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In the context of a growing body of data across multiple sectors in Lao PDR, the Food and Nu-trition Security Atlas was initiated with the aim of providing an up-to-date synthesis of available information on the food and nutrition security situation in the country. Frequently Asked Questions - Get answers to common problems and learn more about ReliefWeb.
Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Flood occurs when water runs over its natural confines and inundates a large area of land (Lefever, Bluemle & Waldkirch 1999). There are several views and perspectives regarding the failure of government's initiatives to control the floods. A disaster has far-reaching effects on both the tangible and intangible assets of households who live in its active zone.
However, it is recognised that households’ capacity and their access to resources differ considerably (Berke et al. The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI), first developed by Cutter, Boruff and Shirley (2003), uses a common set of broad indicators to explore differences in social vulnerability between places (countries, census tracts or census block groups). The other factors that determine the vulnerability of households are sensitivity (health, food, water), adaptive capacity (socio-demographic profile, livelihood strategies, social networks) and exposure (natural disaster) (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] 2001), which altogether constitute the essence of the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) of Hahn, Riederer and Foster (2009). FIGURE 2: Five types of household capital that contribute to household adaptive capacity and resilience. Although households have differential access to capitals, the impact of floods is similar on natural capital (e.g. In the state of Bihar, the pressure of human population on land and common property resources is much higher than other states because of high population density (Thorpe et al.
The absence of irrigation facilities, underdeveloped infrastructure, non-availability of agricultural inputs, and small and fragmented land holdings cause agriculture-dependent households to suffer even more poverty.
Financial capital (sources of income; savings, loans, assets, insurance) (Buckle 2006) is another significant determinant of the vulnerability of households, as most of the households are poor and suffer from extreme poverty conditions. Human capital (education, skill and health) is a significant factor in determining households’ vulnerability.
Vulnerability shows shock and stress absorbing capacities of households in restoring their normal life after disaster (Etkin et al.
According to Bruneau and colleagues (2003), the important features of resilience are robustness, rapidity, resourcefulness and redundancy. However, various approaches suggest that vulnerability and resilience exist side by side in a system (Turner et al. According to Turner (2010), vulnerability and resilience are important components of sustainability, with overlapping differences. What are the components that add to the vulnerability of the area and what is the vulnerability of the blocks?
The LVI developed by Hahn and colleagues (2009), Lohani (2007), Razafindrabe (2007), Eriksen and Kelly (2006), Selvaraju and colleagues (2006), Dahal (2006) and Agrawala and colleagues (2003) was used to assess the vulnerability of the seven blocks in the district of Bhagalpur, namely Bihpur, Ismailpur, Gopalpur, Rangra Chowk, Kharik, Narayanpur and Naugachia.
These components directly as well as indirectly represented households’ capacity and access to resources. In the index, Sb is the original subcomponent of the block b and Smin and Smax are the minimum and maximum values for each subcomponent determined using data from the seven blocks of the district.
The IPCC define livelihood vulnerability as a function of system exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity but it does not show the relationship between them (Shah et al.
To assess the vulnerability of households, data were collected from seven blocks on the basis on eight major components of LVI, namely SDP, SN, H, F, W, NC and ND (Hahn et al.
The study does not show much difference in the socio-demographic index of the seven blocks, possibly because of their similar physical settings.
The livelihood strategies of the households were diverse because of their knowledge and experience of disaster exposure. Borrowing and lending money indicate the financial assistance households receive in cash and kind from their social network (Hahn et al.
In Naugachia (0.26), the least households reported ill health as a result of better livelihood options and government and private health facilities. FIGURE 5: Vulnerability spider diagram of the major components of the livelihood vulnerability index for district blocks.
Figure 6 shows a vulnerability triangle, which plots the scores the contributing factors exposure (natural disaster, warning, death or injury caused by it), adaptive capacity (livelihood strategies) and sensitivity (based on socio-demographic, health, food, water and social network). FIGURE 6: Vulnerability triangle diagram of the contributing factors of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change livelihood vulnerability index (livelihood vulnerability index-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) for district blocks. The results for the major components of each block are presented both separately and collectively in the spider diagram.
The modification of Hahn and colleagues’ LVI (2009) by adding natural capital and some other subcomponents is a significant contribution of the study. However, in all the blocks households still depend on natural capital for maintaining their livelihood. The findings of the study are pertinent to government and non-governmental organisations who are actively involved in flood control programmes.
To determine the interconnection between vulnerability and resilience, the LVI was used with livelihood strategy components removed from it. The vulnerability of households differs because of differences in the households’ sensitivity, adaptive capacity and exposure to natural disaster, which is further reflected in their disaster recovery strategies. The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
As we know, human activities are changing the earth’s climate, the way our climate system operates, and to what degree any particular area of the world is impacted by various weather events.  The alterations to extreme weather patterns caused by human-induced climate change are in favor of more intense extremes, higher frequency of their occurrence, and make these extreme weather events longer lasting and less predictable. Africa, particularly Sahel, Horn of Africa, and Central Africa, although there are pockets of high vulnerability across much of the continent.
There are small concentrations of high vulnerability in parts of East Asia, including parts of Mongolia and northern and western China; and parts of South America, especially the Andean region.
Both of the articles discussed, although they framed vulnerability issues quite differently, pushed for responsible investment in mitigation mechanisms. This chapter defines natural hazards and their relationship to natural resources (they are negative resources), to environment (they are an aspect of environmental problems), and to development (they are a constraint to development and can be aggravated by it). The planning process in development areas does not usually include measures to reduce hazards, and as a consequence, natural disasters cause needless human suffering and economic losses.
Although humans can do little or nothing to change the incidence or intensity of most natural phenomena, they have an important role to play in ensuring that natural events are not converted into disasters by their own actions. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of slowly accumulated strain energy along a fault in the earth's crust, Earthquakes and volcanoes occur most commonly at the collision zone between tectonic plates. Volcanoes are perforations in the earth's crust through which molten rock and gases escape to the surface.
Hazards associated with volcanic eruptions include lava flows, falling ash and projectiles, mudflows, and toxic gases. Recent development literature sometimes makes a distinction between "environmental projects" and "development projects." "Environmental projects" include objectives such as sanitation, reforestation, and flood control, while "development projects" may focus on potable water supplies, forestry, and irrigation. Indeed, in high-risk areas, sustainable development is only possible to the degree that development planning decisions, in both the public and private sectors, address the destructive potential of natural hazards. Experiences both in and out of Latin American and the Caribbean show that the record of hazard mitigation is improving.
A study in the San Fernando Valley, California, after the 1971 earthquake showed that of 568 older school buildings that did not satisfy the requirements of the Field Act (a law stipulating design standards), 50 were so badly damaged that they had to be demolished. Mitigation techniques can also lengthen the warning period before a volcanic eruption, making possible the safe evacuation of the population at risk.
Sectoral hazard assessments conducted by the OAS of, among others, energy in Costa Rica and agriculture in Ecuador have demonstrated the savings in capital and continued production that can be realized with very modest investments in the mitigation of natural hazard threats through vulnerability reduction and better sectoral planning. Two types of flooding can be distinguished: (1) land-borne floods, or river flooding, caused by excessive run-off brought on by heavy rains, and (2) sea-borne floods, or coastal flooding, caused by storm surges, often exacerbated by storm run-off from the upper watershed. Storm surges are an abnormal rise in sea water level associated with hurricanes and other storms at sea. The most significant damage often results from the direct Impact of waves on fixed structures. Hooding of deltas and other low-lying coastal areas is exacerbated by the influence of tidal action, storm waves, and frequent channel shifts. Land-borne floods occur when the capacity of stream channels to conduct wafer is exceeded and water overflows banks.
Tsunamis are long-period waves generated by disturbances such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and undersea landslides.
Hurricanes are tropical depressions which develop into severe storms characterized by winds directed inward in a spiraling pattern toward the center. Desertification, or resource degradation in arid lands that creates desert conditions, results from interrelated and interdependent sets of actions, usually brought on by drought combined with human and animal population pressure.
Overgrazing Is a frequent practice In dry lands and is the single activity that most contributes to desertification. Soil erosion and the resulting sedimentation constitute major natural hazards that produce social and economic losses of great consequence. Saline water is common in dry regions, and soils derived from chemically weathered marine deposits (such as shale) are often saline.
Earthquake-resistant construction and floodproofing of buildings are examples of measures that can increase the capacity of facilities to withstand the impact of a natural hazard. The high density of population and expensive infrastructure of cities makes them more susceptible to the impacts of natural events. For small towns and villages non-structural mitigation measures may be the only affordable alternative. The physical characteristics of the land, land-use patterns, susceptibility to particular hazards, income level, and cultural characteristics similarly condition the options of an area in dealing with natural hazards.3.
Planning agencies are often unfamiliar with natural hazard information, or how to use it in development planning.
Line ministries similarly have little familiarity with natural hazard information or with the techniques of adapting it for use in planning.
The emergency preparedness community has tended to view its role exclusively as preparing for and reacting to emergencies and has therefore neglected linking preparedness to long-term mitigation issues. The scientific and engineering community often sets its agenda for research and monitoring on the basis of its own scientific interests without giving due consideration to the needs of vulnerability reduction or emergency preparedness. Technical cooperation agencies do not normally include natural hazard assessment and vulnerability reduction activities as a standard part of their project preparation process. Development financing agencies engage actively in post-disaster reconstruction measures, yet do not insist on hazard assessment, mitigation, and vulnerability reduction measures in their ordinary (non-disaster-related) development loans, and are reluctant to incorporate such considerations into project evaluation. Other institutional considerations: Knowledge of and experience with hazard management techniques are rare commodities in most agencies in Latin America and the Caribbean.
At the national level, giving a single entity total responsibility for hazard management tends to cause other agencies to see it as an adversary. Similarly, at the project level responsibility for mitigating the impact of natural hazards does not lie with a single individual or component but is an overall responsibility of the project, requiring the cooperation of all components. Post-disaster reconstruction activities often lack support for hazard assessments intended to ensure characterize potential hazardous events. For purposes of this discussion, development planning is considered the process by which governments produce plans-consisting of policies, projects, and supporting actions-to guide economic, social, and spatial development over a period of time. The natural hazard management process can be divided into pre-event measures, actions during and immediately following an event, and post-disaster measures. An accurate and timely prediction of a hazardous event can save human lives but does little to reduce economic losses or social disruption; that can only be accomplished by measures taken longer in advance.
Disaster mitigation also includes the data collection and analysis required to identify and evaluate appropriate measures and include them in development planning. Studies that assess hazards provide information on the probable location and severity of dangerous natural phenomena and the likelihood of their occurring within a specific time period in a given area.
Vulnerability studies estimate the degree of loss or damage that would result from the occurrence of a natural phenomenon of given severity.
Even short notice of the probable occurrence and effects of a natural phenomenon is of great importance in reducing loss of life and property. Some hazards, such as hurricanes and floods, can be forecast with high accuracy, but most geologic events cannot.
Major sources of livelihood of the population, such as industries, banking and commerce buildings, public markets, agroprocessing plants and areas of agricultural production, livestock, forestry, mines, and fisheries production. Buildings such as schools, churches, auditoriums, theatres, public markets, and public and private office buildings.
Buildings of significant cultural and community value or use, and buildings of architectural importance.
Emergency preparedness is aimed at minimizing the loss of life and property during a natural event. Two levels of preparedness can be identified: public safety information and hazard awareness planning.
Concurrent with or immediately after relief activities, post-disaster rehabilitation is carried out to restore the normal functions of public services, business, and commerce, to repair housing and other structures, and to return production facilities to operation.
Education and training, both formal and informal, prepare people at all levels to participate in hazard management.
Informal learning can be delivered through brochures, booklets, and audio and video tapes prepared by national and international agencies involved in disaster preparedness and mitigation programs, and through the national media. Finally, direct observation after a disaster has proved to be one of the most effective means of learning.
Integrated development planning is a multidisciplinary, multisectoral approach to planning.
Issues in the relevant economic and social sectors are brought together and analyzed vis-a-vis the needs of the population and the problems and opportunities of the associated natural resource base.
This presentation of the procedures of an integrated study features the incorporation of hazard management considerations at each stage. How and by whom can the assessment information be summarized for project formulation and action plan preparation?
In Phase I, the team analyzes the study region and arrives at detailed estimates of development potentials and problems of the region and selected target areas. At the end of Phase I a development strategy and a set of project profiles are submitted to the government. The fourth stage of the development planning process helps implement the proposals by preparing the institutional, financial, and technical mechanisms necessary for successful execution and operation. Even though integrated development planning and hazard management are usually treated in Latin America and the Caribbean as parallel processes that intermix little with each other, it is clear that they should be able to operate more effectively in coordination, since their goals are the same-the protection of investment and improved human well-being-and they deal with similar units of space.
Presentation on theme: "Rural transformation processes: can we learn from other experiences?
The rural transformation envisioned is about human development, as opposed to simply the development of assets For this type of transformation to occur, the Conference identified an agenda based on three pillars: A. Call for shared learning Why development investment outlays are not having the desired outcomes?
A Report on the Fortieth Committee on World Food Security Meetings at the Food and Agriculture Organization Rome, Italy, 7-11 October 2013 The Issues -The. Positioning education more centrally in the Sustainable Development Agenda Global Monitoring Report UKFIET Symposium, University of Oxford, UK 16 September. Social Protection for Inclusive Development A new perspective in EU cooperation with Africa Nairobi, March 10 th 2011 Giorgia Giovannetti Robert Schuman. Working Document for Preparation of the Plan of Action of the Social Charter of the Americas. A Green Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication: What are the Implications for Africa?
Albedo climatology Accurate and detailed knowledge about the radiative properties of Earth’s surface are crucial for many atmospheric remote sensing applications, such as aerosol, cloud and trace gas retrieval. The Atlas summarizes the key issues affecting rural households, including social, economic, and political context, rural livelihood assets and strategies, food access, caring practices, water and sanitation, nutrition outcomes, and household vulnerability. It disrupts people's livelihood structure, destroys their property, savings and employment infrastructure and, more importantly, dismantles their much-valued social network.
It illustrates the uneven capacity for preparedness and response and provides a useful benchmark for allocating resources to compensate for the different levels of vulnerability.
Likewise, there are significant differences between economically well-off households and poor households (Cutter et al. In order to restore destroyed livelihood structure, a large amount of capital investment is required; however, it is not available to the poor. Low levels of education have depressing repercussions for economic growth in Bihar (Chanda 2011). Robustness refers to the capacity to confront, resist and surmount the shock and distress without losing functionality. Adger (2006) and Birkmann and Wisner (2006) purport that resilience is part of the adaptive capacity of households. However, the above studies applied LVI to measure climate change in order to highlight differences in households’ vulnerability. 2009) was revised by adding natural capital in view of the prevailing conditions of the sample households, obtained from the Bihar Statistical Handbook (Bihar Department of Planning and Development 2011), and then used for data collection. The dimensions of vulnerability were assessed on a scale of 0 to 1 with equal weightage to all associated subcomponents, similar to Pandey and Jha (2012). The percent of households reporting in their community was set at a minimum of 0 and a maximum of 100.
These strategies include growing crops, raising animals, collecting natural resources and family member or members migrating to other areas. In Naugachia modern irrigation facilities (0.22) such as electric systems, diesel tube wells and pump sets were in practice. On the other hand, the block with the most households that reported ill health was Gopalpur (0.43), because of lack of health facilities. The findings of the study show that households in Naugachia have better access to basic amenities like food, water and health with diverse livelihood options and the shadow effect of the urban area. It means that the livelihood of households living below the poverty line is controlled and regulated by the whims of nature.
By using LVI analysis, government can identify the areas that are most vulnerable, and thus, can provide basic amenities and access to resources in accordance with their needs as a mitigation strategy, to ensure improved capacity of households in responding to flooding. To answer the second research question, the ordinary least square (OLS) regression method was used. The study also identifies different blocks’ vulnerability level, which may be helpful in formulating and executing different programmes to reduce the sensitivity of households in those blocks, which in turn may help them to be more efficient in overcoming the shock caused by disaster and re-establishing their livelihood. A notable, and quite pressing, addition to these facts that was addressed in the publication Humanitarian Implications of Climate Change, Mapping Emerging Trends and Risk Hotspots (Ehrhart et al., 2008) is that due to human activities, the climate system is increasingly making an impact on the lives and livelihoods of humans on earth.
First, they discovered African Americans in Los Angeles are twice as likely to die from a heat wave as any other L.A. The chapter demonstrates that the means of reducing the impact of natural hazards is now available. From the early stages, planners should assess natural hazards as they prepare investment projects and should promote ways of avoiding or mitigating damage caused by floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other natural catastrophic events. A physical event, such as a volcanic eruption, that does not affect human beings is a natural phenomenon but not a natural hazard. It is important to understand that human intervention can increase the frequency and severity of natural hazards.
Subsidence occurs in waterlogged soils, fill, alluvium, and other materials that are prone to settle. Explosions pose a risk by scattering rock blocks, fragments, and lava at varying distances from the source.
Flows vary in nature (mud, ash, lava) and quantity and may originate from multiple sources. Volcanic activity may also trigger other natural hazardous events including local tsunamis, deformation of the landscape, floods when lakes are breached or when streams and rivers are dammed, and tremor-provoked landslides. Landslides can be triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, soils saturated by heavy rain or groundwater rise, and river undercutting.
These often collect at the cliff base in the form of talus slopes which may pose an additional risk.
If the displacement occurs in surface material without total deformation it is called a slump. Although associated with gentle topography, these liquefaction phenomena can travel significant distances from their origin.


Rockfalls are obvious dangers to life and property but, in general, they pose only a localized threat due to their limited areal influence. In this sense, too, natural hazards must be considered an integral aspect of the development planning process.
But the project-by-project approach is clearly an ineffective means of promoting socioeconomic well-being.
This approach is particularly relevant in post-disaster situations, when tremendous pressures are brought to bear on local, national, and international agencies to replace, frequently on the same site, destroyed facilities. The installation of warning systems in several Caribbean countries has reduced the loss of human life due to hurricanes. Experience of the city of Los Angeles, California, indicates that adequate grading and soil analysis ordinances can reduce landslide losses by 97 percent (Petak and Atkisson, 1982). But all of the 500 school buildings that met seismic-resistance standards suffered no structural damage (Bolt, 1988). Sensitive monitoring devices can now detect increasing volcanic activity months in advance of an eruption.
Indirect impacts include flooding and undermining of major infrastructure such as highways and railroads.
Floods are natural phenomena, and may be expected to occur at irregular intervals on all stream and rivers.
They are generated over warm ocean water at low latitudes and are particularly dangerous due to their destructive potential, large zone of influence, spontaneous generation, and erratic movement. Damage results from the wind's direct impact on fixed structures and from wind-borne objects. The quantity of rainfall is dependent on the amount of moisture in the air, the speed of the hurricane's movement, and its size.
Dry-land farming refers to rain-fed agriculture In semiarid regions where water is the principal factor limiting crop production. Erosion occurs in all climatic conditions, but is discussed as an arid zone hazard because together with salinization, it is a major proximate cause of desertification.
Sediment movement and subsequent deposition in reservoirs and river beds reduces the useful lives of water storage reservoirs, aggravates flood water damage, impedes navigation, degrades water quality, damages crops and infrastructure, and results in excessive wear of turbines and pumps. Usually, however, saline soils have received salts transported by water from other locations. Measures such as zoning ordinances, insurance, and tax incentives, which direct uses away from hazard-prone areas, lead to impact avoidance.2.
Mitigation measures are both more critically needed and more amenable to economic justification than in less-developed areas. Such settlements rely on the government to only a limited extent for warning of an impending hazard or assistance in dealing with it. Projects for the development of road, energy, telecommunications, irrigation systems, etc., often lack hazard mitigation consideration. Furthermore, emergency centers have paid insufficient attention to the vulnerability of their own infrastructure.
For example, a volcano may be selected for monitoring because of its scientific research value rather than its proximity to population centers. But they usually have little opportunity to participate in the preparation of large infrastructure and production projects that impinge on them, and even less in setting agendas for natural hazard assessment and vulnerability reduction.
Thus, if a technical cooperation agency proposes to incorporate these ideas into planning and project formulation, it invariably has to overcome the skepticism of the relevant local personnel. For example, casualty insurance companies could offer a large premium differential for earthquake- and hurricane-resistant construction. Instead, each agency that formulates projects as part of its standard activities should appreciate the importance of introducing hazard considerations into the process of project formulation. Ideally, a natural hazard assessment promotes an awareness of the issue in a developing region, evaluates the threat of natural hazards, identifies the additional information needed for a definitive evaluation, and recommends appropriate means of obtaining it.
The hazard management process consists of a number of activities designed to reduce loss of life and destruction of property. Included in the concept of disaster mitigation is the basic assumption that the impact of disasters can be avoided or reduced when they have been anticipated during development planning. The prediction of a natural event is a direct outcome of scientific investigation into its causes and is aimed at establishing the probability of the next occurrence in terms of time, place, and range of severity.
Preparedness includes actions taken in anticipation of the event and special activities both during and immediately after the event.
The first includes a number of efforts aimed at increasing the amount of information disseminated to the public and at promoting cooperation between the public and the authorities in case of an emergency.
However, their efforts must usually be complemented with those of national or regional authorities.
However, mitigation is often ignored in this phase: rehabilitation proceeds without any measures to reduce the chances of the same impact if the event happens again. Universities, research centers, and international development assistance agencies play the leading formal role in preparing individuals in a variety of skill levels such as natural hazards assessment, risk reduction, and natural phenomena prediction. Additionally, courses, workshops, conferences, and seminars organized by national and international disaster assistance agencies disseminate great amounts of information on natural hazard management strategies. Post-disaster investigations describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of natural hazards, often improving on information produced by modelling and conjecture by indicating areas where development should be extremely limited or should not take place.
A key element of this process is the generation of investment projects, defined as an investment of capital to create assets capable of generating a stream of benefits over time.
The relationships of the integrated development planning process, the hazard management process, and the project cycle are summarized in Figure 1-4. Experience has shown that this joint effort of OAS staff and local planners and decision-makers is frequently the most critical event in the entire study. For example, the National Environmental Study of Uruguay conducted by the OAS with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank determined in the preliminary mission that natural hazards were an important environmental problem, and consequently an assessment of all significant hazards, to be conducted by reviewing existing information, was programmed for Phase I. If they are not, determine what additional data collection, hazard assessment, remote sensing, or specialized equipment will be needed for the next stage of the study. From this analysis a multisectoral development strategy and a set of project profiles are prepared for review by government decision-makers.
Identify cause-and-effect relationships between natural events and between natural events and human activity. Examples of such studies include those for the development of the San Miguel-Putumayo River Basin, conducted in support of the Colombia-Ecuador Joint Commission of the Amazon Cooperation Project, and for the Dominican Republic and Haiti Frontier Development Projects. For hurricanes and geologic hazards, the existing information will probably suffice; if the information on geologic hazards is inadequate, an outside agency should be asked to conduct an analysis. For example, the multimillion-dollar program for the development of the metropolitan area of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, featured landslide mitigation components.
If not, will additional assessment activities take place within or outside of the planning study? Efforts made to consider hazards in previous stages will be lost unless mitigation measures are closely adhered to during the projects' execution.
Point out hazardous situations for which the study did not propose vulnerability reduction measures. The possibility increases if they are part of specific development projects rather than stand-alone disaster mitigation proposals. For example, geographic information systems created for hazard management purposes can serve more general planning needs.
In the Jamaica study of the vulnerability of the tourism sector to natural hazards, for example, solutions were proposed for most of the problems identified, but no economically viable solutions were found for others. For example, when a planning team determines that a volcano with short-term periodicity located close to a population center is not being monitored, it can recommend a change in the priorities of the agency responsible.
A clear example of this situation was the landslide mitigation components of the metropolitan Tegucigalpa study: the principal beneficiaries were the thousands of the city's poor living in the most hazard-prone areas. Significant and continued investment is needed for inclusive, sustainable and diversified rural development to occur B. Improving efficiency and effectiveness of public policy and programmes This third pillar seeks to close the gap between outlays and outcomes.
What are the best approaches to address the gap between (investment) outlays and outcomes including sharing experiences on the use of different indicators?
Easily understandable thematic maps accompany the analysis to geographically situation the most vulnerable. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Reconstruction of habitat and livelihood structure of the affected households is already government's foremost concern after floods, which is not only determined by flood intensity and its concomitant harms but, more importantly, by the ability of flood victims to recover from the disaster.
Hence their recovery from disaster is not only dependent on its intensity and harm inflicted (external factors) (Carreno et al. 2003), because of differential possession of assets and access to power (Lewis 1999) and access to information and knowledge (Alexander 2000). The southern part of the district falls in the Badua-Koa sub-basin of the river Ganga, and the area north of the Ganga falls in the Baghmati-Kosi sub-basin. Households with skills are more likely to gain employment and earn their wage by employing their skill than unskilled households (Cutter et al. Rapidity refers to the pace at which households and the community rise over disruption and is capable of avoiding future loss. Firstly, in the livelihood household (LH) approach, although resilience is seen as the opposite of vulnerability (Figure 3) (Wilson 2012), they are not necessarily at the opposite ends of the spectrum.
According to Turner and colleagues (2003) and Gallopin (2006), both resilience and adaptive capacity are parts of vulnerability, whereas Smit and colleagues (1999) consider only adaptive capacity as a component of vulnerability, without any connection between vulnerability, resilience and adaptation (Cutter et al. Rather, households, despite being vulnerable, may face disaster, live with risk, and survive (Cutter et al. Components such as access to natural capital, and subcomponents related to health and skill are added according to relevance to the context of the study (Table 2). The family dependency level was compared with education attained by heads of households; the blocks in which the head of the household had a higher education level showed a lower level of dependency. The diagram shows that households from all the blocks are more vulnerable in terms of water resources, health problems, dependency ratio and education level. Naugachia is found to be the least vulnerable block despite being severely exposed to flood in comparison to other blocks. Infertility and dispossession of land as well as dependency on primary irrigation facilities have made the situation even worse.
Furthermore, by addressing the basic needs of households and by making provision for better health and sanitation facilities, government can decrease their susceptibility and improve their pace of recovery. The scale adapted from literature was used to measure livelihood resilience and in-depth interviews during the survey were used to determine which resilience measures households adopt in flood disaster. Knowledge and understanding of households’ vulnerability may provide government and other relevant agencies with critical information for proper distribution of relief materials. Secondly, the local adaptation strategies can be explored further with the help of other methods. The magnified risk of floods, droughts, and cyclones becomes incontrovertible in regards to human populations that are already susceptible to these events, and even more so for populations that have high humanitarian vulnerability. The factors that influence susceptibility to vulnerability reduction-the nature of the hazard, the nature of the study area, and institutional factors-are discussed.
For example, when the toe of a landslide is removed to make room for a settlement, the earth can move again and bury the settlement. This process uses methods of systems analysis and conflict management to arrive at an equitable distribution of costs and benefits, and in doing so it links the quality of human life to environmental quality. Rows and lateral spreads (liquefaction phenomena) are among the most destructive geologic hazards. In contrast, slides, avalanches, flows, and lateral spreads, often having great areal extent, can result in massive loss of lives and property.
Development projects, if they are to be sustainable, must incorporate sound environmental management.
It is at such times that the pressing need for natural hazard and risk assessment information and its incorporation into the development planning process become most evident.
Prohibition of permanent settlement in floodplains, enforced by selective insurance coverage, has significantly reduced flood damage in many vulnerable areas. Still more sophisticated assessment, monitoring, and alert systems are becoming available for volcanic eruption, hurricane, tsunami, and earthquake hazards. Water level is controlled by wind, atmospheric pressure, existing astronomical tide, waves and swell, local coastal topography and bathymetry, and the storm's proximity to the coast.
The cycles of dry and wet periods pose serious problems for pastoralists and farmers who gamble on these cycles.
The failure to properly price water from irrigation projects can create a great demand for such projects and result in misuse of available water, causing waterlogging and salinization. But techniques are becoming available, experiences are being analyzed and transmitted, the developing countries have demonstrated their interest, and the lending agencies are discussing their support. Urban areas are likely to have or are able to establish the institutional arrangements necessary for hazard management.
Thus organizing the local community to cope with hazards is a special aspect of hazard management. These varied and sometimes conflicting viewpoints can add to the constraints of planning and putting into operation a hazard management program, but having advance knowledge of the difficulties each may present can help the practitioner deal with them. Furthermore, ministries tend to have little experience in collaborating with each other to identify the interrelationships between projects or to define common information requirements so that information that suits the needs of many users can be collected cooperatively.
Valuable information on hazards is often published in scientific journals in abstruse language.
Hazard considerations must be introduced earlier in the process so that projects are prepared with these constraints in mind.
He suggests that governments should specify the desired outcome of policy, but leave the method of achieving that outcome to the economic actors. Planning agencies should take an advocacy position on hazard management and on introducing non-structural mitigation strategies early in the planning process.
Mitigation of disasters usually entails reducing the vulnerability of the elements at risk, modifying the hazard-proneness of the site, or changing its function.
Between November 1982 and June 1983, heavy rains created the most dramatic series of floods reported this century, affecting 12,000 square kilometers in this region, with total losses estimated at US$1,200 million. Historical information, both written reports and oral accounts from long-term residents, also helps characterize potential hazardous events.
Increasingly sophisticated monitoring stations, both manned and remote, collect information of potentially hazardous events for more accurate prediction. In the case of tsunamis, for example, the Pacific Warning Center, which constantly monitors the oceans, provides advance notice that varies from ten minutes to a few hours. In the course of an event, or in its aftermath, social and public behavior undergoes important changes.
The keystones of post-disaster relief are the preparation of lifelines or critical facilities for emergency response, training, disaster rehearsals, and the identification and allocation of local and external resources. In developing countries, road systems that are flooded or blocked by landslides year after year are commonly rebuilt at the same site and with similar design specifications. These activities are also carried out by operational entities such as ministries of agriculture, transportation, public works, and defense. A project may be independent or part of a package of projects comprising an integrated development effort. Because the process is cyclical, activities relating to more than one stage can take place at the same time. Phase I also includes a detailed assessment of natural hazards and the elements at risk in highly vulnerable areas which facilitates the early introduction of non-structural mitigation measures.
In the hilly Chixoy region of Guatemala, for example, it was found that inappropriate road construction methods were causing landslides and that landslides, in turn, were the main problem of road maintenance. For flooding, landslides, and desertification, the planning team itself should be able to supplement the existing information and prepare analyses. The study of the vulnerability of the Ecuadorian agriculture sector to natural hazards and of ways to reduce the vulnerability of lifelines in St. Flood alert and control projects were central elements in the comprehensive Water Resource Management and Flood Disaster Reconstruction Project for Alagoas, Brazil.
Use personnel who participated in the studies in public meetings to promote the concept of vulnerability reduction. Furthermore, including vulnerability reduction components in a development project can improve the cost-benefit of the overall project if risk considerations are included in the evaluation. Learn about what has worked through cross country study to generate ideas on Monitoring and Evaluation include: use of Rapid Evidence Assessments (REAs) now being tested in South Africa shared learning with China (and a South East Asia regional network) on Results Based Management how does Monitoring and Evaluation feed into Government policy and link with planning including for continuous learning?
It is primarily used for trace gas and cloud retrievals in the Oxygen A-band (Popp et al., 2011 ) from sensors such as OMI, SCIAMACHY , and GOME . Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area.
In addition, vested interest groups, in collaboration with state officials and political leadership, siphon off relief materials for themselves rather than distributing them amongst flood victims (Saiyasombut & Siam Voices 2010).
Moreover, the activities of people in view of their varying age, gender and ethnicity characteristics are equally significant (Juntunen 2005).
In adverse conditions, the coping measures adapted by affected households are referred to as sustainable livelihood framework (Department for International Development [DFID] 1999). 2005) but also by the differential capacity of households (internal factors) (Figure 1) (Bohle 2001; Van Dillen 2004). The district is principally drained by the river Ganga, which enters the district at Sultanganj. This puts much pressure on farming, forestry and water resources and biological resources such as trees, pasture and biodiversity (ed. Disaster adds further woes to households whose living conditions are already extremely precarious and demands priority redress. Households initially start exploring loan possibilities in their network of friends and kin (Smit & Pilifosova 2001).
The capacity denotes skills or ability of the community to deal with disaster (Berke et al. Resourcefulness indicates diversity of options and redundancy reflects the ability of households to mobilise available resources efficiently. 2000), on the one hand, whilst indifferent and apathetic attitude of households may restrain them from adapting resilience measures, on the other hand. Based on the sustainable livelihood framework, the components of sub-indices represented one of the five capitals. A number of proxy indicators were used to measure households’ access to various forms of capital.
Major components of the LVI-IPCC contributing to vulnerability are exposure (natural disasters, flood warning and injury experienced), adaptive capacity (socio-demographic profile, livelihood strategies, social networks, natural capital) and sensitivity (health, food, water). The LVI-IPCC value shows the difference in households’ adaptive strategies, sensitivity and experience level. Because of Naugachia's proximity to urban areas it is comparatively more developed and has better options of livelihood activities. In other regions, traditional means of irrigation, such as the ahar-pyne system, were still in practice. The other blocks lack basic facilities and are thus more vulnerable because they have less capability to recover. Unskilled labourers are left with no opportunities to earn, and hence, migrate to other areas. Government can further focus on diversification of livelihoods to ensure households’ accessibility to multiple options of livelihood and income during the period the area is inundated, which can be more than 3 months.
Households’ local adaptation strategies for resilience help them in implementing non-structural mitigation measures, which also benefit overall development through capacity building. Future studies can use focused group discussion to explore different resilience, considering the difference in LVI at district or state level. They also learned that 5 out of 10 of the smoggiest cities in the United States are in California and the health effects caused by ozone in the pollution will be felt most strongly by the densely concentrated colored and low-income residents who live in those cities. The core of the chapter explains how to incorporate natural hazard management into the process of integrated development planning, describing the process used by the OAS-Study Design, Diagnosis, Action Proposals, Implementation-and the hazard management activities associated with each phase.
It is hoped that familiarizing planners with an approach for incorporating natural hazard management into development planning can improve the planning process in Latin America and the Caribbean and thereby reduce the impact of natural hazards. Hazards to human beings not necessarily related to the physical environment, such as infectious disease, are also excluded from consideration here.


In the planning work, then, the environment-the structure and function of the ecosystems that surround and support human life-represents the conceptual framework.
Although landslides are highly localized, they can be particularly hazardous due to their frequency of occurrence.
Mudflows, associated with volcanic eruptions, can travel at great speed from their point of origin and are one of the most destructive volcanic hazards.
By definition, this means that they must be designed to improve the quality of life and to protect or restore environmental quality at the same time and must also ensure that resources will not be degraded and that the threat of natural hazards will not be exacerbated.
Characteristics of coastal flooding caused by tsunamis are the same as those of storm surges. During wet periods, the sizes of herds are increased and cultivation is extended into drier areas. The nature of dry-land farming makes it a hazardous practice which can only succeed if special conservation measures such as stubble mulching, summer fallow, strip cropping, and clean tillage are followed. Salts accumulate because of flooding of low-lying lands, evaporation from depressions having no outlets, and the rise of ground water close to soil surfaces. If these favorable tendencies can be encouraged, significant reduction of the devastating effects of hazards on development in Latin America and the Caribbean is within reach. The scientific community should ensure that data are translated into a form suitable for use by hazard management practitioners.
The problem lies with both the lender and the recipient: the stricken country rarely includes this item in its request, but when it does, the lending agencies often reject it.
Mitigation measures can have a structural character, such as the inclusion of specific safety or vulnerability reduction measures in the design and construction of new facilities, the retrofitting of existing facilities, or the building of protective devices. Subsequently, Peru transferred six of the most affected villages to higher elevations (a non-structural mitigation measure), and introduced special adobe-building techniques to strengthen new constructions against earthquakes and floods (a structural mitigation measure).
Ideally, a natural hazard assessment promotes an awareness of the issue in a developing region, evaluates the threat of natural hazards, identifies the additional information needed for a definitive evoluation, and recommends appropriate means of obtaining it. The techniques employed include lifeline (or critical facilities) mapping and sectoral vulnerability analyses for sectors such as energy, transport, agriculture, tourism, and housing. At best, these warnings provide enough time to withdraw the population, but not to take other preventive measures. The main elements of the process are shown in Figure 1-2, and a synthesis of the activities and products of each stage is shown in Figure 1-3.
Vincent and the Grenadines, landslides were determined to be a serious problem, and landslide assessments were included in the work plan for Phase I. In Ecuador, the discovery that most of the infrastructure planned for the Manabí Water Development Project was located in one of the country's most active earthquake zones prompted a major reorientation of the project. Kitts and Nevis, for example, both generated project ideas which could be studied at the prefeasibility level in Phase II. A dramatic example is the case study on vulnerability reduction for the energy sector in Costa Rica.
The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. For example, although government had 3465 km of embankment built, the lateral movement of rivers could not be checked, and flood water continued to flow (Tiwari 1999:35). Thus, despite the government's flood control initiatives on paper, little has been done at the ground level, increasing the vulnerability of the population. The pressure-and-release model assessed vulnerability in terms of a politico-ecological (Hewitt 1983) or politico-economic framework (Bohle et al.
The northern boundary of the district is marked by the river Kosi (Ghugri), heavily laden with silt and sand. In the absence of adequate government support in respect of emerging challenges, households mobilise their own resources on the basis of their experience and knowledge to adapt livelihood strategies. Information about hazards, relief, financial support, and early warning to households (Buckel 2006) play a crucial role in households’ vulnerability.
United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO) (1982) states that vulnerability and resilience are independent constructs. This might be because of differences in available capacities (strengths and resources available to reduce risk) and applied capacities of households (ways through which households use available resources and abilities to face adverse consequences) for resilience (UNISDR 2004:42). The natural capital (access to forest produces, fertility of land, and land under possession) was added as a major component along with the following subcomponents: acquisition of skill, change in sowing and cropping schedule, loan taking, primary irrigation source, availability of immunisation, government and private hospitals, and toilet facilities.
A set of unit-free indices of values between zero (lowest) and 1 (highest) was used to compare households’ access to various forms of capital.
This shows that education is inversely proportional to dependency level of households in the area.
In Narayanpur, Ismailpur and Kharik, borrowing money was higher than lending money, and thus these blocks were more vulnerable than others were. Furthermore, households with low levels of human, financial, social and physical capital are found to have less capacity to meet the challenges of a disaster. Ehrhart and his colleagues measured humanitarian vulnerability of a region to climate change impacts as directly proportional to its “access and control over natural, social, physical, political, and financial resources,” as well as external factors such as governance, natural resource base status, conflict, urbanization, and demographic change which all play important roles in shaping that regions coping capacity.
Also, poor and African American communities contribute a higher proportion of their income to basic needs such as food, electricity, and water, whose costs are projected to dramatically increase due to climate change and are therefore carrying a heavier climate burden. Both of the publications offered potential policy that could be implemented at the local, regional, or national level to dwarf vulnerability. The chapter goes on to show how the impact of natural hazards on selected economic sectors can be reduced using energy, tourism, and agriculture as examples. Figure 1-1 presents a simplified list of natural hazards, and the boxes on the following pages briefly summarize the nature of geologic hazards, flooding, tsunamis, hurricanes, and hazards in arid and semi-arid areas.1. In areas where there are no human interests, natural phenomena do not constitute hazards nor do they result in disasters. Volcanoes erupt periodically, but it is not until the rich soils formed on their eject are occupied by farms and human settlements that they are considered hazardous. In the context of economic development, the environment is that composite of goods, services, and constraints offered by surrounding ecosystems. In the San Francisco Bay area post-1960 structures swayed but stayed intact, while older buildings did not fare nearly as well.
Later, drought destroys human activities which have been extended beyond the limits of a region's carrying capacity. Desertified dry lands in Latin America can usually be attributed to some combination of exploitative land management and natural climate fluctuations.
Salinization results in a decline in soil fertility or even a total loss of land for agricultural purposes. For example, international emergency relief organizations such as the International League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies have stated that they will devote more effort in developing countries to prevention.
Reconstruction projects, especially when they are very large, are often managed by newly created implementation agencies. Non-structural mitigation measures typically concentrate on limiting land uses, use of tax incentives and eminent domain, and risk underwriting through insurance programs. In Latin America and the Caribbean vulnerability to natural hazards is rarely considered in evaluating an investment even though vulnerability to other risks, such as fluctuating market prices and raw-material costs, is taken into account as standard practice.
Hazard information and education programs can improve public preparedness and social conduct during a disaster. This process proceeds from the establishment of development policies and strategies, the identification of project ideas, and the preparation of project profiles through prefeasibility and feasibility analyses (and, for large projects, design studies) to final project approval, financing, implementation, and operation. A comprehensive set of guidelines for executing a study following this process is given in Regional Development Planning: Guidelines and Case Studies from OAS Experience. The study of the Paraguayan Chaco included flood and desertification assessments and multiple-hazard zoning. Valuative criteria are applied, including net present value, internal rate of return, cost-benefit ratio, and repayment possibilities. Floods, besides destroying life and property of people, cause additional problems such as drainage congestion, water logging and riverbank erosion (Ghani 2001). As a result, rescue and rehabilitation of flood victims continues to be a serious challenge for the Bihar government. The households differ with regard to absorptive capacity to resist or buffer the distress caused by disaster and how they adjust and maintain their livelihood by their adaptive capacity (International Food Policy Research Institute [IFPRI] 2013; Walker et al.
In Bangladesh, Brouwer and colleagues (2007) applied income and its sources (Pelling 1997), distance from houses to rivers, depth of floodwater and economic losses to measure households’ vulnerability to floods. Geomorphologically, the district forms part of the Mid-Ganga foreland basin (Ministry of Water Resources 2009). They diversify the cropping pattern, reschedule the cropping and sowing times and store seed. Therefore, in order to identify differences in households’ vulnerability, relevant local adaptation strategies for resilience ought to be included in the comprehensive LVI of an area. Chambers and Conway (1992) and Bohle and colleagues (1994) believe that exposure and vulnerability are within the purview of resilience. McPherson and Saarinen (1977) found that because of limited success of past effort, households were impassive and apathetic to disaster and would not make efforts to recuperate (Manyena 2009).
These indices were calculated using an equation adapted from the standardisation of all indicators comprising the human development index (HDI) developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (1990).
Thus, decrease in dependency level of households helps to increase the education level of households.
The network and trust between households helps them to recover from flood effects (Thomas et al.
In Ismailpur, a large number of households were found to collect water from natural water resources (0.46). The highest vulnerability to natural disasters such as floods, drought and cyclones was reported in Narayanpur and Gopalpur, and the lowest in Rangra Chowk and Ismailpur (Government of Bihar 2011). The R2 value explained by the livelihood vulnerability on the resilience of livelihood is 0.048. However, a low level of household vulnerability does not mean that they are resilient to flood damages. The authors also determined that the job opportunity in the agriculture sector will likely decrease, and that the tourism sector, which is predominantly made-up of people of color, may experience a loss or shift in job opportunity; although I mention the last point with caution as it is entirely a generally agreed upon opinion between scientists and there are no models with predictions of changes in the tourism sector that can date beyond 2020.
The overarching consensus of the two articles is that poor people, and those whose societies marginalize them, such as women, children, elderly, those who are of poor health, and ethnic minorities are the human populations whose lives and livelihoods are most vulnerable to climate change. Finally, the significance of a hazard management program to national and international development institutions is discussed.
This definition is thus at odds with the perception of natural hazards as unavoidable havoc wreaked by the unrestrained forces of nature.
An ecosystem is a coherent set of interlocking relationships between and among living things and their environments. In certain instances, farmland abandoned because of salinity problems may be subjected to water and wind erosion and become desertified.
This results in a drain of the already limited supply of technical personnel from the existing agencies and complicates coordination between long-term development and short-term rehabilitation.
The execution of these hazard-related activities did not distort the time or cost of the development diagnosis. Finally, the team assembles packages of investment projects for priority areas and prepares an action plan.
How to strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E), learning systems, research on rural development, and build up adaptive, evidence-based policymaking? However, especially in large-scale operations or in difficult terrain, this auditing method quickly tends to reach its limits and, consequently, the audit intensity and quality often suffer. The major factors that contribute to flooding in Bihar are (1) the cumulative runoff brought by rivers, (2) the continental monsoon with rainfall ranging from 1100 mm to 1250 mm and (3) the meandering nature of the rivers Ganga and Kosi, creating problems of alluvion (action of river adding to land area by deposition) and diluvion (washing away land) (O'Malley 1914).
Later, the focus shifted to mitigation and control of disaster through coping measures (Birkmann 2006; Turner et al.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) model encompasses income, food access, assets, social capital or safety nets, nutrition and health, adaptive capacity and governance to minimise vulnerability and attain resilience. In many cases though, households own land but are not able to cultivate it because of floods (Table 1).
Many theorise that resilience is the outcome of vulnerability, or the flip-side of vulnerability, or reciprocal to vulnerability (Adger et al. If households are confident in securing food, income, health and evacuation during floods and recovery after floods, and in securing their homes, and in their interest in learning and practicing new flood-based farming practices that are fully adapted to floods for improving household income during the flood season it would help them to survive in the flood-affected area (Nguyen, James & James 2013). 2006) but for the poorest it is difficult to migrate without any network or support (De Haan 2002). The study supports the approach that absence of vulnerability in a social system does not mean attainment of sustainable livelihood. A fatalistic and blasé attitude might restrain households from adapting resilience measures. It shifts the burden of cause from purely natural processes to the concurrent presence of human activities and natural events.
Destruction of coral reefs, which removes the shore's first line of defense against ocean currents and storm surges, is a clear example of an intervention that diminishes the ability of an ecosystem to protect itself.
For example, a forest is an ecosystem that offers goods, including trees that provide lumber, fuel, and fruit. Buildings on solid ground were less likely to sustain damage than those constructed on landfill or soft mountain slopes (King, 1989). A customized remote sensing service aiming at the provision of transparent, comprehensive and cost effective information has been designed and implemented by sarmap. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The construction of the Farraka Barrage is yet another factor that aggravates flooding in the state as it has caused siltation to the riverbed (Banerjee 1999). 2003), and then to adaptation of resilience measures, which is considered the opposite side of vulnerability (Holling 1996; Timmerman 1981).
Therefore, households with differential capacity are comparatively at more risk and hence are more vulnerable to disaster as it worsens their livelihood conditions further (Hewitt 1998). However, natural capital, which is equally important in development of sustainable livelihood and which is both renewable (such as land, water resources and forest) as well as non-renewable (fossils and mineral deposits) (Brown & Ulgiati 1999) does not find any mention in the LVI.
Failing this, they fall back on moneylenders, who usually charge a very high interest rate, resulting in their increased indebtedness and vulnerability.
Hence, it can be stated that presence or absence of vulnerability does not necessarily lead households to adapt to their livelihood or not. 2009; Sullivan 2002), for the LVI construct, a balanced weight average with each subcomponent contributing equally to the overall index was assumed. A large number of households reported to have a strong social network in Narayanpur (0.44). The occurrence of natural disasters was highest in Naugachia and Kharik, where the majority of the households did not receive warning of disaster. Social capital plays an important role in migration and features in all blocks, which helps in recovery of households.
Even though households may have good access to all forms of capital, they may not be resilient in case of a flood.
The forest may also provide services in the form of water storage and flood control, wildlife habitat, nutrient storage, and recreation. It integrates products derived from spaceborne synthetic aperture radar and optical sensors within forestry models.
The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.
In India, it is estimated that natural capital (land for agriculture and common property resources) accounts for 12% of households’ income (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OCED] 2008). The credit made available by government and non-governmental organisations, however small or big it may be (Ellis 2000), and the distributive structures of welfare, health care and relief (Wisner et al. However, studies do not pay adequate attention to vulnerability and resilience as discrete entities. The computation of each indicator value followed the process of standardisation adopted from the computation of the life expectancy index of the HDI (Hahn et al. This occurs because of seasonal outmigration of male household members to other areas for wage earning.
Most of the households from all the blocks did not approach government for work; in Narayanpur and Kharik, however, the number of households approaching the government for job was highest. However, in precarious situations households adapt their livelihood strategies in order to minimise the impact of the disaster.
The article did well to point out that heat waves are a cause for increased illness such as renal failure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc.
Natural capital plays an important role in the life of rural people and access or lack of access to it impacts on the vulnerability and resilience of such households. The study has attempted to determine the vulnerability of the area prone to disaster caused by cyclones, drought and floods.
It requires a fixed period of time in which to reproduce itself, and it is vulnerable to wildfires and blights.
Red corresponds to areas harvested before 2008 which have been re-established, blue corresponds to areas harvested in 2008 without re-establishment. The assessment of vulnerability can help to reduce the susceptibility of the area with regard to recovery from external shock and future losses. There may be vulnerable households within resilient communities, and vulnerable communities may have resilient households. I appreciated the bit about the likelihood that business as usual would increase costs of providing water to the western states from an estimated $200 billion in 2025 to $950 billion in 2100, thus proportionally increasing the economic burden of climate change at a higher rate for the poor. These vulnerabilities, or natural hazards, constrain the development potential of the forest ecosystem. Furthermore, because of the remoteness of households, health issues are seriously neglected. A comprehensive LVI assessment of all areas, thus, can be prepared to identify and access vulnerability of all households, and accordingly, provision for basic amenities and access to resources to strengthen the capacity of households to overcome challenges posed by disasters. The attitude of a household makes the difference between households’ applied and available capacity to cope with disaster. In this context, sarmap in involved in the RIICE project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. Lack of prenatal and postnatal care, child delivery and immunisation facilities assume serious proportions after disaster.
Furthermore, in order to broaden and diversify livelihood bases, multiple options of livelihood and income earning may be created to suit people's specific requirements.
Thus, absence of vulnerability does not necessarily mean that households are vulnerable to flood. Its goal is to set up information systems that help create rural advisory services and micro-insurance schemes, consequently reducing the vulnerability of rice production smallholders.
In Herzberg's two-factor theory, absence of job dissatisfaction does not prove existence of job satisfaction, which means they are not opposite. Although vulnerability and resilience are interconnected, lack of vulnerability is not found to determine resilience. Households arrange for water on their own, adding further burden to their domestic expenditure. Similarly, the absence of vulnerability does not prove the presence of resilience measures in households, as both are discrete entities (Manyena 2009).
Right: Detailed area and planting date map inferred from ASAR alternating polarization data. Such products are used as input to an agro-meteorological crop growth model for yield forecast ing (images by sarmap).Snow extent Snow extent maps for the European Alps are processed in near real time by the Remote Sensing Group at the University of Bern for every daytime overpass of the AVHRR sensors onboard NOAA and Metop. The snow retrieval depends on a robust threshold-based algorithm optimized for complex terrain. The detection thresholds vary according to landcover type and topographic features such as shadow.



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