation of a solid substrate, often with pretreatment to decrease the particle size or increase the availability of nutrients in the substrate. A cooking step which sterilizes or at least pasteurizes the substrate and causes the absorption of water into the substrate particles.
The Alltech solid state fermentation programThe many advantages of enzyme production by SSF have convinced Alltech that it is a valuable technology for the production of enzymes. The development of a SSF fermentation program at Alltech is intended to produce a more useful enzyme employing a procedure with economics that make it practical for the animal feed and fuel ethanol industries. The enzyme can be a catalytic protein substance that greatly increases the rate and efficiency of a chemical reaction without actively participating in the chemical reaction itself. An amylase is a major digestive tract enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into simple sugars.
Lipase: Salivary lipase and pancreatic lipase are secreted by the salivary gland pancreas respectively. Amylase: Salivary gland secretes salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas.
Amylase: Both amylase and starch are water soluble substances, so amylase enzymes secreted into the digestive tract mix easily with food particles (chyme) and easily digest dissolved carbohydrate in that food. Lipase: Lysosomal lipase deficiency can cause the Wolman disease as well as Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) which are autosomal recessive diseases. Amylase: An increased level of amylase in the blood serum is an indicator that the person could be suffering from acute pancreatic inflammation, peptic ulcer, ovarian cyst or even mumps. Lipase: It is used in baking industry, Laundry detergents, Biocatalyst, Production of alternative sources of energy.
Flour additive: Amylases are used in bread making process and thereby break down complex starch in flour into simple sugars. Fermentation: Both alpha and beta amylases are vital in brewing beer and alcohol made from sugars derived from starch.
Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tracts of animals (including humans) and in the traps of carnivorous plants, where they aid in the digestion of food, as well as inside cells, especially in their lysosomes, where they function to maintain cellular survival.
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Chemical reactions in vivo rarely proceed at perceptible rates in the absence of enzymes while reaction rates increase as much as a million times when enzymes are present. Strict aseptic conditions arenot followed; and selective pressuressuch as water content and inoculationrate are used to control contamination. Examples of substrates are cereal grains, wheat bran, and wheat straw.b) Substrates require less pretreatment compared to liquid fermentation.
The majority of commercially profitable processes involve fungi, however.b) Removal of metabolic heat can be a problem in large scale fermentations.
Therefore, lipase cannot directly break down the fat molecules.  First, fat, bile salts from the gall bladder must break up fats and emulsify them into water-soluble beads. Yeast then feeds on these simple sugars and converts it into the alcohol and CO2 and this imparts flavor and causes the bread to rise.
Digestive enzymes are diverse and are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands, in the stomach secreted by cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the intestinal (small and large) secretions, or as part of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Three basic types of reactors can be distinguished based on the mixing regime and the aeration mode. Two isolates have gone through a rigorous screening and selection process and are currently used extensively in the program.
A lipase is an enzyme that belongs to the subclass of the esterases that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats. Lipases complete vital roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids such as triglycerides, fats, oils in human digestive tract. The name ‘enzyme’, meaning ‘in yeast’, was not used until 1877; however much earlier it was suspected that biological catalysts were involved in the fermentation of sugar to form alcohol. This problem can be lessened by using organisms that are heat tolerant.c) The solid nature of the substrate presents problems in monitoring process parameters. These include tray bioreactors, packed bed reactors, and agitated bioreactors.The simplest SSF reactor is the tray. As an example, pancreatic lipase can break down dietary triglyceride in the digestive system and convert triglyceride substrates into monoglycerides and two fatty acids.
When food is ingested into the mouth, food that contains great amounts of starch but slight sugar content such as rice and potatoes, may obtain a slightly sweet taste as the food is chewed.
Changes in pH are not easily identified and controlled in SSF; and the control of moisture content and substrate concentrations is extremely difficult. In a tray bioreactor a relatively thin layer of substrate is spread over a large horizontal area. Humans also have several lipase enzymes, including hepatic lipase, endothelial lipase, and lipoprotein lipase.
Heat production, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide are parameters that can be measured.d) Many important basic scientific and engineering aspects are poorly understood. There is no forced aeration, although the base of the tray may be perforated and air forced around the tray.
The purpose of this article is to highlight the differences between lipase and amylase enzymes. The human pancreas and salivary gland also secrete alpha-amylase to hydrolyze dietary starch into disaccharides and tri-or oligosaccharides that are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Little is known about the mode of growth of fungi within substrate masses composed of irregularly shaped solid particles.e) Cultivation times are often longer. A point that is becoming more and more critical for many consumers is that the organism is a non-genetically modified organism (non-GMO) able to produce phytase at a significant level for commercial production. In 1860, Louis Pasteur postulated that enzymes are linked with the structure of the yeast cell.
Internal temperature may vary with ambient temperature; or the tray may be placed in a temperature-controlled room. The ability of enzymes to function outside a cell has greatly increased their use in a large variety of commercial products and reactions. Tray bioreactors have been used successfully at laboratory, pilot, semi-commercial and commercial scale (Ahmed et al, 1987; Hesseltine, 1987).
The SSF growth environment is conducive to overproduction of a number of different enzymes; and genetic engineering is not required for production of large amounts. In contrast, submerged liquid systems generally use GMOs designed for overproduction of a particular enzyme.The second organism currently being studied extensively is Rhizopus oryzae, which produces glucoamylase.


The world annual sales of industrial enzymes was recently valued at $1 billion (Bron et al., 1999). Glucoamylase sequentially cleaves glucose molecules from the nonreducing end of a starch molecule and is used extensively in the ethanol industry. Three quarters of the market is for enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of natural polymers, of which about two-thirds are proteolytic enzymes used in the detergent, dairy and leather industries; and one third are carbohydrases used in the animal feed, baking, brewing, distilling, starch and textile industries.
The organism is not genetically modified and has been naturally selected for overproduction of glucoamylase. Detergent manufacturers use 45% of all industrial enzymes produced in spot remover and detergent products containing proteases and lipases. Food processing enzymes including "-amylases, glucose isomerase and pectinases account for about 45% of enzyme usage. The temperature of the incoming air can be changed to aid in temperature regulation of the substrate (Narahara et al., 1984). This organism is currently being used in lab scale and pilot scale tray fermentations and deep bed lab scale fermentations. The starch processing industry uses half of the enzymes in the food industry, approximately 25% are used by the dairy industry and 10% by the brewers, fruit juice and wine producers. The advantage of packed bed reactors is that they remain simple while allowing better process control than trays. Completion of these studies will allow the organism to be used at a commercial level.STANDARDIZATION OF THE PROCESS AT SMALL SCALEThe selection of strains involves SSF on a small scale. The textile and paper industry (6%) uses primarily amylases and hemicellulases and the leather industry (2%) uses proteases. The first is a rotating drum reactor consisting of a horizontal or inclined cylinder that rotates around a central axis and causes a tumbling motion of the substrate. In these flasks the typical moisture, temperature and extraction conditions as well as the length of fermentation and inoculation rate have been determined and maximized. Mixing is gentle, although problems can arise if microorganisms are sensitive to the agitation. As the understanding of enzymes and their properties has grown, so have both their use and their effectiveness as feed supplements. Temperature control is difficult because the reactor is difficult to water jacket (Lonsane et al., 1985).
In addition to thin layer tray systems, deep bed systems of 30–50 cm will be used in production.
The purpose of using enzymes in monogastric animals is to improve availability of nutrients in feedstuffs. The second type of agitated fermenter, a stirred reactor, has the reactor placed either on a horizontal or a vertical axis. In order to determine if organisms are suitable for growth in deep layer fermentations, lab scale deep layer fermenters have been designed.
The result is improved feed utilization and reduced impact of anti-nutritional components.Methods for production of commercial enzymesIndustrial enzymes are produced by plants, animals, and microbes. Horizontal reactors are similar to rotating drums except the mixing is provided by an internal scraper or paddles, rather than rotation of the reactor. By far the most exploited for the use of industrial enzymes has been the microbial population.
Short generation times and high yields, together with the fact that microorganisms produce extracellular enzymes, which are easy to harvest, make microbes the enzyme source of choice.
Production of enzymes by microorganisms has also expanded because of the vast amounts of genetic information now available. The airflow, relative humidity of the air, and oxygen content within the chamber can all be measured. Several industrially important microbial genomes have been sequenced; and the understanding of gene expression systems in microorganisms is much more advanced when compared to other gene expression systems.
This knowledge has made it possible to select a variety of microorganisms suitable for enzyme production with traditional submerged liquid fermentation (Bailey and Ollis, 1986). An alternative fermentation method for enzyme production is solid substrate fermentation (Mitchell and Lonsane, 1992).SUBMERGED LIQUID FERMENTATIONSubmerged liquid fermentations are traditionally used in the United States for the production of microbially derived enzymes. With this system we are able to generate data that reflect the heat produced during the fermentation and determine the amount of air required to maintain temperature in the target range. Submerged fermentation involves submersion of the microorganism in an aqueous solution containing all the nutrients needed for growth. A research team led by Chaim Weizmann in Great Britian developed a process for production of acetone by submerged liquid fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum, which eventually led to the first large-scale aseptic fermentation vessel (Stanbury et al., 1995). These systems can produce data on the success of the fermentation in deep layers and the amount of heat produced during the fermentation.SCALE-UP STUDIESThe scale-up step is a crucial linkage in the process since it determines whether the process will operate at a commercial scale. The first large-scale aerobic fermenters were used in central Europe in the 1930s for production of compressed yeast (de Becze and Liebmann, 1944).
The scale-up should theoretically result in the same overall performance that can be achieved in the laboratory. In 1943, the British government decided that solid substrate fermentation was inadequate for the production of penicillin. This is rarely the case since a number of additional parameters influence the fermentation. This decision forced the development of liquid fermenters that are aseptic and contain adequate aeration and agitation. Construction of the first large-scale plant to produce penicillin by liquid fermentation began in 1943 (Callahan, 1944).Organisms used in submerged fermentationsFermentation using bacillus species accounts for about half of the world’s production of industrial enzymes. The main classes of bacillus enzymes and the strains used to produce them are listed in Table 2. The initial system designed was a plexiglass chamber able to hold 12 trays that hold up to 200 g of substrate.
Although bacillus species are the primary enzyme-producing organisms, other microbes are also used. In order to gain more information from tray fermentations, a second-generation tray fermenter was designed and built by the Departmento de Biotechnologia, Universidad Autonoma Metroplitana Iztapalapa.
Through genetic modifications the bacterium Escherichia coli is able to produce insulin and human growth hormones.
Four trays fit inside the reactor and conditioned air is forced in at the lower left portion of the reactor.
Other microorganisms used on an industrial scale include Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol production and the fungi Aspergillus and Trichoderma for carbohydrase production.Table 2.
The reactor is equipped with thermocouples, flow meter, oxygen sensor and relative humidity sensor. With the development of genetic engineering techniques, organisms can be engineered to produce high yields of a great variety of products.
Data acquisition equipment allows better understanding of heat and carbon dioxide production. The genetic manipulation of genomes is common for organisms used in submerged liquid fermentations.Fermenter designThe main function of a fermenter is to provide a controlled environment for growth of microorganisms in order to obtain a desired product. Pilot scale tray fermentation system.Alltech is interested in production of enzymes in deep layers as well as thin layer tray systems. Two important criteria for a submerged liquid fermenter include the ability to operate aseptically for a number of days and provide adequate aeration and agitation to meet the metabolic requirements of the microorganism.
Many different types of fermenters have been described in the literature, but very few proved satisfactory for industrial aerobic fermentations. The most common designs are based on a stirred upright cylinder with sparger aeration (Stanbury et al., 1995). Fermenter sizes can range from flasks used in the laboratory to production fermenters of 8,000 liters or more (Figure 1).Fermenter operationMany biochemical processes involve batch growth of cell populations. After seeding a liquid medium with an inoculum of living cells, only gas is added or removed from the culture as growth proceeds.


Typically in such a batch reactor, the concentrations of nutrients, cells and products vary with time as growth proceeds. During the fermentation, temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide, airflow and relative humidity can be monitored.
In addition, it is often desirable to add liquid streams to a batch bioreactor as the reaction process occurs.
The reactor will enable studies to determine if organisms can perform in deep layers at pilot scale levels and develop an understanding of heat production.Figure 6. This can be done to add precursors for desired products, to add regulating compounds such as inducers at a point in the batch operation, to maintain low nutrient levels to minimize catabolite repression or to extend the stationary phase by nutrient addition (Baily and Ollis, 1986). A pilot scale deep bed fermenter.DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE SSF PLANTThere is no information available in the literature on SSF with respect to the theoretical and experimental comparisons of different kinds of bioreactors, methods for controlling cultivation parameters, automation, design and scale up criteria or downstream processing options. When the fermenter is used in this manner it is known as a ‘fed-batch’ fermentation.Figure 1. The design process for large scale production of enzymes has been based on information obtained in lab scale and pilot scale studies as well as experience gained in the areas of fermentation and downstream processing.From the data generated and the scant literature available it became apparent that for initial production a tray fermentation system would reach optimum production levels in the shortest amount of time. Deep tank liquid fermenter (250 liter).The success of a fermentation depends upon the existence of defined environmental conditions for biomass and product formation. The data generated in the lab and pilot tray systems were used in the development of a production tray fermentation system. The temperature, pH, degree of agitation, oxygen concentration in the medium and other factors may need to be kept constant during the process. This facility houses pretreatment, inoculation facilities, fermentation facilities, and downstream processing facilities.
Table 3 lists the variety of process sensors included in a submerged liquid fermentation.SOLID SUBSTRATE CULTIVATIONIn addition to submerged liquid fermentation, an ancient fermentation technology known as solid substrate fermentation is also used to produce enzymes.
Solid substrate fermentations are generally characterized by growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble substrates in the presence of varying amounts of free water (Mitchell and Lonsane, 1992). The initial phase of the design was intended for construction of a facility that will contain about 10,000 trays.Future potentialMost profitable applications of SSF are confined to Asian and African countries and are scarce elsewhere in the world. A resurgence of interest has occurred in western and European countries in response to the everincreasing demand for economy in enzyme production.
The facility in Serdan is believed to be the first commercial enzyme production facility in North America that uses SSF technology.
The future of the SSF program at Alltech includes the development of new strains for enzyme production, to enhance current enzyme systems and development of new enzyme applications.
The most profitable applications of SSF are in Asian and African countries where SSF processes have been perfected over long periods.
The use of a variety of waste products will be investigated as well as the potential for using inert supports for fermentation.
The SSF technology also has the potential to be used for purposes other than enzyme production.
Solid substrate fermentation has been largely neglected since the 1940s; and negligible research and development efforts have been made. Other metabolites such as ethanol, flavors, and other microbial by-products can be produced.
Solid substrate fermentations also include a number of well known microbial processes such as soil growth, composting, silage production, wood rotting and mushroom cultivation.
In addition, many familiar western foods such as mold-ripened cheese, bread, sausage and many foods of Asian origin including miso, tempeh and soy sauce are produced using SSF.
Beverages derived from SSF processes include ontjom in Indonesia, shao-hsing wine and kaoliang (sorghum) liquor in China and sake in Japan (Mudgett, 1986).
Table 5 gives examples of foods that involve an SSF process at some point in production.Table 5.
Tempeh production has been established on a small scale in the US (Hesseltine, 1987) because it has been accepted as a meat substitute by vegetarians. Mushrooms are cultivated in western countries; and soy sauce production has become highly industrialized and is widely used across the world. Kikkoman Foods has built a state-of-the-art facility completed in 1998 for soy sauce production in Folsom, California.General features of solid substrate fermentationThe single most important feature of SSF is the low moisture content of the medium, which makes SSF very different from submerged liquid cultures. Water is essential for microbial growth; and the limited water in SSF has several consequences.
It is adsorbed and to some extent held tightly; and there may even be some free water in the interior and on the surface. Evaporative cooling is the most effective cooling method, although this will reduce water availability (Trevelyan, 1974). Proper temperature conditions during the fermentation are a balance between the need for heat removal and the necessity of keeping the substrate sufficiently moist to support growth. The insoluble substrates used in SSF are composite and heterogeneous products from agriculture or by-products of agro-industries.
For many processes, substrates are chosen because they are readily available and therefore inexpensive. The macromolecular portion often provides a structural matrix for the substrate as well as serve as the carbon and energy source (e.g. If the macromolecule serves as a structural matrix only, the carbon and energy source is provided by a non-structural macromolecule such as starch or a smaller, soluble compound (e.g. The data suggest that microbial physiology and regulation within the cell are influenced by the fermentation environment (Viniegra-Gonzalez, 1997). A glucosidase produced by Aspergillus phoenicis in SSF was more thermotolerant than when produced in submerged liquid fermentation (Deschamps and Huet, 1984). A phytase produced by SSF (Allzyme Phytase, Alltech Inc.) also contained a mixture of activities not found in enzyme preparations from submerged culture systems (Table 6). The complex nature of feedstuffs makes these side activities beneficial to the animal industry (Classen, 1996).
Comparison of enzyme activities of two commercially available phytases.Microorganisms for solid state fermentationBacteria, yeast and fungi can all grow on solid substrates and have applications in SSF processes.
However, filamentous fungi are the best adapted species for SSF and dominate in the research and practical applications around the world. Bacterial SSF fermentations are rarely used for large scale enzyme production, but are very important in nature and in the fermented food industry. In composting, moist solid organic wastes are decomposed by a succession of naturally-occurring microorganisms.
The fermentative yeast Endomycopsis burtonii is involved in the production of a traditional Indonesian fermented food, tape (Steinkraus, 1983).Filamentous fungi are the most important group of microorganisms for enzyme production in SSF. The hyphal mode of growth gives a major advantage to filamentous fungi over unicellular microorganisms in the colonization of solid substrates and the utilization of available nutrients. This makes the action of hydrolytic enzymes very efficient and allows penetration into most solid substrates.
Fungi cannot transport macromolecular substrates across the cell wall, so the macromolecule must be hydrolyzed externally into soluble units that can be transported into the cell (Knapp and Howell, 1980).Figure 2. Effect of phytase enzyme source on reducing sugar release from four substrates at recommended use rates (abMeans differ, PFigure 3. Effect of phytase enzyme source on amino nitrogen release from four substrates at recommended enzyme use rates (abMeans differ, PFigure 4.
Effect of phytase enzyme source on phosphate release from four substrates at recommended enzyme use rates (abMeans differ, PMany submerged liquid fermentations are performed using pure cultures.The substrate is sterilized and then inoculated with a single culture.



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