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The LEGO Mindstorm series of kits contain software and hardware to create small, customizable and programmable robots.
The hardware and software roots of the Mindstorms Robotics Invention System kit go back to the programmable brick created at the MIT Media Lab. The original Mindstorms Robotics Invention System kit contained two motors, two touch sensors, and one light sensor. Mindstorms kits are also sold and used as an educational tool, originally through a partnership between Lego and the MIT Media Laboratory.[2][3] The educational version of the products is called Lego Mindstorms for Schools, and comes with the ROBOLAB GUI-based programming software, developed at Tufts University[4] using the National Instruments LabVIEW as an engine. The first generation of Lego Mindstorms was built around a brick known as the RCX (Robotic Command eXplorer).
Version 1.0 RCX bricks feature a power adapter jack to allow continuous operation instead of the limited operation time when using batteries. All versions of the RCX have a unique number printed on it, necessary for technical support and used as the ID number of the RCX for your Lego Mindstorms account on the now-defunct Lego Mindstorms RCX website. GNAT GPL Allows programming NXT using the Ada language for real-time and embedded programming.
The Lego camera on its own is technically not a robotic toy; rather, it is a normal webcam (a Logitech QuickCam Web) packaged into a Lego shell. The Lego camera is meant to be used with the included Vision Command software which can also interface with an RCX and thus enables creating robots with "vision". The Lego Technic control center (1990) was the first programmable standalone Lego product, by the sense of being able to store sequence-based programs and run them. Compared to the later programmable controllers, the Technic control center is extremely simple and can only barely be called programmable.
Being released in 1995; the Dacta Control Lab was the very first Lego product to feature the sensors used in later 9V-based automated Lego products.
The Control Lab was designed for schools and educational use, and was as a result not available to the mass market. The sensors shipped with it are color coded and have internal resistors in their open state (allowing the Pbrick to sense which sensor is attached to which port). Despite its obvious limitations it has a number of advantages over its 'big brother', the RCX.
The built-in tachometer and speedometer sensors on the internal motors provides the same function as the external rotation sensor to the RCX, but without using up sensor ports. It talks the same protocol as the RCX but cannot communicate directly to it (due to IR vs RF) but with a repeater (a computer with 2 serial ports and a simple program) they can be integrated. Lego also released a blue computer called the Scout, which has 2 sensor ports, 2 motor ports (plus one extra if linked with a Micro Scout using a fiber optic cable), and a built in light sensor, but no PC interface.
The Scout is based on a Toshiba microcontroller with 32KB of ROM and 1KB of RAM, where about 400 bytes are available for user-programs.
There was a plan for Lego to create a booster set that allows you to program the Scout from a computer with a software such as RCX code.
The unit was sold as part of the Droid Developer Kit (featuring R2D2) and later the Darkside Developer Kit (featuring an AT-AT Imperial Walker).
This is the educational version of the NXT set from LEGO Education, which is made for school use. Python modules providing low-level interfaces for controlling a Lego NXT brick via Bluetooth. Set of Perl modules providing real-time low-level control of a Lego NXT brick over Bluetooth. A java based system for advanced programmers can handle most sensors and things like GPS, speech recognition and mapping technology.
Based on NXT_Python, includes additional advanced features, support for around 30 sensors, and multiple brick connection backends.
A multi-platform language that works with IRobot Roomba, NXT, RCX, VEX, and many other popular robotic sets. A multi-platform C language designed for users needing powerful debugging tools for the NXT, RCX, VEX, and soon-to-be FIRST Controller (for FRC). Provides low-level access to the NXT via Bluetooth as well as some preliminary high-level functionality. An implementation of the Soar artificial intelligence architecture that runs on the RCX brick.
With the XML-based configuration file almost any kind of bot (or microcontroller) can be added.
Easy to use parallel and event-driven script language with a component architecture and opensource interfaces to many programming languages.
The official programming language for use with the Lego Cam, that allows you to control your robot with color, motion, and flashes of light.

DialogOS combines speech recognition and speech synthesis with robotics, enabling you to build talking robots that react to your voice commands.
Processing (programming language) is an open source programming language and environment for people who want to program images, animation, and interactions. There is a strong community of professionals and hobbyists of all ages involved in the sharing of designs, programming techniques, creating third-party software and hardware, and contributing of other ideas associated with Lego Mindstorms.
One of the tutorials within the Lego Mindstorms NXT Software shows how to program a robot that follows a line using Boolean Logic.
They include a programmable 'Brick' computer that controls the system, a set of modular sensors and motors, and LEGO parts from the Technics line to create the mechanical systems. The NXT version has three servo motors and one light, sound, and distance as well as 1 touch sensor. Both versions can transmit on either frequency.[6] The carrier signal is generated by one of the RCX's internal timers.
Being a normal webcam, the Lego Camera is, unlike most Mindstorms products, not programmable and is only usable connected to a PC or some other device that supports USB webcams. It came with a dedicated IBM-PC-compatible ISA interface card, a ribbon cable, and a control panel.
It featured three output ports and manual control, and it was only capable of storing linear sequences of manual input plus timing information. To record a program; the controller had to be put in programming mode, and then any manual cotrol would be recorded to the program. The control lab was a datalogger which featured four passive input ports, four active input ports, eight controllable 9V output ports and one continuous output port. It was later replaced by the RCX and the educational release of the Robot Invention System which allowed for mobile inventions in addition to stationary inventions. It was aimed at a younger audience as an early attempt of merging computer gaming with robotics and Lego. Due to the extremely limited amount of RAM, many predefined subroutines were provided in ROM. The RCX does all of the controlling, and therefore can be programmed with the PC, while the Scout accepts commands. It is a very limited Pbrick with a single built-in light sensor and a single built-in motor. It consists of four colour-coded robots called Spybots, a programming language with which to control the Spybots, and ten simulated missions. It contains 619 pieces (includes sensors and motors), the new Color Sensor, two Touch Sensors and an Ultrasonic Sensor.
The LEGO Company no longer offers technical support to advanced users on the historical MINDSTORMS range, specifically those using the SDK 2.5 (RCX and Scout), and Spybotics range. This language is also capable for video processing using a webcam, this gives your robot excellent vision since it can filter out certain colors, lock-on to a certain area of color, display variables from the robot or computer, and much more. An open source Java based replacement firmware for the Lego Mindstorms RCX microcontroller. It is used by students, artists, designers, researchers, and hobbyists for learning, prototyping, and production. Whenever the light sensor is over the black line, the left motor is activated,  what makes the robot turn right. The first visual programming environment was called LEGOsheets,[1] since it was created by the University of Colorado in 1994 based on AgentSheets.
The NXT 2.0 has 2 touch sensors as well as a light and distance sensor, and support for 4 without using a sensor multiplexor. The only difference between the educational series, known as the "Challenge Set", and the consumer series, known as the "Inventor Set", is that it includes another light sensor and several more gearing options. Power adapterpped RCX bricks are popular for stationary robotics projects (such as robot arms) or for controlling Lego model trains.
Later Pbricks kept the color-coding for the input ports, but the later sensors dropped the color coding of the connectors (using black connectors instead). The Pbrick shares many, especially software, features with the RCX but differs in appearance and technical specifications: 1 output (plus 2 built-in) and 3 sensors. The Scout only supports passive external sensors, which means that only touch, temperature and other unpowered sensors can be used. It has seven built-in programs and can be controlled by a Scout, Spybotics or RCX unit using VLL.
It includes a light sensor, a ultrasonic sensor, a sound sensor, three lamps and a pair of touch sensors.
Related tools and documentation were removed from the Official LEGO MINDSTORMS website in 2008.

It has also support for a simple message-based control of a NXT brick via remotely executed program (basic NXC code included). To control the NXT with Processing you can use the NXTComm Processing library developed by Jorge Cardoso. Lego also encourages sharing and peering by making software code available for downloading and by holding various contests and events. When the sensor is on the white surface, the right motor is activated and the robot turns left.
Lego Mindstorms may be used to build a model of an embedded system with computer-controlled electromechanical parts.
The brick is programmed by uploading a program (written in one of several available programming languages) from a Windows or Mac computer to the brick's RAM via a special infrared (IR) interface. In the latter context, the RCX needs to be programmed with Digital Command Control (DCC) software to operate multiple wired trains.
When the recording was done, the controller could successfully recall and execute any manual action done during the recording. The control panel connected to a computer using a serial-port with a specially designed adapter cable, and a supplied computer-program allowed the user to conditionally program the outputs. The early touch-sensors were also of a different kind and shape compared to the later touch-sensors.
It is programmed by setting it to 'learn' and using the light sensor to feed barcoded commands. The kit also includes NXT-G, a graphical programming environment that enables the creation and downloading of programs to the NXT.
The first set consists of about 400 pieces, and the extra set consists of about 600 pieces. Many kinds of real-life embedded systems, from elevator controllers to industrial robots, may be modelled using Mindstorms. After the user starts a program, an RCX-enabled Mindstorms creation may function totally on its own, acting on internal and external stimuli according to the programmed instructions. Using programs running on the host computer, the user could create stationary programmable robotic Lego inventions using the older 4.5V system. Most notably; instead of featuring a removable cable, the cable was fixed just like the other sensors.
The Education Version is most suited for those who have older versions of MINDSTORMS sets around, mostly thanks to its 3 converter cables. Also, two or several more RCX bricks can communicate with each other through the IR interface, enabling inter-brick cooperation or competition. There is no formal support for Windows Vista (32-bit), but there are reports of correct functionality. The Control Lab superseded the old 4.5V PC interface from 1989, which was the first fully programmable Lego interface. Since barcode is just a series of variances in light, this form of command entry was dubbed VLL (Visual Light Link) and has been used in several later Lego models. In addition to the IR port, there are three sensor input ports and three motor output ports (also usable for lamps, etc.). The USB tower does not work on a 64-bit OS unless a 32-bit OS is used in conjunction with a virtual machine. If the sensor is exactly on the boundary, it will see a colour that is between black and white. The serial tower works normally under 64-bit Windows 7 using a third-party USB-to-serial adapter.
On the other hand, the more the sensor gets on the white surface, the whiter the perceived colour is.
This is called Fuzzy Logic as we do not consider absolute states (Boolean Logic, here "Black and White") but different degrees of those states (Whiter, Blacker). Now we are not limited anymore to turn only left and right, but can turn more right (blacker colour) or more left (whiter colour). The first loop reads the current reflected light value and stores it in the variable called "Number 1". The second and third loop control the left and right motors. The reflected light sensor gives a value between 0 and 100. A typical value for a black surface is around 20 and for a white surface something around 60.
These values depend of on the ambient right conditions and the distance of the sensor from the surface.

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