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The recycling rate in the GCC is as low as 10%, seriously limiting the value recovery of materials used in industries such as construction, according to Sasidhar Chidanamarri, industry manager of environment and buildings technology practice at business research and consulting firm, Frost & Sullivan.
The GCC generates 22 million tonnes of municipal solid waste, with 90% of the waste going into the region’s landfills.
The figures compare unfavourably with the EU which recycles around 40% of the 220 million tonnes of waste it generates, and the US which recycles around 65% of its 250 million tonnes of waste. Chidanamarri also identified political inaction as the reason behind the slow uptake of recycled materials in the region’s construction industry.
The Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre (WIMRC) is part of the University of Warwick, and the WorldFirst F3 project is managed by James Meredith.
To do this the team looked at every component of the race car and tried to see if a more sustainable option was available. Most impressively though, the car is capable of cleaning the air as it drives thanks to its quite revolutionary emission-destroying catalyst. Please note that gratuitous links to your site are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments. From the sowing stage to incineration This is where the work of Sandra Belboom, a teaching assistant in the Department of Applied Chemistry at the University of Liege, comes in.
Another conclusion can be drawn from this modeling: if we take account of impact categories other than GHG emissions and the exhaustion of fossil resources such as ecotoxicity, acidification of soils and eutrophication of water by waste pollution, it becomes clear that the fabrication of bioplastics leads to more damage to the environment than the traditional plastics sector.
The Coca-Cola Company has developed a fully recyclable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle made entirely from renewable plant-based materials for the first time.
The new PlantBottle had previously only been sourced partially from plant-based materials since its launch, which FoodBev reported back in May 2009.
The firm said that the newly unveiled packaging is the manifestation of the company’s vision to develop a more responsible plant-based alternative to packaging traditionally made from fossil fuels and other non-renewable materials. Coca-Cola has said that the environmentally friendly bottle – with applications across the water, sparkling, juice and tea categories – has helped save the equivalent of more than 315,000 metric tons of annual carbon dioxide emissions.
The soft drinks manufacturer has unveiled the fully renewable plant-based bottle at World Expo in Milan. A vending news portal that is focused on interesting and informative content, not selling advertising space. However just such a vehicle exists, and it’s capable of carving through corners at 125mph while actually cleaning the air!
They managed to incorporate a steering wheel out of carrots, a seat made of soybeans, plant-oil based lubricants and a biodiesel engine capable of running on chocolate and vegetable oil. We have to commend the WorldFirst team for thinking not just about fuel efficiency but actually rebuilding the race car of the future from the ground up. In her recent doctoral thesis (2), the young researcher wanted to pursue as far as possible a€“ that is to say, from the most reliable data available at the current time- an analysis of the environmental impacts of the production of bioethanol and bioplastics.
A comparison of the uses of biofuel and bioplastics.a€?A  (3) The literature on the bioplastics sector, which is quite new, is much more limited than the literature on biofuels.


It uses patented technology that converts natural sugars found in plants into the ingredients for making PET plastic bottles, functioning and recycling in the same way as traditional PET but with a reduced environmental footprint. The Atlanta-based company has distributed more than 35bn bottles of the PlantBottle technology during the last six years. Our vision was to maximise game-changing technology, using responsibly sourced plant-based materials to create the globe’s first fully recyclable PET plastic bottle made entirely from renewable materials. The WorldFirst F3 race car is the brainchild of the Warwick Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre and features a bevy of green features that are set to shape the future of motor sport racing.
No need to call BioWanze into question Finally, we come to the third main category of results: the payback time for climate change. Indeed, if we are to succeed in comparing like with like, many other factors need to be taken into account such as the reduction of greenhouse gases which is required by European regulation. This is the number of years necessary so that a crop that is a€?economica€? in greenhouse gas emissions compensates for its negative effect in terms of land use change.
If we want to objectively consider all the environmental impacts of biofuel, one method in particular seems appropriate: Life Cycle Assessment. Therefore, if we take account of GHG emissions caused by deforestation linked to the cultivation of Brazilian sugar cane intended for use as biofuel, the payback time varies between 39 anda€¦ 152 years (in the event of indirect changes in land use). Implemented by a chemical engineer at the University of Liege, this method has yielded informative results with regard to the use of bioethanol. In addition, given the growing demand for biofuels across the world, the countries of Europe could turn to this country in the future for the importation of finished productsa€?.
For Belgian crops used as biofuel, indirect changes in land use concern the transformation of grassland into land for the cultivation of wheat or sugar beet in other countries of the European UnionA  (on condition of obtaining a dispensation from the Common Agricultural Policy). The choice of Belgium is an obvious one, to the extent that the European objective for biofuel use consists of maximizing the use of local resources and reducing the importation of raw materials to encourage increased energy independence. Within this prospective framework, the payback times calculated are much shorter, that is to say, 14 years for wheat and 10 years for sugar beet.A  In the case of bioplastics, the payback times vary between 26 anda€¦ 101 years for sugar cane (indirect changes here too). This is the technical name for a mixture of petrol and bioethanol as used in several European countries including Belgium. In addition, there is a sizeable amount of robust and reliable field information that has been validated by experts who were consulted by Sandra Belboom both at Gembloux Agro Bio Tech and at the Belgian Beet Research Institute (IRBAB).
The payback times are 31 years for sugar beet from Ukraine and 8 years for Belgian sugar beet. A gasoline-powered car uses fuel which is composed of 95 % traditional petrol and 5 % bioethanol. For Belgian wheat it is 14 years.A  Such conclusions do not call into question the construction of production units for bioethanol such as the one for BioWanze, far from it indeed.
Whatever the mixture may be (sometimes, the proportion of bioethanol can be as high as 85 %), bioethanol is most often produced from sugar beet. In order to produce its 300,000 annual tons, this factory in the Mosane region uses strictly local sugar beet and cereals from an area within a radius of less than 300 kilometers.


However, corn, wheat or sugar cane are also sometimes used, the latter being used in South America, in particular, where it grows in abundance. However, according to changes in the commodity market, the work of Sandra Belboom, extended to take account of the wider macroeconomic implications, could be useful for the various decision-makers.
In fact Brazil has been one of the main producers of bioethanol in the world for more than forty years. Among the latter, sugar beet is ahead of wheat because it makes it possible to produce more bioplastics per unit of surface area. Over there, motorists are able to get around thanks to a fuel mixture which is rich in a€?greena€? fuel.
On the other hand, if we take account of land use changes, local crops- in this case wheat and sugar beet- are to be preferred to sugar cane and crops grown in the Ukrainea€?.
Such considerations have evidently not been taken into account in the work of Sandra Belboom. We can well imagine that the same approach a€“ life cycle assessment a€“ serves as a back-up to economic and social analyses. The same applies in Europe although over here we can add sugar beet to the list of raw materials most commonly used to produce biofuels. The use of these non-fossil fuels is good for economies that are dependent on fossil fuel energy. It also represents an interesting alternative from an environmental point of view because it results in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, we will need to be very cautious if we are to succeed in this noble objective.A  If we transform carbon-rich soils into areas for growing the raw materials for biofuel, the carbon can be released into the atmosphere and we do not reach the target levels. Even worse, we are doomed to failure, for example, if the fabrication process for factory-produced biofuel uses a lot of fossil fuel because this also contributes to high levels of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG).
This is why the following important European regulation was passed: in order to be accepted for use in our tanks, biofuels must lead to a reduction of at least 35 % of GHG in relation to fossil fuels. A note of caution here: it is the entire life cycle of biofuels which is targeted here, including the fabrication procedure and direct land use change (LUC) resulting from the decision to grow the raw materials for these fuels. This environmental condition, which is part of an EU directive, could also be extended to include other factors. This is because the impact of biofuel fabrication on the environment is far from being merely limited to greenhouse gases.
Growing crops such as corn, wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane inevitably has consequences for water-use, the conservation of biodiversity or the emission of other pollutants not to mention the fact that industrial transformation requires the use of various chemical products.
All these environmental impacts must be taken into account when the ethanol produced by plant fermentation is used for the fabrication of a fuel, but also when it is used for the fabrication of ethylene (1), the monomer necessary for the plastics industry which we refer to as the a€?bioplasticsa€? sector.



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