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Author: admin, 14.01.2014. Category: What Is Organic Food

ID442-886Authors as PublishedZhiyou Wen, Virginia Cooperative Extension engineer, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech; Michael B.
With energy prices reaching historical highs, biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasingly attracting attention. Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran status, or any other basis protected by law. 95% of dietary fats exist as triglycerides, which are composed of three fatty acid molecules. Transfats are found in margarine, vegetable shortening, snacks, crackers, cookies, and in deep-frying fats and oils. The only fats that need to be supplied in the diet are linoleic acid, which comes from plant sources such as corn oil, and alpha-linoleic acid (omega 3 fatty acid) from soybean, canola and fish oils. After a meal in saturated fats the blood serum (the portion without the red blood cells) turns milky white and thickens due to the circulating fat. There is an inverse relationship between Body Mass Index and HDL: higher BMI (more overweight), lower HDL. Progesterone injection, USP, a progestin, is a sterile solution of progesterone in a suitable vegetable oil available for intramuscular use. Inhibits (at the usual dose range) the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, which in turn prevents follicular maturation and ovulation. Progesterone is extensively bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin (50 to 54%) and cortisol-binding protein (43 to 48%).
Progesterone is metabolized primarily in the liver by reduction to pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanolone. The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the urine and bile. The pharmacokinetic data was determined in a small number of patients, limiting the precision in which population values may be estimated.
The safety and effectiveness in patients with renal insufficiency have not been established. The safety and effectiveness in patients with hepatic insufficiency have not been established. The metabolism of progesterone by human liver microsomes was inhibited by ketoconazole (IC50 < 01 ┬ÁM). This drug is indicated in amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as submucous fibroids or uterine cancer.
Current or past history of thrombophlebitis, thromboembolic disorders, or cerebral apoplexy.
The physician should be alert to the earliest manifestations of thrombotic disorders (thrombophlebitis, cerebrovascular disorders, pulmonary embolism, and retinal thrombosis).
Medication should be discontinued pending examination if there is a sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or if there is a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia or migraine. The pretreatment physical examination should include special reference to breast and pelvic organs, as well as a Papanicolaou smear. Because progestational drugs may cause some degree of fluid retention, conditions which might be influenced by this condition, such as epilepsy, migraine, asthma, cardiac, or renal dysfunction, require careful observation. In cases of breakthrough bleeding, as in all cases of irregular bleeding per vaginum, nonfunctional causes should be borne in mind, and adequate diagnostic measures undertaken. Patients who have a history of psychic depression should be carefully observed and the drug discontinued if the depression recurs to a serious degree.
The age of the patient constitutes no absolute limiting factor although treatment with progestin may mask the onset of the climacteric. The pathologist should be advised of progestin therapy when relevant specimens are submitted. There are possible risks which may be associated with the use of progestin treatment, including adverse effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
A decrease in glucose tolerance has been observed in a small percentage of patients on estrogen-progestin combination treatment. Long-term intramuscular administration of Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been shown to produce mammary tumors in beagle dogs. Medroxyprogesterone acetate was not mutagenic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo genetic toxicity assays. Progesterone at high doses is an antifertility drug and high doses would be expected to impair fertility until the cessation of treatment. The safety and effectiveness in geriatric patients (over age 65) have not been established. Detectable amounts of drug have been identified in the milk of mothers receiving progestational drugs. A statistically significant association has been demonstrated between use of estrogen-progestin combination drugs and pulmonary embolism and cerebral thrombosis and embolism. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving estrogen-progestin combination drugs: Rise in blood pressure in susceptible individual, premenstrual syndrome, changes in libido, changes in appetite, cystitis-like syndrome, headache, nervousness, fatigue, backache, hirsutism, loss of scalp hair, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, hemorrhagic eruption, itching, and dizziness. All resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.
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Currently, biodiesel is made from a variety of feedstocks, including pure vegetable oils, waste cooking oils, and animal fat; however, the limited supply of these feedstocks impedes the further expansion of biodiesel production.

Pure Vegetable OilThe first group is pure oils derived from various crops and plants such as soybean, canola (rapeseed), corn, cottonseed, flax, sunflower, peanut, and palm.
One of the most efficient ways is through utilization of the algal oils to produce biodiesel. In an open raceway system, this is not a problem as the oxygen is simply returned to the atmosphere. Unsaturated fatty acids have space for more hydrogen molecules, and therefore are biologically active and versatile.
So the recommendation is to eat as little as is possible while consuming a diet adequate in other essential nutrients. A study showed that the transfat levels measured in the blood decreased 58% from 2000 to 2009.
Microalgae have long been recognized as potentially good sources for biofuel production because of their high oil content and rapid biomass production. For some marine-type microalgae, seawater or water with high salinity can be used.Although open ponds cost less to build and operate than enclosed photobioreactors, this culture system has its intrinsic disadvantages.
However, in the closed photobioreactor, the oxygen levels will build up until they inhibit and poison the algae.
Similarly in 2007 Health Canada put forth an initiative to limit the transfats in all foods.
Risk of surgical intervention to retrieve a separated segment, or other serious adverse health consequences such as internal organ injury, stroke, kidney failure, intestinal failure, and death.
In recent years, use of microalgae as an alternative biodiesel feedstock has gained renewed interest from researchers, entrepreneurs, and the general public. The oil composition from vegetable crops is pure; this cuts down on preprocessing steps and makes for a more consistent quality of biodiesel product. Because they are open-air systems, they often experience a lot of water loss due to evaporation.
For every 2% increase in transfat consumption there is a doubling of the risk for heart disease. While the HDL will decrease on a low fat diet, the percentage of good to bad cholesterol will increase.
However, there is an obvious disadvantage for vegetable oils as the biodiesel feedstock: Wide-scale production of crops for biodiesel feedstock can cause an increase in worldwide food and commodity prices. Thus, open ponds do not allow microalgae to use carbon dioxide as efficiently, and biomass production is limited (Chisti 2007).
Therefore, carbon dioxide must be fed into the system in order to successfully cultivate the microalgae on a large scale. Ray McKinnie, Interim Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg.
Biomass productivity is also limited by contamination with unwanted algal species as well as organisms that feed on algae. Photobioreactors require cooling during daylight hours, and the temperature must be regulated in night hours as well. In addition, optimal culture conditions are difficult to maintain in open ponds, and recovering the biomass from such a dilute culture is expensive (Molina Grima et al. This may be done through heat exchangers located either in the tubes themselves or in the degassing column.The advantages of enclosed photobioreactors are obvious. Animal FatsThe second group of feedstock for biodiesel production is fats and tallow derived from animals.
1999).Enclosed PhotobioreactorsEnclosed photobioreactors have been employed to overcome the contamination and evaporation problems encountered in open ponds (Molina Grima et al. They can overcome the problems of contamination and evaporation encountered in open ponds (Molina Grima et al. Compared to plant crops, these fats frequently offer an economic advantage because they are often priced favorably for conversion into biodiesel. Oil content of microalgae is usually between 20 percent and 50 percent (dry weight, table 1), while some strains can reach as high as 80 percent (Metting 1996; Spolaore et al. These systems are made of transparent materials and are generally placed outdoors for illumination by natural light. The biomass productivity of photobioreactors can average 13 times more than that of a traditional raceway pond. Because it contains high amounts of saturated fat, biodiesel made from this feedstock tends to gel, limiting widespread application of this type of fuel, particularly for winter-time use (Wen et al.
Harvest of biomass from photobioreactors is less expensive than from raceway ponds, because the typical algal biomass is about 30 times as concentrated as the biomass found in raceways (Chisti 2007).However, enclosed photobioreactors also have some disadvantages. The tubes are generally less than 10 centimeters in diameter to maximize sunlight penetration.
Waste Cooking OilsThe third group of biodiesel feedstock is comprised of recycled oil and grease from restaurants and food processing plants.
Table 2 lists the potential yields of oil produced by various crops and compares these values to oil yields from an open pond growing microalgae.Table 2. The medium broth is circulated through a pump to the tubes, where it is exposed to light for photosynthesis, and then back to a reservoir. Moreover, light limitation cannot be entirely overcome because light penetration is inversely proportional to the cell concentration. The use of recycled oil and grease is often highlighted in the mainstream news because it utilizes waste products that can otherwise be disposal problems. A portion of the algae is usually harvested after it passes through the solar collection tubes, making continuous algal culture possible. However, recycled oils have many impurities that require preprocessing to ensure a biodiesel product of consistent quality. Certain species of algae can be land-applied for use as an organic fertilizer, either in its raw or semi-decomposed form (Thomas 2002).
In some photobioreactors, the tubes are coiled spirals to form what is known as a helical-tubular photobioreactor.

Although enclosed systems can enhance biomass concentration, the growth of microalgae is still suboptimal due to variations in temperature and light intensity.After growing in open ponds or photobioreactors, the microalgae biomass needs to be harvested for further processing. Preprocessing also makes the biodiesel production process more complicated and costly (Canakci and Van Gerpen 1999, 2001).Background of AlgaeMacroalgae vs.
Algae can be grown in ponds to collect fertilizer runoff from farms; the nutrient-rich algae can then be collected and reapplied as fertilizer, potentially reducing crop-production costs. These systems sometimes require artificial illumination, which adds to production costs, so this technology is only used for high-value products—not biodiesel feedstock. MicroalgaeAlgae are organisms that grow in aquatic environments and use light and carbon dioxide (CO2) to create biomass. In wastewater-treatment facilities, microalgae can be used to reduce the amount of toxic chemicals needed to clean and purify water.
Either a mechanical pump or an airlift pump maintain a highly turbulent flow within the reactor, which prevents the algal biomass from settling (Chisti 2007).
Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research program called the Aquatic Species Program (ASP). Macroalgae are the large (measured in inches), multi-cellular algae often seen growing in ponds. Over the 16-year project period, ASP pursued research in three major areas.The first area was the study of the biological aspect of microalgae. The largest multi-cellular algae are called seaweed; an example is the giant kelp plant which can be more than 100 feet long. Algae are also rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium, and calcium (Mondragon and Mondragon 2003). It included screening and collecting a variety of algal species to access their potential for high oil production, investigating the physiology and biochemistry of the algae, and using molecular-biology and genetic-engineering techniques to enhance the oil yield.The second research area was the development of algal mass-production systems. Microalgae, on the other hand, are tiny (measured in micrometers), unicellular algae that normally grow in suspension within a body of water.
Many types of algae are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and as such, are used as diet supplements and components of livestock feed.The Synergy of Coal and AlgaeOne advantage of using algae biomass for biodiesel production is the potential mitigation of CO2 emissions from power plants.
Several demonstration culture systems located in California, Hawaii, and New Mexico were conducted during the project period. However, in these outdoor systems, it was difficult to maintain the algal-oil production capacity originally obtained in the laboratory scale, and researchers encountered a severe contamination of undesirable native species.
It should be noted that DOE suggested open ponds as the major system for algal-biofuel production because of their relative low cost. Consumption of coal will continue to grow over the coming decades, both in the United States and the world.
The cost of enclosed photobioreactors was still prohibitive due to capital and maintenance costs, particularly for production of biofuels.The third research area was analysis of the resource availability, including land, water, and CO2 resources. DOE concluded that there were significant amounts of land, water, and CO2 to support the algal-biofuel technology.
In summary, after 16 years of research, DOE concluded that algal-biofuel production was still too expensive to be commercialized in the near future.
Some algae species, however, are capable of growing in darkness and of using organic carbons (such as glucose or acetate) as energy and carbon sources.
Both university research groups and start-up businesses are researching and developing new methods to improve algal-process efficiency, with a final goal of commercial algal-biofuel production.
Due to high capital and operational costs, heterotrophic-algal culture is hard to justify for biodiesel production. The other way is to develop new growth technologies or to improve existing ones so that the same goals listed above are met.
However, it should be noted that this new wave of interest has yet to result in a significant breakthrough.Economics of Algal-Biofuel ProductionThe production cost of algal oil depends on many factors, such as yield of biomass from the culture system, oil content, scale of production systems, and cost of recovering oil from algal biomass.
Because they are photosynthetic, they need a light source, carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts. For example, Chisti (2007) estimated the production cost of algae oil from a photobioreactor with an annual production capacity of 10,000 tons per year. The growth medium must contribute the inorganic elements that help make up the algal cell, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sometimes silicon (Grobbelaar 2004). For large-scale production of microalgae, algal cells are continuously mixed to prevent the algal biomass from settling (Molina Grima et al.
This estimation did not include costs of converting algal oil to biodiesel, distribution and marketing costs for biodiesel, and taxes. However, up to one-quarter of algal biomass produced during the day can be lost through respiration during the night (Chisti 2007).There are a variety of photoautotrophic-based, microalgal culture systems. Currently, suspend-based open ponds and enclosed photobioreactors are commonly used for algal-biofuel production. Due to the static cost associated with oil extraction and biodiesel processing and the variability of algal-biomass production, future cost-saving efforts for algal-oil production should focus on the production method of the oilrich algae itself. This needs to be approached through enhancing algal biology (in terms of biomass yield and oil content) and culture-system engineering. The details of the two systems are described below.Open PondsOpen ponds are the oldest and simplest systems for mass cultivation of microalgae. In this system, the shallow pond is usually about one-foot deep, and algae are cultured under conditions identical to their natural environment.
Indeed, microalgae contain a large percentage of oil, with the remaining parts consisting of large quantities of proteins, carbohydrates, and other nutrients (Spolaore et al. The pond is designed in a raceway configuration, in which a paddlewheel circulates and mixes the algal cells and nutrients (figure 2). The raceways are typically made from poured concrete, or they are simply dug into the earth and lined with a plastic liner to prevent the ground from soaking up the liquid.

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