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I guess my answer doesn't take into account the difference between the use case and other parts of the spec. Other documents you may want to create to complete the picture are what we call the SAD (Software Architecture Document) and NFR (Non-Functional Requirements). Yes, I have seen use case diagrams, but I have also seen use case documents that include text descriptions of processes with sections like Goal, Actors, Precondition, Success Condition, etc. Building usecase diagrams with UML notations help us to understand & specify requirements quickly, Usually Use case diagrams can be drawn infront of team of software Engineers to quickly understand the situation. In case of a report, Report format & specification should be attached with SRS document, So that testing can be performed accordingly. Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged documentation use-case or ask your own question. Is it sound project management practice to make software engineers fix bugs "off the clock"? UML use case diagram examples for online shopping of web customer actor with top level use cases View Items, Make Purchase and Client Register, other use cases are Customer Authentication, View Recommended Items, Add to Wish List, Checkout, Payment use case.
Online shopping UML use case diagram example - checkout, authentication and payment use cases. This article will focus on the significance of the Use case diagram within software requirements and project management. The Use case diagram is used to define the core elements and processes that makeup a system.
UML Use Case Diagrams can be used to describe the functionality of a system in a horizontal way. Use Case Diagrams have only 4 major elements: The actors that the system you are describing interacts with, the system itself, the use cases, or services, that the system knows how to perform, and the lines that represent relationships between these elements.
You should use Use Case Diagrams to represent the functionality of your system from a top-down perspective (that is, at a glance the system's functionality is obvious, but all descriptions are at a very high level. You should NOT use Use Case Diagrams to represent exception behavior (when errors happen) or to try to illustrate the sequence of steps that must be performed in order to complete a task. The key components of the use case diagram are the actors themselves, the use cases tied to the actors, the boundaries where the use cases sit in, and the associations between the previous components. Example: When adding a new database system to manage a company's finances, your system will probably have to interface with their existing inventory management software.
The system box only appears on the top-level diagram (remember that a typical UML Use Case description will be composed of many diagrams and sub-diagrams), and should contain use case ovals, one for each top-level service that your system provides to its actors.
If there are interactions between the actors in your system, you cannot represent those interactions on the same diagram as your system. Example: Suppose you wanted to diagram the interactions between a user, a web browser, and the server it contacts. As mentioned above, Use Case Diagrams represent functionality in a top-down way, whereas flow charts represent behavior in a linear, time-based way. The uses arrow (or uses edge as it would be called in traditional graph thoery) is drawn from a use case X to another use case Y to indicate that the process of doing X always involves doing Y at least once (although it may involve doing it many times, "at least once" is the only relationship guaranteed by this symbol.) This symbol can be referred to as an aggregation operator, because it indicates that a given use case is an aggregate (made up of parts) whose components are the use cases that it uses.
Example: Suppose you wanted to add detail to the diagram shown below, representing an airline reservation system. The extends arrow (or extends edge) is drawn from a use case X to a use case Y to indicate that the process X is a special case behavior of the same type as the more general process Y. For the generalization concept, a use case describes a variation on another use case, use a generalization link.


For the extends concept, in some instances you want to describe a variation on behaviour in a more controlled form. When starting a use case diagram (or use case model), it is very important to keep it simple.
UML diagram software - create sequence diagrams, use case diagrams, and more with UML Diagrammer. The SAD would describe from a software design perspective how you are going to program the solution, what technologies you are going to use, and what algorithms are required. My answer was more related to those, since it obviously wouldn't make sense to put it in the diagram.
You will understand the fundamentals of use case diagrams and you should be able to create your own use case diagram.
The key elements are termed as "actors" and the processes are called "use cases." The Use case diagram shows which actors interact with each use case.
That is, rather than merely representing the details of individual features of your system, Use Case Diagrams can be used to show all of its available functionality. If your system interacts with other systems (databases, servers maintained by other people, legacy systems) you will be best to treat these as actors, also, since it is not their behavior that you are interested in describing. Since you didn't write this software, don't intend to replace it, and only use the services that it provides, it makes sense for that system to be an actor. Any kind of internal behavior that your system may have that is only used by other parts of the system should not appear in the system box.
What you can do instead is draw a separate Use Case Diagram, treating one of the actors itself as a system, and your original system (along with the other actors) as actors on this new diagram.
Since you can only have one system on the diagram, you must choose one of the obvious "systems", such as the server. Use Case Diagrams are meant to be a top-down, horizontal description of functionality, not a blow-by-blow desrciption of behavior.
Once you have done this (not a very tricky process) you have already described, at least in a high-level way, all of the things your system knows how to do.
If a certain use case uses several others, that means that all of the component use cases must be completed in the process of completing the aggregate use case, although there is no specification in Use Case Diagrams of the order in which these are completed.
First, you would create a separate diagram for the top-level services, and then you would add new use cases that make up the top-level ones. You would use this in situations where your system has a number of use cases (processes) that all have some subtasks in common, but each one has something different about it that makes it impossible for you to just lump them all together into the same use case. Specifically, what you would like to show is that not all of the seats aboard the airplane are exactly alike (some window and some aisle seats), and sometimes passengers will express a preference for one of these types of seats but not the other. While it won't provide some complex concepts like generalizations, it will provide you a good high-level start that you can share with your customers and project management team. So, in your example of a report, the use case would describe the layout of the report, what data is shown, in what order, and so on.
So if certain data is supposed to be shown under certain conditions, that case should be specified in your use case so that it can be tested. The NFR will include things such as recovery from a software or hardware outage, response times, and so on. You will also understand what a use case specification is and will attempt to apply use cases and model the use case diagrams.
This definition defines what a use case diagram is primarily made up of—actors and use cases.


While you traverse your system, you will learn significant system attributes that you model in the use case diagram. It is important to note, though, that Use Case Diagrams are fundamentally different from sequence diagrams or flow charts because they do not make any attempt to represent the order or number of times that the systems actions and sub-actions should be executed.
Certainly these are all behaviors that a camera has, but no photographer would ever pick up their camera, open the shutter, and then put it down, satisfied with their photographic session for the day. You might then be tempted to draw interaction lines between the actors, but this is a problem because it isn't clear what the interaction means, so it isn't helpful to show it here. For the most part, it isn't a good idea to try to represent sequences of actions with Use Case diagrams.
You can then continue to add detail by decomposing your use cases into more use cases which are used by the top-level use cases. A brief, mnemonic way to think about the uses arrow is that it it can be read X uses Y means that "X has a Y" as part of it's behavior.
There is a uses edge from "Check in Passenger" to "Weigh Luggage" and from "Check in Passenger" to "Assign Seat"; this indicates that in order to Check in a Passenger, Luggage must be Weighed and a Seat must be Assigned.
But of course, they cannot just be given their preference right away, because the seat they want might not be available. Because use case diagrams are simple in nature, they are free of technical jargon, use case diagrams are a great way to storyboard flows with users.
There are a number of graphical examples in this FAQ; you might want to look over them to familiarize yourself with the look of them. The crucial thing to realize is that these behaviors are not done in isolation, but are rather a part of a more high-level use case, "Take Picture". A more useful solution would be to draw two diagrams, showing all of the interactions, as below. At every stage of development, though, your Use Case Diagram is a complete description of the system's functionalty: it may lack detail, but it will not lack feature set elements.
Similarly, the diagram indicates that in order to add a reservation to the system, the available space must be checked and the passenger's information must be recorded. Therefore, the process of assigning a window seat involves checking for the availability of window seats, whereas the process of assigning an aisle seat involves checking for the availability of aisle seats. And if functionality or behavior is added or deleted over the life of your project, the scope of the change you need to make is proportional to both the scope of the change in the system itself, and the maturity of your model. But even though these processes are different, they are quite similar in a number of other ways, so it doesn't make sense to ignore their similarities.
Use case diagrams define the system requirements being modeled and help write the scenarios later used in testing. This is useful because it means that when your model is very young (only high-level diagrams drawn) making sweeping changes to the system does not involve throwing very much work away. A flow chart, however, does not correctly describe the system until you have finished drawing it, and even then small changes in the system will result in significant reworking of your flow charts. In general, Use Case Diagrams support the process of analysis and design much better than flow charts.



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