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Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct".
They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). The following is a fully copyrighted outline of truncated first paragraph lines of Cowmakera€™s Eve, a novel by C.
As we can see, the one thing that makes Okinawa unique is its people who will go out of their way to assist strangers.
It is only appropriate that again we pay homage to the hospitality of the Okinawans we met who again showed their hospitality.
In accordance with the Kenpo gokui, we have followed its principles which came from Chinese culture. The Ryukyu were named Okinawa by the Japanese so it is fitting to name the tour after the name used before it was renamed. The a€?2011 Ryukyu Propriety Cultural and Martial Toura€? was exceptional for so many reasons but mostly because of the people that I had the opportunity to share the experience with. This was my third journey to Okinawa and I had the opportunity to share the experience with Heather Rancic on all three trips. I am thankful that Sensei and Michie allowed three of my senior students to accompany us on this trip. I would be remiss not to thank all our families, as we could not have made this trip without the support and sacrifice of our families. Our drive to the airport was quick and easy - little traffic with so many people on summer vacation and school not yet in session. On the plane I finally had the opportunity to watch a documentary on Buddhism that I downloaded to my iPad months ago. While waiting for our bags I paid special attention to the sea of green duffle bags and camouflage backpacks that the military men and women were sifting through on the carousel. While waiting for Sensei and Michie to arrive we managed to sneak into a restaurant at the airport just prior to their closing for our first Okinawan Soba of the trip.
We also took a short drive over to visit the tomb and pay our respects to Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s second son Shinsho. We walked through the village as Sensei tried to locate the exact site of the Chan (Kyan) dojo where Shimabuku Tatsuo Sensei officially named Isshinryu. We looked at the site trying to visualize the entrance and the changes that had taken place over the years relative to photos we had seen.
As the conversation continued he told us that Shinsho (Ciso) Shimabuku was his childhood friend and they used to play together as kids. We returned to the location a few days later with two photos of the Chan dojo so we could compare them to the current property.
Sensei fell asleep in the car on the way to Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s tomb and entrusted Heather and me to get the group there safely.
It is always an emotional and moving experience touring the exhibits, which paint a vivid picture of the Battle of Okinawa. On the grounds of the museum stands the cornerstone of peace where the names of all those that perished in the Battle of Okinawa, regardless of nationality, soldiers or civilians, are inscribed.
In my opinion this is one of the most important places that any visitor to Okinawa should see.
In late March 1945, a fierce battle such as has rarely been seen in history took place on these islands. One afternoon we visited Ryukyu Mura, which is an authentic re-creation of an ancient Okinawan village.
We had the opportunity to train with Iha Kotaro Sensei and Iha Mitsutada Sensei four nights while on Okinawa.
Mitsutada demonstrated his hidden drumming talent when he showed us how to play the Eisa drum that I bought for my son, Gregory. Sensei wanted to visit Higa, a woman who lives on the property adjacent to where the Kyan Dojo was located. A few days later we returned so that Sensei and Emi could drop off a small gift to Higasan to thank her for her time and conversation earlier in the week. We visited Nakagusuku Jo (Castle), which is believed to have been constructed in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
In 1853, the Commodore Perry expedition came to Japan to pressure the country to open its borders for trade. Nakagusuku Castle is also the location where Advincula Sensei performed many of the empty hand katas in his videos. We also saw the unfinished hotel that sits adjacent to the castle grounds but did not venture inside.
Some of the construction workers left after hearing the warnings, and many others left the project after several workers died in construction accidents. One night Michiea€™s sister, Yasue, brought us to a local festival in Uezu Town, Uruma City. We saw a Shorinryu karate school led by Miyagi Atsushi perform a demonstration at the event. One of the places that Sensei had added to the schedule was Sefa Utaki, most sacred site on Okinawa, where many high priestesses throughout history have prayed for the prosperity of the Ryukyu Kingdom. We visited Shurijo Castle; a fortress originally built in the 15th century that was the political, economic and cultural center of the Ryukyu kingdom for hundreds of years.
Thank you for your teachings and for continuing to pass down Isshinryu as taught by your teacher, Tatsuo Shimabuku.
Just about every house had a set of shisa in front to protect the home.A  Each set includes a male (with the mouth open to let the good spirits in) and a female (with the mouth closed to keep the evil spirits out). A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia. In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith.
In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward.
Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty.
The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East.
An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East.
A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns. New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration. The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained.
And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D.
They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory. Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased.
The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king.
With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique. England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia.
One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather.
His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient. Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world.
John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand. During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies.
The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France. By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain.
The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain.
In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation.
After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia.
Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs. Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China).
Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age.
Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia.
A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features.
Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe. If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€??
Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts.
The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures.
And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves.
Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism.
Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language. The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there.
Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C.
His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages. A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas.
But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations. But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees.
Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross. After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula.
When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang.
According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken.
In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward. De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year.
The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City.
He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river. Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines. Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force.
The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash.
Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda. De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders.
Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate.
The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas. By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade.
The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa. Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries.
Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ.
The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.
Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain.
Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline.
The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations.
Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce.
Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life.
How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands? What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way? What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner? By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands.
Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.
Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743. Many of the tours are named after themes of courtesy and this is correct since Okinawa is known for the gate of courtesy Shureimon (a®?c¤?e–€) (or Shurei no mon).
It was intercourse between Ryukyu Kingdom and China since 1372 that Okinawa began its communications with the Emperors of China. As you know, today many Okinawans readily admit that their society is champuru (a??a??a??a?—a?«a??) or a mixture. I often speak about prior trips at the dojo and it was awesome to have Kathy Fawcett, Erik Heller and Lorena Verdun experience Okinawa first hand. We are fortunate to have children, spouses and parents that are willing to sacrifice so that we can do what we love to do. I enjoyed getting to know them better as they are very dedicated karate-ka and fun people to be with.
When we were speaking on the phone Kathy called me for dinner and Sensei told me to let her know that a€?I am on the phone with headquarters.a€? Never a good position to be in, having two masters with conflicting orders. The bags all looked the same and each enlisted soldier was trying to find their belongings.
On the first we began from the Hotel Harbor and walked north on route 75 toward the former location of the Agena dojo. Sensei told us the story of how Kichiro as first son inherited the position of taking over Isshinryu.
I never had the opportunity to meet Ciso but have learned much of him from Advincula Sensei. While checking out the property we noticed a man about 70 gardening directly across the street from the old dojo location. When he awoke he was in front of Tatsuoa€™s tomb but he will never know the route he traveled to get there.
When announcing the name of his new system, Tatsuo Shimabuku said, a€?All things begin with one.a€? His one vision has touched so many across the world. They did this to prevent dying of starvation and because the Japanese soldiers told them that if caught by the Americans they and their children would be tortured.
One could spend days in the museum and we therefore chose to spend the majority of our time in the history and folklore sections. Old homes were brought to Ryukyu Mura from all over Okinawa and reassembled to preserve the history of the island. The dojo is on the second floor of a residential building with hardwood floors and no air conditioning.


He gave us an education on different Okinawan fabrics and especially liked the one that sensei had selected for my bo cover.
We had lots of laughs and received an education on many things this eveninga€¦karate, beer, fabric and drumming. Sensei had a photo of Higasan with Kyan Chotoku, her father and others that was taken in the late 1920a€™s. We took a group photo with Higasan, thanked her and began to leave, as we did not want to overstay our welcome. The castle is divided into 6 separate enclosures and is one of the best-preserved castles on Okinawa. The story behind the haunted hotel is that in the early 1980a€™s a Naha businessman decided to build a luxury hotel on the hillside of Nakagusuku castle. At this festival we had the opportunity to see a number of performances including a shishi dance and a karate demonstration. The Shishi dance is a traditional dance that has been passed down from generation to generation for centuries. Prior to the school going on stage to perform the demonstration, Sensei told me that they would likely perform Sunsu kata.
They cooked great food and it gave us an opportunity to spend some additional time with Michiea€™s family. While visiting the site we witnessed two women set up an offering at some of the key locations within the site and pray to their ancestors. The Sanshin is a popular Okinawan instrument that looks a little like a small snake skin banjo. Shurijo has been rebuilt a number of times prior to ita€™s being leveled during the Battle of Okinawa in WWII. I had seen Okinawan dancers a number of times in the past and they were all impressive but I think these were by far the very best. Okinawa is so appropriately named the a€?Island of Courtesy.a€? Everyone that we came in contact with was extremely friendly, understanding and helpful. Thank you for allowing me to join you on the a€?2011 Ryukyu Propriety Cultural and Martial Arts Toura€? and for allowing me to share the experience with three of my students.
When announcing the name of his new system, Tatsuo Shimabuku said, a€?All things begin with one.a€?A  His one vision has touched so many across the world. The museum is dedicated to telling the story of the Battle of Okinawa during World War II.A  The museum honors all those who died on Okinawa during the Battle of Okinawa and tells of all the innocent life that was so tragically lost during the 82-day battle. He is a relative of Michie and Yasue.A  He had a factory at his home and his specialty is using red clay to make unglazed shisa, awamori jars and pottery urns used for burial. Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe.
Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty).
They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf.
They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo).
China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping.
They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line.
But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution.
Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish.
Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves.
They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China. Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada.
In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island.
He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes.
Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants. At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education. Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia.
The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor). We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he?
Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture.
In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman. Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences. Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English.
Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank.
Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags.
As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint. In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy. Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe.
Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel.
Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men. They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold.
They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain. What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World?
In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first.
If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal?
Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? Latter the tiny kingdom was subjugated and conquered by invasion of Ryukyu by forces of the Japanese Satsuma. Their proper guidance, patience and willingness to share so much of themselves is what made this experience so enriching. This was Kathya€™s second trip to Okinawa and I am fortunate that my wife is as passionate about these trips as I am. Emi spent much of the trip working hard to translate at a number of interviews that Sensei arranged. One question that was posed in the film wasa€¦What is more useful, a pile of gold or a pile of mud? While walking to the dojo sensei showed the former locations of the sai-maker and the tatami-maker. Sensei explained how quickly things are changing on Okinawa and that many of the old historical locations related to Isshinryu have disappeared.
One of our first stops was the house where Shimabuku Shinsho (Tatsuoa€™s 2nd son who was known as Ciso to most Americans) lived. Unfortunately sensei was awake on the trip back from Tatsuoa€™s tomb and he got to enjoy the ride past the local livestock, water dam and garbage dump. Through the teachings of Advincula Sensei, Shimabuku Tatsuo Senseia€™s vision and thoughts live on. The museum displays very graphic photos and does not sugar-coat how horrific this battle was.
In truth, the Americans treated the Okinawans well providing them with medical attention, food and shelter.
Starting left to right, the kitchen which typically is behind the womena€™s sitting room (ichibanza-ura) since traditionally Okinawan women do almost all the preparing and serving of food.
Ryukyu Mura also displays many other aspects of Okinawan culture including music, dance, instruments, bingata (Okinawan fabric) and pottery.
One of my teenage students, Cheyenne Smith, is learning to sew and decided to set up a little business selling bo covers. We also saw the new Hija Bridge that replaced the one on which Kyan Chotoku used to practice Chinto Kata. He was interested in interviewing the woman to see what she knew of Kyan and the exact location of his dojo on the property.
She told us of a time when the Hija River flowed and how she used to swim and fish in the river as a little girl.
This is due to its durable limestone construction and because it suffered little damage during the Battle of Okinawa. Perry wrote of Nakagusuku Castle in his journala€¦a€?The material used to build the fortress is limestone and the masonry is an admirable construction. Many villagers warned him that the grounds were sacred, but he ignored all the warnings and continued to move forward with his project.
Two people are required to play the Shishi, one playing the head and the other filling out the back end. I did not understand why a Shorinryu school would perform Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s Isshinryu kata.
At one point during the evening Yasue began teaching an Okinawan fan dance to Heather, Kathy and Lorena. The word Sanshin translates as a€?three strings.a€? Kathy and I bought a large drum for our son Gregory. We swam at the island resort and found a great new location to take formal photos on the beach. The castle has been rebuilt as close to its original specifications as possible using pre-war photographs and plans that were not destroyed. I think dancing at Shuri Castle in Okinawa must be the same as making on Broadway in the United States. We also designed a t-shirt and had them made to commemorate the 2011 Ryukyu Propriety and Cultural Martial Arts Tour.
Lorena was like a kid in a candy store and we had to pry her out of the store with a crowbar.
We saw a weight room and a karate class practicing ju-kumite on the first floor, a kendo class on the next floor and a judo class on the third floor.
Many of the Okinawan people do not seem to have much in the way of material things but they truly value people and relationships and are so rich because of this. Some of the older homes have a hinpun (approximately 5a€™ high and 10a€™ wide wall) between the road and front door.
We also saw the new Hija Bridge that replaced the one on which Kyan Chotoku used to practice Chinto Kata.A  Following the war the Army Corp of Engineers built a new bridge connecting the towns of Kadena and Yomitan. The Eisa performers included men who dance with drums, women who perform traditional Okinawan dance, Eisa clowns and a sanshin band. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe.
It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain.
European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia.
Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia.
Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line.
Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium.
In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec.
In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D.
So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed.
Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge.
It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below.
Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble.
He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today.
He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient.
He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world.
I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was.
A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses.
Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river.
Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost.
They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it. And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him.
Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees.
The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage.
As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled. Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church. Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea.
The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer. Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans.
The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. 48: a€?Whoever receives this child in my name receives me, and whoever receives me receives him who sent me. While a prefecture of Japan, Okinawa while similar to Japanese culture also has its own culture that is unique to Okinawa. In 1945, Okinawa was again invaded by American invasion and is still occupied by American bases on this tiny island. While many Okinawans resent the American bases on its soil, they do not hold a grudge against Americans and as we saw, will go out of their way to assist and help.
It became much easier once I found a map entirely in English (too bad this was on day seven of the trip). I still consider myself a young man but gave thought to the fact that many of them are more than 20 years my junior. He stressed that it is important to document these locations and the history for future generations.
He told us that as a kid Shinsho was always good at building things and that he later became a shop teacher. Mitsutada explained that only the original Orion is beer and is clearly designated so on the can. She was reluctant as she approached the gate to her property with ten Americans standing in front. Once formally introduced by name, they stood up and said, a€?You are Advinculaa€¦you are famous on Okinawa in Isshinryu.a€? The conversation continued and they indicated that they would be having the symposium this October and another next fall. The stones are processed in a very interesting way and are carefully shaped and jointed, even though cement or mortar is not used.


The man spent millions of dollars trying to build the perfect hotel and continued to ignore warnings about it being close to sacred land and restless spirits.
Many who have entered the abandoned hotel over the years have reported seeing ghosts and hearing strange sounds. The dance is believed to ward off evil spirits and bring prosperity and a good harvest to the region.
The group performed a number of kata including Seisan, Chinto, part of Kusanku and yesa€¦Sunsu. Sensei Yasue is a very good dancer and she seemed to have fun passing her knowledge on to the girls. The kama in the hardware store are razor sharp and much less expensive then those sold by Shureido. We drank and ate with the local Okinawans and made conversation the best we could with the language barrier. I was impressed with the near perfection of each movement and with how closely the movements of each dancer were synchronized.
The shirts have a dragon-shaped enso on the back with the outline of Okinawa in the center. The women's sitting room is where the women would gather while they prepared the food.A  Next, the main sitting room (nibanza-ura), with the altar placed in front, and then and mena€™s sitting room (sanbanza-ura) where usually the men would sit in social gatherings. The old stone bridge had a curve in it while the new one is as straight as an arrow as the Army Corp of Engineers are all about functionality. Once formally introduced by name, they stood up and said, a€?You are Advinculaa€¦you are famous on Okinawa in Isshinryu.a€?A  The conversation continued and they indicated that they would be having the symposium this October and another next fall. Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added.
They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans. At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market.
Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine. He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580.
Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636.
Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli.
Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants. Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials.
They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea. And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore.
As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology.
Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person. Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies. He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come.
If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land.
In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power.
He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe.
As always, Michiea€™s sister Yasue and her family welcomed us into her home and treated us like family. I was most impressed with the poise and maturity of Robby and Maya both inside and outside the dojo. I took a moment to reflect and feel thankful for all they do for the people of the United States of America.
They did remember the dojo, told us we were two blocks away and pointed us in the right direction. He told us that he did remember the dojo and described in detail how it looked many years ago. The Orion Rich, Orion Southstar and Orion Special are actually not beers but are actually malt beverages. We brought back lots of Okinawan fabric so that she can now offer some limited bo covers made with traditional Okinawan fabric and patterns. Present at the meeting were all the members of our group as well the following peoplea€¦Irei Hiroshi, Uehara Kunio, a translator and student of Eizo Shimabuku, Hatoma Itsuko, the grandniece of Kyan on hi wifea€™s side and Makiya Kiyoshi, the Superintendent of Education in Kadena. Sensei indicated that if they provide him with enough notice he would do his best to coordinate his 2012 visit to Okinawa with their event. I think this work will last for a long time.a€? The advanced construction techniques used have withstood wind and rain for more than 500 years. It is also believed to be good luck if you are playfully bitten by a shishi as it parades among the audience. Sensei later explained to me that Miyagi Atsushi is from the Kaneshi Eiko, Shigema Genyu and Kaneshiro Kenji lineage. One of the other highlights of the evening for me was watching Erik try and politely choke down the seaweed jello. We were also invited to dance with the Okinawans and assist the band by playing the drum and sanshin. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers.
A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines). The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640.
Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada.
Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes.
But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way? At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.
Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever.
I did have to keep an eye on my ipad as Yasuea€™s 4-year old granddaughter, Kana, enjoyed playing the games my son had downloaded. It is students like Kathy, Erik and Lorena that inspire me every time I set foot in the dojo.
Sensei talks of a time when the exchange rate was a very favorable 400:1 and he felt like a wealthy man on Okinawa. At the end of the trip I told them that they represented their family, their teachers (Mike and Claudia Whiteley) and their dojo well. Sensei told us the story of how Angi Uezu and his wife Yukiko (Tatsuoa€™s 3rd daughter) used to live live across the streetA from the Agena honbu dojo property. Both Higasan and Senseia€™s faces lit up as they continued to remember their common friend Shinsho. I did, however find it challenging to work from the deeper zenkutsu dachi that is predominant in all RyuKonKai kata. Higasan first indicated that we should have made an appointment and told us that she was very busy and did not have much time to talk. We were not very good at any of it but the Okinawans appreciated that we took an interest in their culture and tried. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road.
Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands. This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa. She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise.
Sensei Advincula has always explained to me that in order to better understand Isshinryu and all Okinawan karate, one must gain and appreciation for Okinawan customs, culture, history and traditions.
This was known by some, to be the run-off or black belt dojo since senior students often used it when the main (honbu) dojo was crowded.
Sensei and Emi conversed with the younger Higa and he too remembered the dojo and the many foreigners that would come to train. I was drinking so I do not remember all the details; however I believe that Mitsutada explained that it had something to do with Orion looking to avoid some sort of tax on beer.
After Tatsuoa€™s passing Kaneshi, Kaneshiro and Shigema reverted back to Shorinryu but continued to teach Sunsu to honor their teacher. It is a compilation of Beatles songs played using only Okinawan instruments like the sanshin and Okinawan drum. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. This journey has given each of them a greater appreciation for Okinawan culture and karate-do. He told us of their oldest brother, Higa Seijiro, who is currently a Shihan in Isshinryu at Kichiroa€™s dojo and trained with Tatsuo Shimabuku many years ago. She answered a few questions and told us that the photo brought back memories of her father, Tokuyama Chokun. Three of the top students from this lineage were Nagamine Yasuo, Soichi Nakahama and Miyagi Atsushi. Heather and I were very impressed with their singing talent and somewhat disappointed as we were hoping that they would entertain us by singing as poorly as we did in 2009. I figured it would be really good or really bad and was pleasantly surprised - Okinawa does the Beatles well! But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills.
From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia. Most every excursion required us to navigate the entire perimeter of Kadena Air Force base.
Sensei, this was not because we did not know a more direct route but was because we felt compelled to honor our men and women in uniform on every trip. The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. She also told us to find Irei Hiroshi, a man who has organized a Kyan symposium and is currently working on a project to honor kyan with a museum. She then told us that she was busy and we could make an appointment to come back another time. I had this wonderful sermon today on resurrection but I am changing it due to something in this morninga€™s paper. Our daughter who is also in the Army was in special training for 3 A? months and Oma and I took care of Alan at our home. At the local daycare, Alan met his friend Noah and they played together for the duration of this time. Donations can be sent to any PNC bank location in Pennsylvania directed to the Noah Staley Trust Fund. This cancer is so rare that only about 100 people in the US have ever been diagnosed with this. I am asking all of my readers, please pray to our Lord for his healing, that his parents get the much needed monies, and that everyonea€™s faith shall increase as they see the Glory of God do a miracle. Help me boldly claim my full capacity for your use.a€? ------------- Donna Givlera€”quoting Katie Brazelton of Saddleback Church in her devotional book titled a€?Praying for Purpose, for Womena€?. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! Everyone who lives in me and believes in me will never die.a€?1 Corinthians Chapter 15, vs.
42: Our earthly bodies are planted in the ground when we die, but they will be raised to live forever.
27: For you will not leave my soul among the dead or allow your Holy one to rot in the grave. 2: The leaders were very disturbed that Peter and John were teaching the people that through Jesus there was a resurrection of the dead. 11: I want to suffer with him, sharing in his death, so that one way or the other I will experience the resurrection from the dead. It proved that he was God and that He had power even over His own death and Satana€™s dominion. God can resurrect our lives, our dreams, and our visions if we ask him to or if it is His will for us. If we have a dream or vision and we lose sight of it we can gain our sight back if we ask Him in prayer.
She continued her life style and left her son with babysitters while she partied and enjoyed life (she thought). We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
One day, depressed of how her life was going, she drove past our church and stopped in on a whim. We sponsored her that Christmas and had much joy running around buying her son Jared presents. Over the next two years we connected a couple more times and gave her encouragement when we seen her. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? Last year we gave her a gift card for a restaurant so that she and Jared could have a nice meal out together.
She now has a good full time job with benefits, her son is doing fantastic in school, and she is looking exceptionally healthy and emotionally stable now. For she took the courage in her slow death of life and laid all her hope at the foot of the cross. My wife and I thank God that he let us participate, even if it was very little, in her re-birth.
A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? Shortly after the dream, we were visiting YWAM in Lebanon and they were showing us their prayer tent that they use in Lancaster and Cape Cod.
This was with the hope that someone would step up to the plate and donate a space to erect it. Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando?
However, recently the pastors of the Gathering Place (a project to help people with Aids) asked us to help bring CAP some clothes this winter. Just open your mouth and ask.a€?A a€?Even though your promise may be postdated, remember whose signature is on the checka€? Pastor Pop-Pop 11-8--09. What started out as something to just help pastor my children, has turned into something that may be helping lots of people. According to Yahoo my host, I have an average of 50 hits a week on the Pastor Pop Pop site.
Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest. This weekend at a prayer tent at a local flea market, I seen a leg grow that was shorter than the other one.
Every week from now on there will be two tabs to the right of the Home Page that will be new.
We will address both today and you may click on the Tab in future weeks to experience the Altar Call again.
A Christian artist once said that when she was in another country and away from her Church, she would sit and pray alone and have communion by herself to remind her of her faith. That inspired my wife and me to do it occasionally by ourselves and with some of our Amish friends. It can be about your body, mind, soul, family, friends, healing needed, finances, challenges, or anything that you wish.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! Turn away from your former self, study in the Word (the Bible) and find yourself a good Christian Church that will support you and help you grow in your faith. The Son being Jesus Christ who died on the cross at Calvary and shed his blood for our sins.
I believe that since I now accept Him as my Lord and Savior that I have been washed clean of my sins and guilt by his blood. Jesus, I love you.a€? A If you prayed this simple prayer, you are saved and re-born in Him. We are going to drown!a€? He replied, a€?You of little faith, why are you afraid?a€? Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. The eyes of the Lord are upon those who love him; he is their mighty shield and strong support, a shelter from the heat, a shade from the noonday sun, a guard against stumbling, a help against falling. Although I own and study from many various different Bible translations, I personally normally use the NAB version.
Occasionally I like to read some of the a€?missing books of the Biblea€? sometimes called the Apocrypha.
They include the books of the books of Baruch, Judith, both Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and the book of Wisdom. If youa€™re Amish (I do have some Amish readers), you may find these books in an earlier version of the King James printing.
Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?
Any way, I was reading the book of Sirach and through some of the verses it was put on my heart that I treated this person somewhat wrongly and it could have been done through ambition or pride of mine.
I immediately broke down and confessed this sin to Jesus and asked for Goda€™s forgiveness. However, I will declare that the Lord has closed a door but he will surely open a new and better one.
I choose to believe this truth and not the news media and evil spirits who would much rather us to believe that this bad economy, unemployment, and world affairs will defeat us.
He was led by the Spirit in the wilderness, where he was tempted by the devil for forty days.
The Scriptures say, a€?People do not live by bread alone.a€™a€? Then the devil took him up and revealed to him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 12: For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places. It is good for us to know the Scriptures and write some down to pray and declare a€?in Jesusa€™ namea€™ when we are being attacked. When you are in the battles of life, say a verse or two out loud and declare it over your life in Jesusa€™ name. Tell Satan to, a€?Get out of my life, body, mind, and soul and leave me alone in Jesusa€™ namea€? And use the arrows against him.
Have mercy on me and hear my prayer.Go away, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard my weeping. He rescued me from my powerful enemies, from those who hated me and were too strong for me.
I will thank the Lord because he is just; I will sing praise to the name of the Lord Most High. My enemies retreated; they staggered and died when you appeared.Turn and answer me, O Lord my God!
Dona€™t let my enemies gloat, saying, a€?We have defeated him!a€? Dona€™t let them rejoice at my downfall.Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will not be afraid, for you are close beside me.
Protect my life from my enemiesa€™ threats.But God himself will shoot them with his arrows, suddenly striking them down. Pray and think on this thing called freedom, which we take for granted but is being eroded away.
37-40: Then He said to him (a Pharisee), a€?Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. 21: The one who pursues righteousness and faithful love will find life righteousness, and faithful love.
Many relatives were coming to our home to partake in the golden turkey and all the other foods and treats my wife prepared. So I will not be spending Thanksgiving having dinner around a table with my family like you are going to.
If people like you would not patronize this store on holidays and make sure that you have all your stuff the day before, it would be unlikely that they would stay open. It also made me think about all the other stores that are open on these days and the countless others that have to work those days and cannot have an enjoyable time like some of the rest of us.
And dona€™t forget to thank them for being there if you just cannot bear not to go to the store for that a€?emergencya€? item. 37-38: On the last day, the climax of the festival, Jesus stood and shouted to the crowds, a€?Anyone who is thirsty may come to me! For the Scriptures declare, a€?Rivers of living water will flow from his hearta€™.a€?Matthew Chapter 11, vs. On one day before his memorial service when we were all there at his home, his daughter went out in the backyard by her self. She was walking around in the back yard and my other brother and I decided to go out and comfort her. She said that she looked up in the sky (it was blue and full of clouds that day) and, a€?I saw a very large white hand that seemed to reach down to mea€?. She stated that she felt it was her daddya€™s hand and because of this she felt better knowing that he was still watching over her. We may go through many troubles and trials in our lives but God will always be with us and never forsake us. 12-13: If a man has a hundred sheep and one of them goes astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine in the hills and go and search of the stray?
And if he finds it, amen, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that did not stray.
After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings and set off to a distant country where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation.
When he had freely spent everything, a severe famine struck that country, and he found himself in dire need. So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens who sent him to his farm to tend the swine. Coming to his senses he thought, a€?How many of my fathera€™s hired workers have more than enough food to eat, but here am I, dying from hunger.
I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him, a€?Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. While he was a long way off, his father caught sight of him and was filled with compassion. Loads of cars and cameras were set up by the Audubon society to just catch a glimpse of it.
You may have had parents or grandparents that were religious and went to church and prayed. Perhaps you have done something you consider really bad and believe God just doesna€™t love you anymore. Through his Son, if you confess your sins and ask for his forgiveness, you will be washed clean again.
One that will help you feel better, enriches your soul, shower you with His Word, and nurture your faith so it grows in the path of Christ. I wish to thank all my readers for visiting my web site this year and I hope that it helped in some way. She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel (which means a€?God is with usa€™).Micah Chapter 5, vs.
2: But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village among all the people of Judah .
God sent him to buy freedom for us who were slaves to the law, so that he could adopt us as his very own children.John Chapter 20, vs. 30-31: The disciples saw Jesus do many other miraculous signs in addition to the ones recorded in this book. But these are written so that you may continue to believe that Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing in him you will have life by the power of his name.Luke Chapter 2, vs.
9-12: Suddenly, an angel of the Lord appeared among them, and the radiance of the Lorda€™s glory surrounded them. The Savior a€“ yes, the Messiah, the Lord a€“ has been born today in Bethlehem, the city of David!
The names have been changed and the name of their Church deleted to help keep their identities secret.
It was at this Church that we also got baptized together and rededicated our lives to Christ. I desire a man after your own heart and if that is not Mark then remove him.a€? I also said, a€?But Lord, divorce is not your desire, I believe in you. Mark has too much pride to come down to the altar, but I know if you can make a Donkey talk, you can call him out!a€? (Read Numbers Chapter 22, vs. God has something to say.a€? Now the Pastor did not know Mark and did not know what I had prayed before we came here, only God knew.
I now read the Bible to them every day, monitor their TV, take them to Church, and lay hands on them and speak blessings into their lives.



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