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There is an abundant literature, in philosophy and psychology, which addresses literacy and numeracy from the restricted point of view of alphabetic cultures. The three books under cursory review here do not limit their scope to the usual concerns of primary education or ideological discourse but address the issues of reading and writing in the wider context of biological and cultural evolution. An experimental cognitive neurologist who specializes in research on language and number processing in the brain, Dehaene published in 1997 a landmark book, The Number Sense (Oxford University Press). Dehaene identifies a number of paradoxes and tackles them in a conceptual context which can be characterized as semiotic or, more precisely, from the point of view of evolutionary semiotics. A mini review such as this cannot do full justice to a state of the art volume which endeavors to outline “The new science of reading” (1-9) and to answer the question: “How do we read?” (11-52). Although this book focuses on the brain substrate that makes possible a particular semiotic behavior (reading and, correlatively, writing), most of its contents are relevant, beyond literacy, to the evolutionary understanding of signs, meaning and communication. Why we see the way we do is the fundamental question which Changizi endeavored to answer through his neurological research and evolutionary reflection. Both Reading in the Brain and The Vision Revolution are grounded on decades of empirical research, including some conducted by their authors’ laboratories, designed to understand how the brain works.
The two volumes briefly reviewed above make references to secondary sources regarding actual writing systems and their reading in order to provide some examples. Theories of gene-culture co-evolution would provide the most appropriate conceptual frame for the integration of the data and theories presented in the three volumes cursorily reviewed in this Front Shelf rubric. We are glad to announce the publication of the new issue of Signs & Media, a bilingual (English-Chinese), peer-reviewed semiotic journal. An international group of artists recently unveiled The End of Money—a collaborative, multimodal exhibit hosted by the Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art in Rotterdam, from 22 May–7 August 2011. By Gabriela Pedranti As we do (almost) every year, we went to Tallinn for the last Semiofest edition (June 1st to June 4th, 2016). The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. Click above to view full image!Any book lover can tell you: diving into a great novel is an immersive experience that can make your brain come alive with imagery and emotions and even turn on your senses. Reading books and other materials with vivid imagery is not only fun, it also allows us to create worlds in our own minds. Critics are quick to dismiss audiobooks as a sub-par reading experience, but research has shown that the act of listening to a story can light up your brain. Have your ever felt so connected to a story that it’s as if you experienced it in real life?
Any kind of reading provides stimulation for your brain, but different types of reading give different experiences with varying benefits. If you’re used to reading paper books, picking up an e-reader can feel very awkward at first. Although your brain can adapt to e-books quickly, that doesn’t mean they offer the same benefits as a paperback. It feels great to lose yourself in a book, and doing so can even physically change your brain.
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Semantic memory holds information learned from words, symbols, and abstractions and must be rehearsed repeatedly in order for us to remember it. 1)   Rote rehearsal: memorization and repeated rehearsal over time when the answer is always the same.
2)   Elaborative rehearsal: actually thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered. This type of memory is the hardest to retrieve from our long-term storage because it requires so much to memorize it.
These techniques give students the option of, for example, thinking about a certain topic they learned and then connecting it to the colour of paper it was displayed on.
Reflective memory is exactly what it sounds like; reflecting on certain things and, in turn, triggering stimuli. The preceding was adapted from 10 Best Teaching Practices by Donna Walker Tileston, published by Corwin Publishers. I have found this summary very useful and it gave me some things to reflect on and read more about.
There are also comparative studies involving other advanced societies which do not foster the alphabet as the literacy tool of reference.

They provide essential material for further advances in the paradigm of gene-culture co-evolution.
His latest work on the evolutionary basis of reading opens new vistas on the semiotic plasticity of the human brain. The primary paradox is that our brain did not evolve for reading but writing must have evolved for our brain, that is, writing systems must have evolved within our brain’s constraints. Issues and evidence in localizing this competence are addressed in Chapter 2 (“The brain’s letterbox”). His 2003 book, The Brain from 25,000 Feet (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht), explored the complexity of perception and cognitive processes. But both endeavor to explain why it works the way it does in view of the deep time perspective of evolution.
It sounds romantic, but there’s real, hard evidence that supports these things happening to your brain when you read books.
When we’re told a story, not only are language processing parts of our brain activated, experiential parts of our brain come alive, too. Stanford University researchers have found that close literary reading in particular gives your brain a workout in multiple complex cognitive functions, while pleasure reading increases blood flow to different areas of the brain. But experts insist that your brain can adopt the new technology quickly, no matter your age or how long you’ve been reading on paper.
With this structure, our brains are encouraged to think in sequence, linking cause and effect. Poor readers may not truly understand the joy of literature, but they can be trained to become better readers.
As we let go of the emotional and mental chatter found in the real world, we enjoy deep reading that allows us to feel what the characters in a story feel.
For example, if we are taught something in one classroom and are then required to go to another to write a test on that material, it can pose as a difficulty because we have associated the information with a specific location. It forces all of the senses to focus on the activity your body is partaking in, thus remember it. Using various strategies, to my view will, enhance the chance of retaining information and improve learning. The prime concern of all these studies is how the semiotic competence of children develops and can be harnessed by the social constraints of reading, writing and arithmetic which are specific to the cultures into which they are born. We read indeed with the visual system of a brain which did not evolve as an adaptation to writing but which was recycled so to speak as a new semiotic tool adapted to the technology of the various scripts which emerged quite recently in human history.
We mindlessly take for granted that reading presupposes the existence of writing while in fact the capacity for reading is a pre-condition for the invention of scripts.
Then, Dehaene takes us on a flashback tour on the evolutionary trail from “The reading ape” (121-170) to “Inventing reading” (171-193) before moving to the learning process and its dysfunctions (195-262). His latest book is about visual perception and how natural selection finetuned the primates’ adaptation to their early leafy environment.
In so doing, they necessarily address issues which are central to the traditional concerns of semiotics.
Having perused these two books, readers may find it useful to familiarize themselves with a significant sample of the numerous scripts of the world such as those discussed in The First Writing. When we read, the brain does not make a real distinction between reading about an experience and actually living it.
They concluded that reading a novel closely for literary study and thinking about its value is an effective brain exercise, more effective than simple pleasure reading alone.
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden tested students from the Swedish Armed Forces Interpreter Academy, where intensive language learning is the norm, and medicine and cognitive science students at Umea University. Evolution has shaped our minds to rely on location cues to find our way around, and without them, we can be left feeling a little lost.
And this in turn makes us more empathetic to people in real life, becoming more aware and alert to the lives of others. For example, if someone is rude to you in the schoolyard and you are taken back by it, you will remember it for a long time, and any other time something similar happens, you will reflect back on that initial occurrence.
Impairments such as dyslexia, agraphia, and, more generally, illiteracy have been the objects of intense scrutiny. The evolution of writing cannot be confused, of course, with the far more ancient emergence of language. Fundamentally, reading consists of processing a minimum of two visual inputs as a vector instead of unrelated or symmetrical patterns. The last two chapters, “Reading and symmetry” (263-300) and “Toward a culture of neurons” (301-324) explore in depth the current knowledge of the brain on the level of neuronal functionality.

Changizi undertakes to explain successively the position of our eyes, the range of colors we perceive, the perceptual illusions which often trick us and which are the trade-off we have to pay for some other vital benefits, and, finally, brings in focus reading and writing as a recent cultural development which exploited natural competencies that had emerged under quite different evolutionary constraints.
This collection originated in a 2000 conference that had been organized with the explicit purpose of creating the conditions for a “conversation” among specialists of various scripts who previously had little opportunity to compare notes and address the issue of the origins of writing from a historical rather than ideological point of view.
Participants were able to identify photos of objects faster if they’d just read a sentence that described the object visually, suggesting that when we read a sentence, we automatically bring up pictures of objects in our minds.
Both groups underwent brain scans just prior to and right after a three-month period of intensive study. Some e-books offer little in the way of spatial landmarks, giving a sense of an infinite page. Neuroscientists encourage parents to take this knowledge and use it for children, reading to kids as much as possible. In a six-month daily reading program from Carnegie Mellon, scientists discovered that the volume of white matter in the language area of the brain actually increased. For example, driving a car and riding a bike are two things that are never forgotten because it has been done so many times that it becomes procedural. Philosophers, on the other hand, have speculated about the intellectual and social significance of the advent of writing considered to be a semiotic watershed for advanced civilizations. The age of scripts, though, is equally defining because of the countless transformations it brought forth into our environment. This capacity of the brain likely evolved as an adaptive cognitive processing of marks as tracks, a vital competence for a hunting primate which can figure out the probable location of a prey from minimal physical clues in its environment. As we peruse this book, the author turns upside-down a few commonsense assumptions and forces us to reconsider in a new light what we see and why we see it the way we do. The resulting volume does not pretend, of course, to cover the whole array of past and present script systems. And while you may think that this is limited only to audiobooks or reading, experts insist that our brains are exposed to narratives all day long. Amazingly, the language students experienced brain growth in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex, with different levels of brain growth according to the amount of effort and learning students experienced in that period of time. However, with page numbers, percentage read, and other physical cues, e-books can come close to the same physical experience as a paper book. In doing so, you’ll be instilling story structure in young minds while the brain has more plasticity, and the capacity to expand their attention span. Further, they showed that brain structure can be improved with this training, making it more important than ever to adopt a healthy love of reading. This has prompted some to claim that it is responsible for shifting the earth from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene era.
Changizi’s rhetoric tends to be provocative and some of his assertions are controversial but his style is direct and clear, and his peers have taken notice of the research he reports in this volume. Seven of the twelve chapters (71-309) deal successively with  cuneiforms, proto-Elamite, earliest Egyptian writing, Chinese writing, shell and bone writing, runes, and writing in early Mesoamerica. While you can certainly hop into a VR game at the mall and have a great time, it seems that reading is the original virtual reality experience, at least for your brain.
The empirical research that is conducted in disciplines concerned with education has essentially always been pragmatically oriented.
Still more preconditions are present once the brain can infer not only a direction but also how close or far the prey is likely to be found and other relevant properties (210-215).
Notably, among others, Stanislas Dehaene who substantially refers to Changizi’s work on the perceptual basis of the world’s writing systems and their remarkable capacity to communicate information both efficiently and economically (Dehaene 2009:171-180). The three introductory chapters and the two concluding ones discuss the invention, development, and extinction of script systems from the perspective of cultural evolution.
The grand narratives celebrating the advent of literacy typically construe writing as an absolute beginning and take reading for granted as a subsidiary contingency. Learning to write and read is not easy as it implies the restructuring of regions of the brain which have to recycle themselves to accommodate a very recent invention for which it is however pre-adapted, so to speak, because the technology of scripts was built on available specialized neuronal  resources. Far from being totally arbitrary, scripts of all kinds combine a limited number of perceptual features which belong to a limited repertory of vital coded information. A good companion to this volume is the collection entitled The Disappearance of Writing Systems: Perspectives on Literacy and Communication (2008) edited by John Baines, John Bennet, and Stephen Houston, which was reviewed in a previous issue of SemiotiX. An evolutionary semiotic approach cannot fail to realize that the roots of the competencies which made drawing, writing, reading, and reckoning possible must be traced back into the deep time when natural selection started molding the primate brain.

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