Vegetable oil density vs water,pc organic rice rusks,organic lactose free chocolate milk - Step 3

Author: admin, 02.11.2014. Category: Organic Foods

Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Sclerocarya Birrea Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition EnginesJerekias Gandure1 and Clever Ketlogetswe1[1] Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana1.
Originally Posted By: CATERHAMEven OVERKILL agrees with the use of a viscosity graph down to 0C so what's your problem? Shouldn't there be some kind of warning note on BITOG that asking questions about Royal Purple motor oil can cause long, unresolvable debates? Originally Posted By: A_HarmanShouldn't there be some kind of warning note on BITOG that asking questions about Royal Purple motor oil can cause long, unresolvable debates?
Originally Posted By: NHHEMI I am curious if the foolishness that goes on in every RP thread would be allowed if it happened in other brand threads?
They consist of mineral, semi- or fully synthetic base oil (base stocks) plus a varying number and amount of additives. Variation of engine performance for birrea biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels with engine load.
IntroductionThe continued escalation of fuel prices and environmental concerns among other factors has stimulated active research interest in non petroleum, renewable, and less polluting fuels.
Birrea biodiesel chemical composition The chemical composition of birrea biodiesel was analysed according to the procedure described in section 2.3. In parts stores, and even at Wal-Mart itself, RP qt bottles are priced right there with the other synthetics. Max and Min diesel are extrapolated using the same algorithms used in the "Lee charts" based on the ASTM specs at 40A°C.
The quality of an engine oil depends on the base stock and its properties as well as on the additives.The main requirements for an engine oil are defined temperature-viscosity properties, protection against wear and corrosion, keeping the engine clean, holding particles like soot or abrasives in suspension, yield strength under compression and many more.
Biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl ester) has been identified as a suitable replacement for petroleum diesel in diesel engines [1].
Sclerocarya birrea tree Birrea tree, commonly called marula tree, is indigenous to most parts of Southern Africa. Birrea seed oil yieldThe oil yield of birrea seeds regarded as the actual oil content in this study is the one determined using solvent extraction method and not mechanically extracted, as the latter is dependent on machine efficiency. Standard (Reference) samples supplied by AccuStandards were analyzed to confirm that sample composition matched the composition listed on technical data sheets that accompanied the samples. Much of the same criticism I see about RP in this thread is what I see about that brand as well.
But unless you are able to see significant errors in either of the charts I don't think that will be neccesary. The average of those is calculated by dividing the difference between teh two by 2 at various temps. The average of those is calculated by dividing the difference between the two by 2 at various temps.
Many feedstocks for biodiesel production have been proposed, with most vegetable oils being suitable substrates. In Botswana, for example, it is widely distributed over the entire country but concentrated in the north eastern part of the country, approximately 250 km north east of Gaborone, Botswana’s capital city. Emissions measurementEmissions measurement was carried out using an EMS Exhaust Gas Analyzer (EMS 5002-W&800) that works on the EMS exhaust gas analyzer system software and the Driveability and Emissions Calculation Software (DECS). After running four soxhlet extractions, the average oil content of birrea seeds was determined to be 58.56% by mass.
Assuming you did mistype, I agree that there are procedures (a plainer way to say algorithm) for estimating the viscosity curves of fluids. The two diesel viscosity curves from the two references you cited at the top of this thread are not parallel, when plotted on a logarithmic-linear chart. As such, availability of property data is necessary for as many biodiesel fuels as possible, based on different plant oils, to evaluate suitability for use in diesel engines. The patterns of abundance and distribution can be used to help infer key demographic stages or ecological variables that merit special focus when implementing a management scheme [26]. At the commencement of engine performance analysis described in section 2.7, the Exhaust Gas Analyzer was powered, allowed to warm-up for 10 minutes, and to zero (setting all the gases to zero). Table 4 compares oil yield level of birrea seeds with that of mostly studied plant species obtained from literature.
Actual concentration of an ester was calculated as a percentage of the same ester’s concentration (as per standard sample data sheets) multiplied by gross concentration of the standard sample at varying dilution levels. However, as it seems that one of your goals is to produce a verifiable chart as well as an accurate one, it would be good to describe how you came up with that line in enough detail so that someone else can replicate it. I am not sure how the Lee charts were produced, but one procedure they could have used was that they experimentally determined or looked up in a reference book the viscosity of a fluid at various temperatures, plotted these points on logarithmic-linear graph paper, and then drew lines that best fit those points. With birrea plant’s huge abundance in Southern Africa and its high kernel oil content [2, 3], property data of its derived biodiesel is deemed necessary. At maturity, the tree can grow up to approximately 10m to 18m tall with a sterm diameter of approximately 0.8 m on average. In order to do this, you would need at least two data points for the fluid at different temperatures, and ideally more to give you confidence in the accuracy of the line. Moreover, one way of reducing the biodiesel production costs is to use the less expensive feedstock containing fatty acids such as inedible oils and by products of refinery processes [4]. The tree grows in warm and dry climatic conditions and is single stemmed with a dense spreading crown and deciduous foliage.
Readings were taken at intervals of 250 rpm of engine speed after conditions had stabilised at each speed. This study investigated selected properties of birrea biodiesel including chemical composition, viscosity, acidity and calorific value. The technology of this analyzer allows for auto calibration before every analysis and a high degree of accuracy in the analysis of low concentrations of gases found in the engine.
The concentration value was validated by substituting the peak area ratio value for the y-value in the equation of the straight line graph and calculating the value of x, which represents the concentration of Methyl palmitate in birrea biodiesel.
Engine performance in terms of fuel consumption, brake power and torque at a compression ratio of 16:1, and emission levels of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxygen were also studied. The DECS software was used for calculating and analysing other emissions related engine performance characteristics.
The R2 value, also called the goodness of fit, is a correlation value which indicates how closely a function fits a given set of experimental data.
Petroleum diesel is used to generate similar sets of data in order to compare the performance of the diesel engine using the two diesel fuels. For purposes of repeatability, the emission analyser accuracy and measuring range are shown in Table 3. Figure 4.Methyl palmitate calibration curve for the standard sampleThe composition analysis of birrea biodiesel was done using a combination of AMDIS (Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification Software) and Data Analysis Software at a minimum match factor of 70%. This study is deemed significant as authors are not aware of any study that attempts to investigate sclerocarya birrea plant oil as a potential substrate for biodiesel production. The fruit consists of a hard woody seed covered by pulp and juice which makes the fleshy part of the fruit. The total number of compounds identified is forty-five (45), of which thirty-six (36) are esters (appendix 1). RP API will be a little cheaper than some and a little more than others.Not everyone buys their oil at Wal-Mart and not everyone wants or needs a 5qt jug.
As such, results from this work, including chemical composition, thermo-physical properties and performance of birrea biodiesel, provide new knowledge of a novel fuel source, and provide baseline information for further exploration.The suitability of biodiesel as a fuel depends on its chemical composition, particularly the length of carbon chain and the degree of saturation of fatty acid molecules.


The peak areas of the compounds were used to establish the ester content of the biodiesel sample. Saturated fatty acid compounds do not contain double bonds as they contain maximum number of hydrogen atoms that a carbon molecule can hold. Using analysis data shown in appendix 1, ester content was computed to be 82% according to equation 4.
You can also go online or find local sources like speed shops where you can get it for even less as I do. From his study on effects of chemical structure on fuel properties, Knothe [5] notes that the presence of double bonds in the fatty acid chains has a significant effect on the properties of the methyl esters.
The author further alludes that the deformation of the molecule caused by the double bonds inhibits the growth of the crystals and this lowers the methyl ester's freezing temperature.
The fact that the birrea tree grows in drier areas where common oil seeds cannot thrive has stirred interest in it as a valuable source of biodiesel feedstock. Moreover, birrea seeds are normally discarded as by-products of processes that mostly produce birrea juice, wine and snacks from the fruit pulp. The authors further echoed that biodiesel produced from such oils may gel at relatively high temperatures [6]. Figure 1(b) shows typical snacks produced using birrea fruit pulp.Though birrea seed kernel is edible, its use as biodiesel feedstock is therefore deemed as utilisation of a relegated resource (birrea seed), and management of by-product. El Diwani et al., [7] reports that carbon–carbon double bonds in unsaturated oils and fats are prone to oxidation by oxygen in the air. The above is more in line with my experience here.I buy M1 for 22 something on sale in 5 quart jugs. I swear people are so fixated on 5QT jugs at Wal-Mart that they are blind to what people actually post. The authors further note that this effect is severe when the bonds are conjugated (two double bonds separated by two single bonds) as is the case for linoleic and linolenic acids.
Extraction of birrea kernel oilSolvent extraction was done to establish true oil content of birrea nuts grown under natural conditions.
Sorry guys, you can have those boutique products, my trucks run nearly forever on cheap Wally World synth and a Fram! My post was not about the 5qt bottles sold at Wal-Mart but rather the individual qt bottles sold there. Based on all these, it is appropriated to conclude that the choice of oil feedstock determines the resulting biodiesel's position in the trade-off between cold flow properties and oxidative stability.
The process involved seed grinding, soxhlet extraction, filtration, distillation and purging. Refaat [8] notes that biodiesel from more saturated feedstock will have higher cetane numbers (thus shorter ignition delay) and better oxidative stability, but will have poor cold flow properties. And if you get them on clearance it's an even better deal, like the 2 bottles of RP API 0W-20 I just got for $21 each. The author further echoed that biodiesel from oils with low levels of saturated fatty acids will have better cold flow properties, but lower cetane number and oxidative stability. Sometimes Pep Boys has deals where you can get 5 quarts of RP API with a RP filter for something like $30 or $35, which isn't too bad either IMO.
Several researchers have shown that the physical properties of density, viscosity, and isothermal compressibility strongly affect injection timing, injection rate and spray characteristics [9]. The solvent was prepared by mixing 300 ml of hexane and 100 ml of iso-propyl alcohol in a 500 ml flask. I just recently bought 12 quarts of RP HPS 5W-20 on eBay for just under $88 including shipping, which I was happy with considering it still has the better synerlec additive package.
The physicochemical properties of a fuel influence the overall performance of the diesel engine. The mixture ensures total extraction of all lipids as hexane extracts all non-polar lipids and iso-propyl alcohol polar lipids.
Then 3 g of anti-bumping stones (boiling stones) were added to the mixture to ensure non-violent boiling of the solvent during oil extraction. It is a measure of the internal fluid friction of fuel to flow which tends to oppose any dynamic change in the fluid motion, and is the major reason why straight vegetable oils are transesterified to methyl esters (or biodiesel). In addition, 75 g of powdered sample was charged into a thimble and placed inside a soxhlet. This property influences the injector lubrication, atomization and combustion processes that take place in the diesel engine, and the flow properties. A soxhlet cover, condenser and heating mantle were then mounted to complete the soxhlet solvent extraction set-up.
Fuels with low viscosity may not provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel injection pumps, resulting in leakages past the piston in the injection pump. The solvent was heated until boiling and maintained in that phase for the entire extraction process, which took about 6 hours. If the viscosity is low, the leakage will correspond to a power loss for the engine and if the viscosity is high the injection pump will be unable to supply sufficient fuel to fill the pumping chamber, and again this effect will be a loss in engine power [10].
After 5 syphones, the extracted liquid became clear, suggesting that there was no more oil in the sample.
In a study to analyse performance and emissions of cotton seed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine, Aydin et al. Filtration process was then performed to eliminate any possibility of solid particles in the oil rich solvent. The separation of solvent from the oil was achieved through a distillation process performed using a rotary evaporator.
Equation (1) is known as the Andrade correlation and is used in petroleum industry to predict the viscosities of liquid fuels. Heating value of a fuel is another important fuel property that quantifies energy released by a fuel for production of work. The condenser used water that is slightly above freezing temperature and was maintained at that temperature using ice blocks. Biodiesel fuels do not contain aromatics but they contain fatty acids with different levels of unsaturation.
This process should ideally extract all the solvent, starting with hexane (boiling point of 40–600C) and then iso-propyl alcohol (due to the double bond). Fuels with more unsaturated fatty acids tend to have a slightly lower energy content (on a weight basis) while those with greater saturation tend to have higher energy content [13]. However, to ensure that no trace of solvent remains in the oil sample, the oil was purged with nitrogen gas (nitrogen drying) for approximately 40 minutes. The authors note that brake power and fuel consumption are also dependent on other properties such as density, viscosity and composition of the fuel. Nitrogen is used because it is inert and does not react with oil components.To ensure that properties of the oil are not distorted, mechanical extraction was done to yield crude oil for subsequent analyses.
Most investigations on biodiesel fuels for compression ignition engines show that the use of biodiesel results in lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) [14]. The authors reported significant improvement in fuel spray profile and atomization characteristics due to a reduction in the viscosity of fuel as a result of the preheating processes. The hydraulic system was then operated manually to lift up the platform upon which the multi-perforated stainless steel compression chamber sits, thereby compressing the seeds and forcing the oil out of the kernel and through the 1mm diameter perforations of the compression chamber. Torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption, exhausts emissions and brake thermal efficiency were reported to be comparable to those of mineral diesel. The hydraulic system was operated to a maximum pressure of 30 bars to ensure maximum oil extraction while avoiding over loading the system.


Birrea biodiesel preparationBirrea biodiesel was produced through an alkali catalyzed transesterfication process in the laboratory under strict observation and controlled conditions. The authors report higher exhaust gas temperature with very small variations in CO emission levels and relatively low NOx as compared to petroleum diesel. Alkaline transesterification was preferred since the oil sample had free fatty acid content below 2% [29]. One litre of crude birrea plant oil was filtered, pre-heated to approximately 105oC to eliminate water.
The oil was allowed to cool to approximately 58oC and then charged to a 2 litre transparent reaction vessel. The authors concluded that when operated on soybean biodiesel, the engine exhibits higher brake thermal and mechanical efficiencies at all the loads and slightly lower brake specific fuel consumption than when operated on petroleum diesel. In an experimental study to investigate the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on direct ignition diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions, Lin et al.
The molar ratio of methanol to oil was fixed at 1:6, which is optimal ratio for the transesterification of vegetable oils [23]. The reaction vessel was tightly closed and contents agitated using a mechanical shaker for one hour.
The relative low heating value, high density and high viscosity play primary role in engine fuel consumption for the biodiesel. Two distinct layers were formed, the upper layer being the methyl ester and the lower layer was glycerol (due to its higher specific gravity). Glycerol was drained off from the bottom of the reaction vessel until only biodiesel (and possibly traces of unreacted methanol) remained.
The biodiesel was then water washed twice with distilled water to ensure removal of all traces of glycerol. Both studies overally concluded that brake specific fuel consumption is relatively high with biodiesel than with petroleum diesel fuel. Most authors who agree that fuel consumption for biodiesel is relatively high when compared to petroleum diesel attributed it to the loss in heating value of biodiesel.
Some of the key properties of biodiesel derived from selected plant oil species are presented in table 1.
Feedstocks for biodiesel production vary with location according to climate and availability, and the most abundant in a particular region are targeted for this purpose. Chemical analysisChemical analysis was done to identify esters present in the birrea biodiesel sample. For example, rapeseed and sunflower oils are largely used in Europe for biodiesel production, palm oil predominates in tropical countries, and soybean oil is most common in the USA [19]. The method involved analysing standard (reference) samples, generating calibration curves for esters identified in the standard samples, and identifying and quantifying esters present in the birrea biodiesel sample. The International Grains Council [20] indicated that rapeseed oil was the predominant feedstock for worldwide biodiesel production in 2007, contributing 48% of total production, soybean (22%) and palm (11%).
To establish the chemical composition of the standard samples, Methyl Arachidate was injected into the standard mixtures as an internal standard (IS) and the samples were run ten (10) times through the Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) system at ten (10) concentrations of equal interval from 10ppm (parts per million) to 1ppm.
At each concentration, peak areas and retention times for all esters present were captured from the chromatogram.
The birrea biodiesel sample was also run through the GC-MS system under similar conditions. The instrument used for composition analysis is the Waters GCT premier Time of Flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) coupled to the Agilent 6890N gas chromatograph (GC) system. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System extracts spectra for individual components in a GC-MS data file and identifies target compounds by matching these spectra against a reference library, in this case the NIST library. Gas chromatograph conditionsOne micro litre (1 ?l) of birrea biodiesel sample extract was injected into the system using an auto-injector. Other MS conditions including electron energy and resolution were set by the system’s auto tune function.
Viscosity analysisBirrea biodiesel and petroleum diesel were analyzed using a Fungilab Premium Series (PREL 401024) viscometer coupled to a Thermo Fisher Scientific heating bath circulator. The LCP (low centipoise) spindle was selected for these experiments since low viscosity fluids were analyzed. The spindle was connected and the machine calibrated with the density of the fluid to be tested and the appropriate speed for the spindle. After appropriately assembling the apparatus, the sample to be tested was added in such a way that the spindle was completely submerged. The spindle speed (RPM) could be varied based on the torque values, with the ideal range being 60-95%. Sample viscosity readings were then recorded at temperature intervals of 50C from room temperature to 600C as hot water was circulating between the heating bath and the heating jacket of the viscometer. Acid value determinationAcid value measurements of diesel sample extracts were carried out by titration technique according to ASTM D664 standard test method [30]. Based on the same standard 125 ml of solvent, consisting of 50% isopropyl alcohol and 50% toluene was prepared in a 600 ml beaker. Three titrations were carried out for each of the four sample extracts and the average titration values determined.
The acid values were determined using equation 2 and percentage of free fatty acids using equation 3. Energy contentThe calorific values of birrea biodiesel and petroleum diesel (for comparison purposes) samples were determined using the IKA C200 Calorimeter system whose main components include the basic device, decomposition vessel, ignition adapter, combustion crucible and oxygen filling point. The system has automatic data acquisition through the CalWin calorimeter software which handles calculations for the calorific values of samples. Calorimeter conditions To determine the heating values of samples, 3ml of sample extract were weighed and placed in a combustion crucible at a temperature of approximately 22. The crucible was then closed up inside a decomposition vessel, which in turn was filled with oxygen at a pressure of 30 bars for 30 seconds to ensure adequate oxygen for combustion processes.
The cooling water in the tank fillers was kept at initial temperature of within 180C – 240C range. The oxygen-filled decomposition vessel was inserted into the measuring cell that is equipped with a magnetic stirrer. Engine performance analysisThe engine performance test was conducted on a TD43F engine test rig. The test rig is water cooled four-stroke diesel engine that is directly coupled to an electrical dynamometer as demonstrated by figure 3. The engine was allowed to run on petroleum diesel fuel under steady state operating conditions, as opposed to transient conditions characterised by the stop-go type of pattern, for approximately 30 minutes to reach fully warm conditions.
This ensures best engine efficiency and effective burning of effects of the warm up cycle and to clear out any moisture from the system and exhaust.
This also established the engine’s operating parameters which constitute the baseline that was compared with the subsequent case when the birrea biodiesel was used.
For each step, the data for brake power, engine torque and specific fuel consumption were automatically captured onto a PC using the data acquisition software provided by the engine manufacturer. All measurements were repeated three times for each test setting, while the test sequences were repeated three times.



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