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Inside the nucleus lies the blueprint that dictates everything a cell will do and all of the products it will make.
Like most other cellular organelles, the nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope. Inside the nuclear envelope is a gel-like nucleoplasm with solutes that include the building blocks of nucleic acids.
The genetic instructions that are used to build and maintain an organism are arranged in an orderly manner in strands of DNA. In order for an organism to grow, develop, and maintain its health, cells must reproduce themselves by dividing to produce two new daughter cells, each with the full complement of DNA as found in the original cell. A DNA molecule is made of two strands that “complement” each other in the sense that the molecules that compose the strands fit together and bind to each other, creating a double-stranded molecule that looks much like a long, twisted ladder. Each new DNA molecule contains one strand from the original molecule and one newly synthesized strand. The nucleus is the command center of the cell, containing the genetic instructions for all of the materials a cell will make (and thus all of its functions it can perform).
DNA replication is said to be semiconservative because, after replication is complete, one of the two parent DNA strands makes up half of each new DNA molecule. The nucleus is generally considered the control center of the cell because it stores all of the genetic instructions for manufacturing proteins. This membranous covering consists of two adjacent lipid bilayers with a thin fluid space in between them. There also can be a dark-staining mass often visible under a simple light microscope, called a nucleolus (plural = nucleoli).
Within the nucleus are threads of chromatin composed of DNA and associated proteins ([link]). Each side rail of the DNA ladder is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups ([link]).
After a great deal of debate and experimentation, the general method of DNA replication was deduced in 1958 by two scientists in California, Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl.
Once the two original strands are bound to their own, finished, complementary strands, DNA replication is stopped and the two new identical DNA molecules are complete. The term for this mode of replication is “semiconservative,” because half of the original DNA molecule is conserved in each new DNA molecule. The nucleus is encased within a membrane of two interconnected lipid bilayers, side-by-side.
What would happen if cell division of a body cell took place without DNA replication, or when DNA replication was incomplete?


In order for all of the cells in your body to maintain a full genome, each cell must replicate its DNA before it divides so that a full genome can be allotted to each of its offspring cells.
Interestingly, some cells in the body, such as muscle cells, contain more than one nucleus ([link]), which is known as multinucleated. The nucleus sends “commands” to the cell via molecular messengers that translate the information from DNA. The nucleolus is a region of the nucleus that is responsible for manufacturing the RNA necessary for construction of ribosomes. Only very few cell types in the body do not divide, including nerve cells, skeletal muscle fibers, and cardiac muscle cells. DNA polymerase brings in the correct bases to complement the template strand, synthesizing a new strand base by base. This process continues until the cell’s entire genome, the entire complement of an organism’s DNA, is replicated. This nuclear envelope is studded with protein-lined pores that allow materials to be trafficked into and out of the nucleus. Before any cell is ready to divide, it must replicate its DNA so that each new daughter cell will receive an exact copy of the organism’s genome.
Therefore, half (“semi”) of each daughter DNA molecule is from the parent molecule and half is a new molecule. If DNA replication did not take place fully, or at all, the offspring cells would be missing some or all of the genome. Each cell in your body (with the exception of germ cells) contains the complete set of your DNA.
A nuclear pore is a tiny passageway for the passage of proteins, RNA, and solutes between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Once synthesized, newly made ribosomal subunits exit the cell’s nucleus through the nuclear pores. These two backbones are bonded to each other across pairs of protruding bases, each bonded pair forming one “rung,” or cross member. A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that adds free nucleotides to the end of a chain of DNA, making a new double strand. As you might imagine, it is very important that DNA replication take place precisely so that new cells in the body contain the exact same genetic material as their parent cells.
This could be disastrous if a cell was missing genes necessary for its function and health. RBCs eject their nuclei as they mature, making space for the large numbers of hemoglobin molecules that carry oxygen throughout the body ([link]).


When a cell divides, the DNA must be duplicated so that the each new cell receives a full complement of DNA. Proteins called pore complexes lining the nuclear pores regulate the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus.
Multiple nucleosomes along the entire molecule of DNA appear like a beaded necklace, in which the string is the DNA and the beads are the associated histones.
Epithelial cells of the skin and gastrointestinal lining, for instance, divide very frequently to replace those that are constantly being rubbed off of the surface by friction. This growing strand continues to be built until it has fully complemented the template strand.
Mistakes made during DNA replication, such as the accidental addition of an inappropriate nucleotide, have the potential to render a gene dysfunctional or useless.
These enzymes unwind the DNA molecule, separate the two strands, and assist with the building of complementary strands along each parent strand. Without nuclei, the life span of RBCs is short, and so the body must produce new ones constantly. The following section will explore the structure of the nucleus and its contents, as well as the process of DNA replication.
DNA is normally found as a loosely contained structure called chromatin within the nucleus, where it is wound up and associated with a variety of histone proteins. The original DNA strands serve as templates from which the nucleotide sequence of the new strands are determined and synthesized. A DNA proofreading process enlists the help of special enzymes that scan the newly synthesized molecule for mistakes and corrects them. When a cell is about to divide, the chromatin coils tightly and condenses to form chromosomes.
Therefore, if the two complementary strands of DNA were pulled apart, you could infer the order of the bases in one strand from the bases in the other, complementary strand.
For example, if one strand has a region with the sequence AGTGCCT, then the sequence of the complementary strand would be TCACGGA.



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