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Posterior part of gizzard is stomodeum in which 1 pair hairy pad pulvillus & 1 pair stomodeal valve present, allow only finnest particles of food.
At the junction of mid gut and foregut 8 Hepatic ceacae present, secrete digestive juice that do digestion in crop.
Secretion of stomodeal valve (Cardia) in mid gut forms peritrophic membrane around food to protect wall of mid gut.
In rectum on external surface 6 rectal ridges present alternate with 6 rectal pads on inner side.
Explain Red anthocyanin pigments Red anthocyanin pigments from miracle fruit were isolated and tested in carbonated beverages, in combination with the organic acids. Score more in Biology with Video Lessons, Sample Papers, Revision Notes & more for Class-XI-Science - MAHARASHTRASign up now. The junction of the foregut and midgut has rings of 6 to 8 blind tubules called hepatic or gastric caecae, which secrete digestive juices.
Nutrition in cockroach is holozoic and it is an omnivore, feeding on different kinds of organic matter. The digestive system includes the mouth parts, a pair of salivary glands and the alimentary canal. To understand the position of the mouth parts, observe the external features of a cockroach in the diagram below.
They are a pair of hard, strong, large, dark coloured triangular structures found one on either side with jagged inner edges and the two mandibles move in horizontal motion and crush food between them.
Each salivary gland is branched, the secretions of all the branches being poured into a common duct. Midgut forms the true gut or the mesenteron and consists entirely of stomach or ventriculus. Hindgut is a coiled structure consisting of anterior ileum, middle colon and posterior rectum.
The digested food is absorbed through the stomach walls into the surrounding space which is called the haemocoel. In the hindgut, absorption of water takes place and the undigested food is formed into almost dry pellets.
Unlike other Arthropods the the insects possess no legs on the abdomen in the adult form, though the 'Protura' do have rudimentary leg-like appendages on the first three abdominal segments. Like us Insects need muscles in order to move the various different bits of their bodies around, however insects have their muscles attached to the inside of their skeleton because like all the arthropods they have their skeletons on the outside of their body.


Here is a lovely drawing of the internal organs of an ant made by a talented Russian artist and physiologist called Nasonov before the great revolution in the late 1800s, it is very large (190K jpg) and if you have a slow link you might like to see the smaller sectioned drawings below it instead though they have lost some clarity in resizing.
The Digestive system of an insect is usually a long straight tube running from the mouth to the anus, it is often divided into the 'fore gut', the 'mid gut' and the 'hind gut'.
The fore gut is generally considered to consist of four sections, the Pharynx, the Oesophagus, the Crop and the Proventriculus. The pharynx is the first part of the fore gut and apart from being a tube that connects the interior of the mouth area (sometimes known as the 'Buccal Cavity) with the more inward parts of the gut it sometimes serves as a pump to suck up the liquefied food of those insects which feed by means external digestion. The midgut (called the Mesenteron in some books) runs from the 'digestive or gastric caeca', a series of stubby pointed tubes leading off from the stomach to just before the Malpighian tubules, a series of long thin tubes.
Arising from and the foremost part of the hind gut are the Malpighian tubules (named after Malpighi who discovered them) are not really to do with digestion at all but with elimination. Though insects possess a large number of digestive enzymes, they are often helped by the presence of symbiotic micro-organisms, such as protozoa in the case of the termites and some primitive cockroaches which feed on wood, and bacteria in the wax moth Galleria mellonella which feeds on the wax that honey bees Apis mellifera uses to make the combs in its hives.
Externally the sexual organs, called genitalia, of a female insect generally consist of an 'ovipositor' which is often encased in a pair of filaments called a 'sheath' and is which is used to by the female to put her eggs where she wants. Externally the sexual organs of the male, also called genitalia, consist of a pair of 'claspers' which the male uses to hold onto the females genitalia and an intromittant organ called the 'aedeagus' which is the means by which the male passes the sperm onto the female. Internally the female reproductive organs consist of a pair of ovaries which contain the ovarioles which is where the eggs or ova are formed, the bursa copulatrix which is where the sperm is first received )in those insects which have it) and a spermatheca which is where the sperm is stored. Internally the male reproductive organs consist of a pair of 'testes' containing the 'testicular follicles' where the spermatozoa are made, the 'vas deferens' which is the tube down which the sperm travels, a 'seminal vesicle' which is where the sperm is stored prior to mating, and accessory glands which supply seminal fluid for additional volume and to nourish the sperm before and during their journey.
The mouth parts are attached to the ventral side (underside) of the head portion and surrounds the mouth or the oral cavity which faces down. It forms the broad median lower lip consisting of several parts in addition to a pair of 3-segmented labial palps on either side.
For either pair of salivary glands there is a thin walled salivary receptacle or reservoir which is like a bladder. In the gizzard, the chitin forms proventricular teeth and the plate to facilitate grinding of the food.
At the junction of the gizzard and stomach are six pairs of gastric caecae ('gastric' means pertaining to stomach).
The haemocoel consists of a large number of fat bodies which are fat cells having fat globules, protein granules and glycogen. It contains the insects digestive tract and reproductive organs, it consists of eleven segments in most orders of insects though the 11th segment is absent in the adult of most the higher orders.


Immediately behind the mouth are the Salivary Glands, in most species these secrete saliva, generally a watery fluid that lubricates the food and contains a few enzymes to begin the processes of digestion. In between the two of these is the stomach, or ventriculus, which is the area of most active digestion. Protopodite consists of cardo and stipes, exopodite is 5-segemented and sensory, also called maxillary palp and endopodite is made up of inner lacina and outer galea.
These are pouch-like structures arranged in a ring-like manner around the anterior end of the stomach.
It allows the passage of only the thoroughly digested food into the stomach and also, prevents the regurgitation of food from the stomach.
In many of the Hymenoptera, and several other orders, the number of abdominal segments is reduced and in the Honey Bee only seven segments are visible. The gastric caeca serve to increase the surface area of the midgut, thus increasing both its ability to secrete digestive enzymes and its ability to extract useful products from the partially digested food. The receptacles of either side have a common receptacular duct which opens into the common salivary duct. The anterior lobe of each pair of the caecae extends over the proventriculus and the posterior lobe extends over the ventriculus. At the junction of the stomach and ileum are attached numerous long tubules called the Malpighian tubules. The useful proteins, vitamins and fats that are released by the digestive processes pass across the wall of the midgut into the body cavity.
The muscles of insects are generally light grey or translucent, unlike ours which appear red. In Lepidopteran caterpillars and Caddisfly larvae they have been converted to the production of silk, while in the Queen Honey Bee they are called the mandibular glands and secrete hormones. This membrane protects the stomach wall from abrasions and is fully permeable to enzymes and digested food.
The median part of the oviduct which receives the aedeagus during mating is called the 'vagina'.



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