Biodiesel yield calculation,will probiotics affect birth control pills,probiotic supplement recommended by dr. oz 5-htp,restriction enzyme digestion online tools - PDF 2016

Southeast Asia, with its abundant bioenergy resources, holds a strategic position in the global biomass energy atlas.
Southeast Asia is a big producer of agricultural and wood products which, when processed in industries, produces large amounts of biomass residues. Rice mills in the region produce 38 million tonnes of rice husk as solid residue which is a good fuel for producing heat and power.
Woody biomass is a good energy resource due to presence of large number of forests in Southeast Asia. The prospects of biogas power generation are also high in the region thanks to presence of well-established food-processing and dairy industries. Biomass resources, particularly residues from forests, wood processing, agricultural crops and agro-processing, are under-utilised in Southeast Asian countries. Southeast Asian countries are yet to make optimum use of the additional power generation potential from biomass waste resources which could help them to partially overcome the long-term problem of energy supply. Salman Zafar is a renowned consultant, advisor, entrepreneur and writer with expertise in waste management, biomass energy, waste-to-energy, environment protection and resource conservation.
Salman has successfully accomplished a wide range of projects in the areas of biogas technology, biomass energy, waste-to-energy and waste management. Tagged Agricultural residues, ASEAN, Bioenergy, Bioenergy in Southeast Asia, Biogas, Biomass, Biomass Energy, Biomass in Southeast Asia, cogeneration, Energy, Indonesia, Malaysia, Municipal Solid Wastes, Palm, Palm Oil Biomass, Philippines, Renewable Energy in Southeast Asia, Rice, Southeast Asia, Sugar, Thailand, vietnam, Wastes, Wood Wastes, woody biomass. What are Biofuels?Biofuels encompass any fuel produced from plant- or animal-based feedstock (referred to as “biomass”). In 2006, palm oil accounted for 52% or 26.3 mil MT of the total world oils and fats exports. Palm oil, a well-balanced healthy edible oil is now an important energy source for mankind. Malaysia contributes 10% of the global oils and fats utilizing only four million hectares of land.
Forests, including some of the world’s oldest virgin rain forests, account for more than 59% of the total land mass in Malaysia. Beyond the frying pan, palm oil is a major ingredient in many foods; in most cases you would not guess its inclusion. Palm oil combined with palm stearin and often blended with liquid oils makes an excellent fat blend for manufacturing shortenings. The American Heart Association (AHA) Step-1 diet advocates equal balancing of the saturated, monosaturated and polysaturated fatty acids in a 30% fat energy diet to reduce overall fat consumption and lipid-lipoprotein associated CHD risk factors. Trans fatty acids (TFA) negatively impact human plasma lipoprotein profile and have untoward implications of atherogenesis. In essence, trans and saturated fatty acid exhibit differences in their cholesterolemic responses, an observation that is critical for legislations that seek separate nutritional labeling of trans from saturated fatty acids. The palm oil industry is also embarking on the production of palm methyl esters as biodiesel for export and as a substitute for diesel in taxis, buses, trucks, tractors and stationary engines. The Malaysian palm oil industry is a fine example of an environmentally conscious industry.
Palm oil, the natural and excellent choice of the millennium is the preferred oil by billions by more than 120 countries.
Information for this Palm Oil Facts page was provided by the Malaysian Palm Oil Council and the American Palm Oil Council. All over the globe, we experience fuel shortages every few years that send governments into a frenzy and cause long lines at the fuel pumps. Step 2 is an exothermic (energy-releasing) process, and many methanol plants use the energy released in step 2 to generate the electricity needed for step 1! The standard recipe for this process is 100 pounds of fat + 10 pounds of methanol mixed with the catalyst with a yield of about 10 pounds of glycerine and 100 pounds of biodiesel. The enzymes of this pathway are extremely oxygen sensitive and employ some unique cofactors. The methanogens really need this complex pathway, since it is the only way they make energy. The methanogens are very common organisms , being found in a wide variety of anaerobic environments. There is immense bioenergy potential in Southeast Asian countries due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of biomass wastes such as agricultural residues, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc.
According to conservative estimates, the amount of biomass residues generated from sugar, rice and palm oil mills is more than 200-230 million tons per year which corresponds to cogeneration potential of 16-19 GW.
Sugar industry is an integral part of the industrial scenario in Southeast Asia accounting for 7% of sugar production worldwide. Another important biomass resource is contributed by municipal solid wastes in heavily populated urban areas. There is an urgent need to utilize biomass wastes for commercial electricity and heat production to cater to the needs of the industries as well as urban and rural communities. Technologies for biomass utilization which are at present widely used in Southeast counties need to be improved towards best practice by making use of the latest trends in the biomass energy sector.
Salman is the CEO of BioEnergy Consult, apart from being the Founder of Doha-based EcoMENA. He has participated in numerous national and international conferences and has authored many articles in reputed journals and magazines.
Oil from this attractive palm, which grows wild in West Africa and Equatorial Africa, has been used as a food and energy source for millennia. Today it is widely acknowledged as a versatile and nutritious vegetable oil, trans fat free with a rich content of vitamins and antioxidants. In many margarines, for example, palm oil provides the body or texture such that no further modification of the oil is necessary, a superb bonus in the current health conscious world.
The creamer you add to your coffee has a palm fat cleverly woven in; without it the creamer loses functionality. Nevertheless, this is a sector fast gaining importance due to the suitability of the oils and the higher added value of their derived products.
Successful launching of vitamin E and red palm oil have already given palm oil a niche in the health sector. TFA deleteriously affect lipoproteins by increasing TC, LDL-C, lipoprotein Lp(a) and decreasing HDL-C  relative to their cis isomers (8).
The solid-fat food profile of palm oil makes it a natural contender to replace hydrogenated fats in solid-fat food formulations. Palm olein (rich in oleic and palmitic acids) when compared with monosaturated oils such as olive, rapeseed and canola, rich in oleic acid and currently touted among the healthiest of the edible oils in the human diet, resulted in similar plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol values. Its investment in R&D to convert all waste into useful products has been most successful and the zero waste concept practiced by the industry is internationally acclaimed and lauded. To those who wish to reap the benefits form this oil and its products, the Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) will be your trusted source. Our reliance on nonrenewable fossil fuels for energy can eventually lead to lasting shortages as worldwide supplies of oil run low.
Biodiesel is any diesel-fuel substitute made from biomass materials like vegetable oil, animal fat, or alcohols. In the United States, the primary source is soybean oil because the United States produces more soybean oil than all other fats and oils combined.
The oils used in this process contain triglycerides, which consist of a glycerine molecule with three fatty acids attached.


High speed racing vehicles have used methanol for fuel for many years, but a more recent development is the potential for fuel-cell powered vehicles which use a methanol reforming unit to generate hydrogen from methanol.
We can produce it from many sources -- from natural gas to renewable feedstocks like municipal solid waste or crops. This means, in turn that they are dependent upon a source of hydrogen, which is supplied by hydrogen secreting anaerobes. The rapid economic growth and industrialization in the region has accelerated the drive to implement the latest waste-to-energy technologies to tap the unharnessed potential of biomass resources. Sugar mills in Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam generate 34 million tonnes of bagasse every year. He is proactively engaged in creating mass awareness on renewable energy, waste management and environmental sustainability. Biofuels offer a way to produce transportation fuels from renewable sources or waste materials and to reduce net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because the CO2 emitted during combustion of the fuel is captured during the growth of the feedstock.Biofuels in the United StatesCorn ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel in the United States.
Ancient Egyptians used it -- as attested by the discovery of an earthenware jar containing residues of palm oil, in a tomb over 5000 years old at Abydos in Egypt -- as have the peoples of Africa through the ages. The commercially grown oil palm planted in large plantations in Malaysia, Indonesia and other tropical countries within10˚ N and S of the equator, is the highest oil bearing crop in the world. Thus where agriculture land is limited, cultivation of palm oil can meet increasing demand.
Palm oil, with its moderate content of linoleic acid and high levels of antioxidants is less prone to oxidation and deteriorations. Margarines containing mostly partially hydrogenated fats are being phased out for natural formulations and palm oil has become a favored ingredient. Confectioneries made from palm and similar products made available through the marvels of modern technology and palm oil.
The oils can be used directly, for example in soap manufacture or processed into oleochemicals such as fatty acids and alkyl esters before being made into final products. Palm vitamin E tocotrienols has antioxidant effects, cholesterol lowering properties and possible anti-cancer activities.
This has increased the need to replace hydrogenated fats with natural solid fats in a large number of food formulations.
This showed that in healthy normocholesterolemic humans, palm olein could be exchanged for monounsaturated-rich oils without adversely affecting plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels. Compared to other major annual oilseed crops planted in the US and the EU, per hectare oil palm produces 10 times more oil with fewer resulting emissions and pollutants. The council promotes Malaysian palm oil by packaging and disseminating technical information, generating and collating market information, facilitating new businesses and off shore joint ventures and maintaining an IT capability to meet global market challenges and demands. Other potential sources of biodiesel include recycled cooking oil, animal fat, and other oilseed crops. Not only does this process use renewable resources, biodiesel fuel burns up to 75 percent cleaner than petroleum-based diesel. Methanol, in turn, forms a renewable, reusable source for making cleaner-burning biodiesel fuels. The Archaea (formerly called the Archaebacteria) have only relatively recently been recognized as one of the major divisions of living organisms, separate and distinct from the Prokaryotes and the Eukaryotes.
In addition to using CO2 as a carbon source, some of the methanogens can utilize other 1-carbon compounds such as formic acid and 2-carbon compounds such as acetate. Nowadays it is becoming increasingly common for the methane produced in landfills to be trapped and used as fuel for electricity production. In addition, the presence of a large number of wood processing industries also generates significant quantity of wood wastes. It has an economic life of 20 to 25 years with an average annual oil yield of 3.5-5 tons per hectare. Food technologists and major food manufacturers dedicate time and effort to prepare solid fat formulations that minimize trans fatty acids content.
Used extensively through out the baking industry, palm shortenings make excellent bakery fats. Oleochemicals are widely used to produce washing and cleaning agents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants and plastics. The patented benefits of such palm based blend include improved LDL.HDL-cholesterol ratio beneficially increasing HDL-C significantly.
In several studies the impact of TFA on the lipoprotein profile of humans appeared to be worse than that of saturates occurring in natural oils and fats. The use of palm methyl esters a diesel substitute differs from the use of crude palm oil, which does not require any modification of the engines.
Combining such natural efficiency and a productive life span of 25-30 years ensures a steady supply of this essential food commodity that feeds millions around the globe. Methanol, the alcohol with the simplest chemical structure, works as a gasoline replacement, as a feedstock for making MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) fuels, and as a source for making biodiesel. If you think about it, that’s what fat is for us -- a fuel reserve some of us carry around in greater amounts than we’ll ever need!
The resulting mixture -- sodium methoxide -- breaks the triglyceride into glycerine and ester chains. This current may be used to drive a vehicle directly through an electrical traction motor, or the energy can be stored in lithium batteries. The annual production of wood wastes in the region is estimated to be more than 30 million m3.
Gasoline with up to 10 percent ethanol (E10) can be used in most vehicles without further modification, while special flexible fuel vehicles can use a gasoline-ethanol blend with up to 85 percent ethanol (E85). A palm bears 8-12 fruit bunches annually, each weighing 15-25 kg and containing 1000-3000 fruits. Many food companies invest in a series of food research programs that allow them to become their own equivalent of technology chefs with palm as the major ingredient. The versatility of palm products is also demonstrated in meat analogues including sausages, frankfurters and patties. They are also used in a number of other industries such as paper, leather, rubber and textile. And don’t forget that the cooking oil that you consume also contains these tocotrienols. This make Malaysian oil palm a comparatively superior and sustainable crop compared to any current large scale agriculture in the tropics or temperate countries to further underscore Malaysia’s investment in sustainability, the Malaysian Palm Oil Wildlife Conservation Fund has been implemented.
Today, the biggest market for methanol is for production of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether), which is blended with gasoline to create cleaner-burning fuel. The use of methanol as the primary vehicle fuel avoids potential safety problems associated with the storage of compressed hydrogen on board. The membrane lipids are ether-linked glycerol derivatives, in contrast to the ester-linked lipids found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic membranes. Research is underway to determine whether the gas producing organisms might be reduced without affecting the growth of the animals.
According to EPA, most vehicle models manufactured after 2001 can accept 15 percent ethanol (E15) without modifications. Both palm and soybean oils combined, dominate almost 48% of global oils and fats consumption in 2006. Oleochemicals have several advantages over petrochemicals, As a natural product, they are fully biodegradable and non toxic, therefore the easier disposal and contributing to a healthier environment.


The palm oil industry has developed the red palm oil technology – a process that retains the pro-vitamin A carotenoids in the oil. But cheaper methods of making methanol -- alternatives to using a ton of hardwood -- have given it new potential as a fuel and as a source for making fuels from renewable resources.
The ester chains are now methyl esters (they would be ethyl esters if the reaction had been carried out with ethanol). In the first stage, organic materials in the water are utilized as fuel by aerobic organisms and the carbon is converted to biomass.
Some industry stakeholders have claimed that E15 may invalidate manufacturer warrantees, although vehicle warrantees vary and might not specifically prohibit a particular fuel.[3],[4] EPA intends to reduce the risk of any misfueling through careful fuel labeling. Palm oil is obtained from the fleshy mesocarp and palm kernel oil from the seed, usually in a ratio of ten to one. By suitable modifying palm oil through fractionation, interesterification of blending, it is possible to produce a wide variety of margarine incorporating various palm fractions and thus achieving zero-trans content.
Palm biodiesel is biodegradable, where up to 98% biodegrades within three weeks, harmlessly disappearing. They generate methane gas from carbon dioxide and hydrogen by a complex pathway outlined below. After settling out of the aerobes, anaerobic bacterial digestion converts the biomass to acetate. Biodiesel is the other commonly used biofuel in the United States, primarily produced from soybean oil.
Crude palm oil which is orange red in color is refined, bleached and deodorized to produce the universally known bright golden oil. Reduced fat spreads are formulated to contain 40-80% fat content and are sold as soft tubs, stick, liquid and whipped forms. They are also of better quality, more versatile and their products are acceptable to all religions. Spearheaded by such research efforts, there exists a world-class compilation of this ability of red palm oil in combating vitamin A deficiency in malnourished populations. The economic viability of palm methyl ester as diesel substitute will depend on the costs of diesel, crude palm oil and glycerin. The acetate is then utilized by the methanogens (especially Methanosarcina species) to generate energy as ATP and to release methane to the atmosphere. Typical soft oils used in these products include safflower, palm olein, rapeseed and soybean oils which are combined with semi solid palm oil to obtain the desired characteristic. The Malaysian palm oil industry is well organized at every level to ensure high quality production of palm oil products that conform to international standards. It is fractionated into a liquid olein and solid stearin to increase its versatility in food applications. Palm oil is an attractive ingredient in these spreads since it contains high proportion of higher melting triglycerides.
Malaysia is in fact the global gold standard bearer for palm oil products with is excellent R&D facilities and strict quality control at all levels of production. The usage of palm biodiesel provides an opportunity for the industry to diversify, adding to its conventional supply of the narrow food system. The solid to liquid ratio in the blend which affects final spreadability of the product can be easily adjusted with palm oil. The green fuel also sets a value-addition for the palm industry, as well as providing the cushion to price pressures, which most commodities are subject to. Stearin finds many applications in solid fat formulations and is extensively used in food processing. While the rest of the globe struggles with hydrogenation and ill effects of trans fatty acids, palm oil stands alone in providing a natural trans-free choice. Of the feedstocks in use today, sugar beets, sugarcane, and palm oil yield the highest amount of fuel per acre on a gasoline gallon-equivalent basis.[11]However, the vast majority of available plant material for biofuels is in the form of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. This biomass is not currently used in most biofuel production processes.[12] Because of the high availability of these materials, processes capable of converting cellulose to biofuels represent one pathway to significantly lowering the resources needed to grow biofuel feedstocks.
Furthermore, once the cellulose is extracted from the plant to produce the biofuel, the remaining lignin can be used as a fuel to power the biofuel conversion process. Lignin yields energy when burned and further limits the fossil fuel inputs required to produce the biofuel. Additional opportunities are in microalgae (microscopic algae) that can create biomass even more efficiently than terrestrial plants.Jatropha, a species able to grow on barren, marginal land, especially in many parts of Asia. Because they are not food-based and are often processing wastes from other industries, they also have the added benefit of limited competition with agricultural food crops.Biofuels and Greenhouse Gas Emission ReductionsWhen calculating the greenhouse gas emission reductions from biofuel use, it is important to examine the full lifecycle of emissions from the fuel. Potential greenhouse gas emission reductions vary widely, depending on many factors including feedstock selection, fuel production through feedstock conversion, and final fuel use. Fossil fuels are often used in growing and processing feedstocks, which can increase the lifecycle emissions for the biofuel.
Changes in land use and land management practices to grow biofuel feedstocks also affect the greenhouse gas profile of a fuel.
As biofuel production increases, concerns are growing about the actual greenhouse gas reductions achieved by these fuels as well as competing objectives for water and land resources.If grown in a sustainable manner, biomass is considered a carbon-neutral energy source – meaning that the greenhouse gas emissions, namely CO2, released from converting biomass to energy are equivalent to the amount of CO2 absorbed by the plants during their growing cycles. Sustainable biomass sources refer to those that limit land use change (LUC), avoid pollution, prioritize waste materials, and regrow quickly.
Without actions to ensure sustainability, an increase in dedicated crops could result in undesirable impacts in natural settings, such as LUC and pesticide use. It is challenging to design scientifically-based, equitable methodologies for estimating lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for both petroleum- and bio-based fuels, as well as other potential energy-source options. In practice, not all greenhouse gas emissions can be included in a fuel’s greenhouse gas footprint; choices must be made as to which emissions to include. In the case of biofuels, for example, emissions from the manufacturing and use of fertilizers to produce the feedstock are usually included but emissions from building the fertilizer plant itself are not. Importantly, an International Energy Agency lifecycle emissions scenario shows that biofuels could contribute significantly to reducing emissions if increased from today’s 2 percent of total transport energy to 27 percent by 2050.[13]Policy Options to Promote BiofuelsThe right set of public policy tools could spur innovation and promote the use of low-carbon biofuels from renewable sources. Such mandates have the advantage of offering suppliers a guaranteed market for their products, thus accelerating the penetration of new technologies. The potential downside to a purely volumetric approach is that producers must sell certain amounts of the fuel, without regard to its lifecycle carbon emissions, so the greenhouse gas mitigation benefit from using these fuels may be uncertain.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) updated the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), originally enacted under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. This policy allows manufacturers to produce and retailers to purchase the mix of fuels that most cost-effectively meets the standard.
If based on lifecycle emissions accounting, an LCFS is intended to provide a level playing field for all transportation energy sources that may be used in the future, including biofuels, electricity, or hydrogen.To address some of the concerns with biofuel mandates, California implemented an LCFS through Executive Order S-1-07 (issued on January 18, 2007), which set a goal of reducing the carbon intensity of passenger fuels statewide by a minimum of 10 percent by 2020. Incentives are intended to diversify the source of biofuel production as well as increase the overall output.[25] Additionally under the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture, the Biomass Research and Development Initiative provides grant funds to increase development and demonstration of biofuels. The Department of Transportation also carries out biofuel research in its Bio-based Transportation Research Program in an effort to promote innovation in transportation infrastructure.[26]Vehicle Fleet ProgramsSome cities and states require that jurisdictions remove aging fleets and incorporate alternatives fuels. For example, ethanol contains only 66 percent as much energy per gallon as a gallon of gasoline.[12] Cellulose is complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plants.



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